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VOL. I. 















VOL. I. 










Endeavoured by 

Thomas Fuller, D.D. 


Printed by J. G. W. L. and W. G. MDCLXII. 


THE " History of the WORTHIES of ENGLAND" is a Work univer- 
sally allowed to be the most worthy of all the productions of the witty 
and learned Fuller. He wrote in an age when quaintness and humour 
were appreciated as the peculiar characteristics of the scholar, the bio- 
grapher, and the historian. None delighted more in puns, epigram, and 
wit, whether worthy or unworthy, than the worthy Doctor ; and of all 
the various works enumerated in the ensuing Memoir, his " WORTHIES," 
as being the last and most laboured effort of his pen, are not only 
fuller in useful matter and varied interest, but (as a punster of his own 
day would have said) fuller in spirit and fuller in wit ; in fact Fuller 

" Strong without rage, without o'erflowing/?/#," 

The first edition of Dr. Fuller's " Worthies " was published posthu- 
mously, under the revision and superintendance of his son, by whom it 
was especially dedicated to "the witty monarch" Charles the Second. 
It appeared in 1662, in one folio volume ; and it certainly presents a 
curious specimen, as compared with modern times, of the unsightly ty- 
pography of the day, and of the difficulties attending the publication of 
extensive works. The Editor appears to have been compelled to dis- 
tribute the copy among different printers, commencing at every stage 
with a new series of folios, and leaving at intervals most awful 
gaps j the Work being thus considered of too vast a magnitude for 
one establishment alone to undertake ! " The discounting of sheets, to 
expedite the work at several presses (says the Editor) hath occasioned 
the often mistake of the folios." At the same time, there being neither 
a summary of Contents to the volume, nor a general Index, foe fulness 
of worthy Fuller's worth was not fully developed. 

In 1811, a new edition, in two volumes quarto, made its appearance, 
under the editorial superintendance of Mr. John Nichols, proprietor of 
the Gentleman's Magazine, with which the Editor was many years 
connected. In this edition Mr. Nichols has occasionally introduced 
some useful notes, contributed by Sir Egerton Brydges, Mr. J. Britton, Sir 
Henry Ellis, Mr. Alexander Chalmers, Mr. Malone, Dr. Bliss, and 
others, as well as by himself. Of these the Editor has generally availed 
himself; but many of Mr. Nichols's notes appeared so jejune, and 
at the present time so inapplicable, that editorial expurgation be- 
came absolutely necessarv. For instance, there could be little interest in 
informing the reader aldermannic gastronomy being no longer appre- 
ciated as a civic accomplishment that Mr. Nichols perfectly coincided 


in opinion with Dr. Fuller on the " important topic " that " Coiv-heele weU 
dressed is good meat, that a cook when hungry may lick his fingers 
after it !" (i. p. 288) ; or that " Suffolk is not the particular county which 
a modern epicure would select for the finest cheese !" Nor did the 
Editor consider it necessary to reprint the innumerable and useless re- 
ferences to the History of Leicestershire, the Gentleman's Magazine, 
and other works in which Mr. Nichols had a proprietary interest. 
Neither has the Editor thought proper to preserve the antiquated 
orthography, the vague punctuation, or the ridiculous system of 
italicising, &c., so peculiar to the age in which Fuller wrote, and 
which Mr. Nichols, in mere imitation of a semi-barbarous system 
of typography, has " considered most advisable to preserve pure 
and unmixed !" as if the splendid compositions of Shakspeare, of 
Milton, and of Dryden, would be rendered more acceptable to 
modern times by being clothed in the vague and unintelligible or- 
thography of the age in which they wrote. Alas ! "tempora mutantur, 
et mutamur in illis." But Mr. Nichols appears to have been so much 
devoted to the very semblance of hoar antiquity as even to copy the ac- 
knowledged or self- evident errors of Fuller's edition. Thus, although 
the author expressly points out and apologizes for the mistake, the Duke 
of Monmouth is again placed under the county of Radnor instead of 
Monmouth ! the list of Errata contained in the .original edition is 
literally reprinted, without the errors having been corrected ! the 
reference to Hatcher's "MS. eight," instead of "MS. Catalogue," 
(i. p. 142) is repeated ! the typographical blunders occurring in Latin 
inscriptions (as " in omni gradus," " conjugi sui/V &c. p. 143) are 
faithfully copied ! the counties of Anglesea and Brecknock are headed 
as belonging to England ! &c. 

In producing this edition of a valuable standard work, the Editor 
has not only presented it to the Public in a portable and modernized 
form, but he has also appended to each county an alphabetical list of all 
the celebrated Worthies connected therewith, who have flourished since 
the time of Fuller, briefly stating for what they have been distin- 
guished, with the respective periods of their births and deaths j and to 
enable the reader to obtain further information relative to any parti- 
cular individual, a brief summary of all the most important topographical 
works connected with each county is uniformly annexed, which, it is 
presumed, will be found extremely useful in directing and facilitating the 
inquiries of the reader. In order, moreover, to present a synoptical 
view of the various matters, &c. contained in the work, the Editor has 
prefixed to each volume a minute table of Contents, which, though 
given in a very condensed form, exhibits at one view all the differ- 
ent heads comprehended under each county ; and the general Indexes, 
which have been compiled with some labour, will afford great facility in 
referring to any subject or name contained in the three volumes. 
Sept. 1840. P. A. N. 


DR. THOMAS FULLER, son of the Rev. Thomas Fuller, rec- 
tor of Aldwinkle St. Peter * in the county of Northampton, was 
born there in 1608. The chief assistance he had in the rudi- 
ments of learning was from his father, under whom he made so 
extraordinary a progress, that he was sent at twelve years of 
age to Queen's College in Cambridge ; Dr. Davenant, who was 
his mother's brother, being then master of it, and soon after 
bishop of Salisbury. He took his degrees in Arts, and would 
have been fellow of the college ; but, there being no vacancy 
for his county, he removed to Sidney in the same university. 
He had not been long there, before he was chosen minister of 
St. Bennet's in the town of Cambridge. In 1631, he obtained 
a fellowship in Sidney College, and at the same time a prebend t 
in the church of Salisbury. This year also he issued his first 
publication, a work of the poetical kind, now but little known. 
It was a divine poem, entitled, " David's Hainous Sin, Heartie 
Repentances, and Heavie Punishment," in a thin octavo. 

He was soon after ordained priest, and presented to the rec- 
tory of Broad Windsor in Dorsetshire ; where he married, and 
had one son, but lost his wife about 1641. During his retire- 
ment at this rectory, he began to complete several works he 
had planned at Cambridge ; but, growing weary of a country 
parish, and uneasy at the unsettled state of public affairs, he 
removed to London; and distinguished himself so much in the 
pulpits there, that he was invited by the master and brother- 
hood of the Savoy to be their lecturer. 

* To which he had been presented by William Cecil earl of Exeter. 

f He styles himself Prebendarius Prebendarides, in his " Appeal of injured In- 
nocence," addressed to Dr. Heylin, folio, part iii. p. 47 ; a book recommended to 
notice by Mr. Granger for its spirit and pleasantry. 



In 1640, he published his History of the Holy War ; which 
was printed at Cambridge in folio. 

April 13, 1640, a Parliament was called 5 and then also a Con- 
vocation began at Westminster, in Henry the Seventh's chapel, 
of which our author was a member. He continued at the Savoy, 
to the great satisfaction of his people, and the neighbouring 
nobility and gentry, labouring all the while in private and in 
public to serve the king. To this end, on the anniversary of his 
inauguration, March 2J 9 1642, he preached at Westminster Ab- 
bey, on this text, 2 Sam. xix. 30, " Yea, let him take all, so 
that my lord the king return in peace :" which sermon being 
printed, gave great offence to those who were engaged in the 
opposition, and brought the preacher into no small danger. He 
soon found that he must expect to be silenced and ejected, as 
others had been ; yet desisted not till he either was, or thought 
himself, unsettled. This appears from what he says in the pre- 
face to his " Holy State," which was printed in folio that same 
year at Cambridge. 

In April 1643, he conveyed himself to the king at Oxford, 
who received him gladly. As his majesty had heard of his ex- 
traordinary abilities in the pulpit, he was now desirous of know- 
ing them personally ; and accordingly Fuller preached before 
him at St. Mary's church. His fortune upon this occasion was 
very singular. He had before preached and published a sermon 
in London, upon "the new moulding Church reformation/' 
which caused him to be censured as too hot a royalist : and now, 
from his sermon at Oxford, he was thought to be too lukewarm : 
which can only be ascribed to his moderation, which he would 
sincerely have inculcated in each party, as the only means of 
reconciling both. He resolved, however, to recover the opinion 
of his fidelity to the royal cause, by openly trying his fortune 
under the royal army ; and therefore, being well recommended 
to Sir Ralph Hopton, in 1643, he was admitted by him in qua- 
lity of chaplain. For this employment he was quite at liberty, 
being deprived of all other preferment. And now, attending 
the army from place to place, he constantly exercised his duty 
as chaplain ; yet found proper intervals for his beloved. studies, 
which he employed chiefly in making historical collections, and 
especially in gathering materials for his "Worthies of England." 

How assiduous he was in his researches, and extensive in his 


correspondence, for that purpose, may appear in his Memorial- 
ist. This author informs us, that, " while he was in progress 
with the king's army, his business and study then was a kind of 
errantry ; having proposed to himself a more exact collection 
of the Worthies General of England; in which others had waded 
before, but he resolved to go through. In what place soever 
therefore he came, of remark especially, he spent most of his 
time in views and researches of their antiquities and church 
monuments ; insinuating himself into the acquaintance, which 
frequently ended in a lasting friendship, of the learnedest and 
gravest persons residing within the place, thereby to inform 
himself fully of those things he thought worthy the commenda- 
tion of his labours. It is an incredible thing to think what a 
numerous correspondence the Doctor maintained and enjoyed 
by this means. Nor did the good Doctor ever refuse to light 
his candle, in investigating truth, from the meanest person's 
discovery. He would endure contentedly an hour or more im- 
pertinence from any aged church officer, or other superannuated 
people, for the gleaning of two lines to his purpose. And though 
his spirit was quick and nimble, and all the faculties of his mind 
ready and answerable to that activity of despatch ; yet, in these 
inquests, he would stay and attend those circular rambles till 
they came to a point ; so resolute was he bent to the sifting out 
of abstruse antiquity. Nor did he ever dismiss such adjutators 
or helpers, as he pleased to style them, without giving them 
money and cheerful thanks besides.* 

After the battle at Cheriton Down, March 29, 1644, lord 
Hopton drew on his army to Basing House ; and Fuller, being 
left there by him, animated the garrison to so vigorous a defence 
of that place, that Sir William Waller was obliged to raise 
the siege with considerable loss. But the war hasten- 
ing to an end, and part of the king's army being driven into 
Cornwall under Lord Hopton, Fuller, having leave of that 
nobleman, took refuge at Exeter ; where he resumed his 
studies, and preached constantly to the citizens. Du- 
ring his residence here, he was appointed chaplain to the 
.princess Henrietta Maria, who was born at Exeter in June 1643 ; 
and the king soon after gave him a patent for his presentation 

* Life of Dr. Fuller, p. 27. 
b 2 


to the living of Dorchester in Dorsetshire. He continued his 
attendance on the princess, till the surrender of Exeter to the 
parliament, in April 1646 ; but did not accept the living, because 
he determined to remove to London at the expiration of the 
war. He relates an extraordinary circumstance which happened 
during the siege of Exeter.* " When the city of Exeter/' says 
he, " was besieged by the Parliamentary forces, so that only the 
south side thereof towards the sea was open to it, incredible 
numbers of larks were found in that open quarter, for multitude 
like quails in the wilderness ; though, blessed be God, unlike 
them in the cause and effect ; as not desired with man's destruc- 
tion, nor sent with God's anger : as appeared by their safe di- 
gestion into wholesome nourishment. Hereof I was an eye and 
mouth witness. I will save my credit in not conjecturing any 
number ; knowing that herein, though I should stoop beneath 
the truth, I should mount above belief. They were as fat as 
plentiful ; so that being sold for two-pence a dozen and under, 
the poor who could have no cheaper, and the rich no better 
meat, used to make pottage of them, boiling them down therein. 
Several causes were assigned hereof, &c. ; but the cause of causes 
was the Divine Providence, thereby providing a feast for many 
poor people, who otherwise had been pinched for provision." 
When he came to London, he met but a cold reception among 
his former parishioners, and found his lecturer's place filled by 
another. However, it was not long before he was chosen lec- 
turer at St. Clement's Lane, near Lombard Street ; and shortly 
after removed his lecture to St. Bride's in Fleet Street. 

In 1647, he published, in 4to., " A Sermon of Assurance* 
fourteen years ago preached at Cambridge ; since, in other places 5 
now, by the importunity of his friends, exposed to public view." 
He dedicated it to Sir John Danvers, who had been a royalist, 
was then an Oliverian, and next year one of the king's judges ; 
and in the dedication he says, that " it had been the pleasure 
of the present authority to make him mute ; forbidding him till 
further order the exercise of his public preaching." 

About 1648, he was presented to the perpetual curacy of 
West Waltham,t otherwise called Waltham Abbey, in Essex, 
by James Hay earl of Carlisle, whose chaplain he was just be- 

* See p. 443 of the present volume. 

t Newcourt dates this preferment in 1640 Repertory, vol. II. p. 631. 


fore made. He spent that and the following year betwixt Lon- 
don and Waltham, employing some engravers to adorn his copi- 
ous prospect or view of the Holy Land, as from Mount Pisgah ; 
therefore called his " Pisgah-sight of Palestine and the confines 
thereof; with the history of the Old and New Testament acted 
thereon/ 5 which he published in 1650. It is a handsome folio, 
embellished with a frontispiece and many other copper plates, 
and divided into five books. 

As for his " Worthies of England/ 5 on which he had been la- 
bouring so long, the death of the king for a time disheartened 
him from the continuance of that work ; " For what shall I write/ 5 
says he, " of the Worthies of England, when this horrid act will 
bring such an infamy upon the whole nation, as will ever cloud 
and darken all its former, and suppress its future, rising glories ? 
He was therefore busy, till the year last mentioned, in prepar- 
ing that book and others ; and the next year he rather employed 
himself in publishing some particular lives of religious reformers, 
martyrs, confessors, bishops, doctors, and other learned divines, 
foreign and domestic, than in augmenting his book of English 
Worthies in general. To this collection, which was executed 
by several hands, as he tells us in the preface, he gave the title 
of "Abel Redivivus/' and published it in 4to, 1651. 

And now, having lived above twelve years a widower, he 
married a sister of the viscount Baltinglasse about 1654; and 
the next year she brought him a son, who, as well as the other 
before mentioned, survived his father. 

In 1656, he published, in folio, "The Church History of Bri- 
tain, from the birth of Jesus Christ to the year 1648;" to 
which work are subjoined, "The History of the University of 
Cambridge since the Conquest/ 5 and " The History of Waltham 
Abbey in Essex, founded by king Harold," His Church His- 
tory was animadverted upon by Dr. Heylin in his " Examen 
Historicum; 55 and this drew from our author a reply; after 
which they had no further controversy, but were very well re- 

A short time before the Restoration, Fuller was re-admitted 
to his lecture in the Savoy, and on that event restored to his 
prebend of Salisbury. 

He was chosen chaplain extraordinary to the king ; created 
Doctor of Divinity at Cambridge by a mandamus, dated August 
2,1660; and, had he lived a twelvemonth longer, would pro- 


bably have been raised to a bishopric. But, on his return from 
Salisbury in August 1661, he was attacked by a fever, of which 
he died the 16th of that month. His funeral was attended by 
at least two hundred of his brethren ; and a sermon was preached 
by Dr. Hardy, dean of Rochester, in which a great and noble 
character was given of him. 

In 1662, was published in folio, with an engraving of him * 
prefixed, his "History of the Worthies of England." This 
work, which was part of it printed before the author died, seems 
not, in the lives or characters in some of the counties, especially 
of Wales, so finished as it would probably have been, if he had 
lived to see it completely published. It is entitled, " The His- 
tory of the Worthies of England : Endeavoured by Thomas 
Fuller, D.D. folio, 1662 :" with a sculpture of his effigies pre- 
fixed, engraved by David Loggan, having this inscription round 
it, "Tomas Fuller, S. T. D. set. 53, 1661 ;" this motto at top, 
" Methodus Mater Memorise ;" and $iese verses at bottom : 

" The Graver here hath well thy face designed : 
But no hand, FULLER, can express thy mind ; 
For that, a resurrection gives to those, 
Whom silent monuments did long enclose." 

Being a posthumous publication, it was dedicated to king 
Charles the Second, by the author's son, Mr. John Fuller, a 
young divine of Cambridge, in the following terms : 


" Most dread Sovereign : 

" The tender of these ensuing collections is made with as much 
fear and reverence, as it was intended with duty and devotion 
by the author whilst living. The obligation that lieth upon me 
to endeavour him all right, forced me unto this presumption. 
It is the first voice I ever uttered in this kind ; and I hope it will 
be neither displeasing to your Majesty, or blamed by the world ; 
whilst (not unlike that of the son of Croesus) it sounds loyalty 
to my sovereign, and duty to my father. The matter of this 
work, for the most part, is the description of such native and 
peculiar commodities as the several counties of your kingdom 
afford, with a revival of the memories of such persons which 
have in each county been eminent for parts or learning. If 
this age abound with the like, it is their glory; if not, the pe- 
riod? . is ,^ di ff e . ren ; Portrait of him in a small quarto size, taken at an earlier 
period of his l.fe, his right hand on a book, prefixed to his " Abel Redivivus." 


rusal may perhaps beget in them a noble emulation of their 
ancestors. May your Majesty's reign be happy and long, to 
see your country's commodities improved, and your worthies 
multiplied ! So prayeth, 

Your Majesty's meanest subject, 

The Author's orphan, 


And in a preface the reader is thus addressed : 

<e Reader, thou hast here presented to thy viqw a Collection 
of the Worthies of England ; which might have appeared larger, 
had God spared (my dear father) the author life. At his death 
there remained unprinted, the bishopric of Durham, the coun- 
ties of Derby, Dorset, Gloucester, Norfolk, Northampton, Nor- 
thumberland, Nottingham, Oxford, Rutland, with part of Kent, 
Devonshire, and the cities of London and Westminster; which 
now at length (according to the copy the author left behind him, 
without the least addition,) are made public. 

(( It is needless here to acquaint thee with the nature of the 
work, it being already fully set down in the first sixteen sheets 
thereof. Yet thou mayest be pleased to take notice, that (al- 
though the title promiseth thee only the History of the Wor- 
thies of England) in the end there is added a short description 
of the Principality of Wales. The discounting of sheets (to ex- 
pedite the work at several presses) hath occasioned the often 
mistake of the folios.* Whatever faults else occur in this im- 
pression, it is my request, that thou wouldest score them on my 
want of care or skill in correcting the same, that they may not 
in the least reflect on the credit of my dead father. 


This book, though never wholly reprinted, has been partly 
revived in epitomes of the whole ;t or dividedly, in a work, geo- 
graphical, historical, and political, whereof the second part is 
abstracted from these lives. J 

Besides the works already mentioned in the course of this 
memoir, Dr. Fuller was the author of several others of a smaller 
nature; as, 1. Good thoughts in Bad Times:" 2. "Good 

* This apology of course applies only to the original edition. 

t " England's Worthies, in Church and State, &c. 1684," 8vo. 

+ " An Historical Dictionary of England and Wales, &c. 1692,'' 8vo. 


Thoughts in Worse Times." These two pieces, printed separately, 
the former in 1645, the latter in 1647, were published together 
in 1652. He afterwards published, in 1660-3, " Mixed Con- 
templations in Better Times." 4. "Andronicus: or The Unfor- 
tunate Politician. Lond. 1649," Svo. 5. The Triple Recon- 
ciler; stating three controversies, viz. whether ministers have 
an exclusive power of barring communicants from the sacra- 
ment; whether any person unordained may lawfully preach; 
and whether the Lord's Prayer ought not to be used by all 
Christians, 1654," 8vo. 6. "The Speech of Birds; also of 
Flowers ; partly moral, partly mystical, 1660," Svo. 

He published also a great many sermons, separately and in 

Dr. Fuller was in his person tall and well made, but no way 
inclining to corpulency; his complexion was florid; and his 
hair of a light colour and curling. He was a kind husband to 
both his wives, a tender father to both his children, a good 
friend and neighbour, and a well-behaved civilized person in 
every respect. He was a most agreeable companion, having a 
great deal of wit ; too much, as it should seem, since he could 
not forbear mixing it in his most serious compositions. 

Of the powers of his memory, such wonders are related as 
are not quite credible. He could repeat five hundred strange 
words after twice hearing ; and could make use of a sermon 
verbatim, if he once heard it. He undertook, in passing from 
Temple Bar to the furthest part of Cheapside, to tell at his re- 
turn every sign as it stood in order on both sides of the way, 
repeating them either backwards or forwards ; and he did it ex- 
actly. His manner of writing is also reported to have been 
strange. He wrote, it is said, near the margin the first words 
of every line down to the foot of the paper ; then, by beginning 
at the head again, would so perfectly fill up every one of these 
lines, and without spaces, interlineations, or contractions, would 
so connect the ends and beginnings, that the sense would appear 
as complete, as if he had written it in a continued series after 
the ordinary manner. 

It was sufficiently known, how steady he was in the Pro- 
testant religion, against the innovations of the Presbyterians 
and Independents ; but his zeal against these was allayed with 
greater compassion than it was towards the Papists ; and this 
raised him up many adversaries, who charged him with puritan- 


ism. He used to call the controversies concerning Episcopacy, 
and the new-fangled arguments against the Church of England, 
"insects of a day;" and carefully avoided polemical disputes, 
being altogether of Sir Henry Wotton's opinion, " disputandi 
pruritus, ecclesise scabies." To conclude, whatever exceptions 
may be made to him as a writer, he was a man of great good- 
ness, and an ornament to the times in which he lived. 

These memoirs shall be closed by an extract from his Life in 
the ee Biographia Britannica ; " comprehending an analysis of 
"The Worthies," and a vindication of the author. 

" The subject matter of the book is distributed under the se- 
veral counties of England and Wales ; each division beginning, 
first, with the commodities, products, and other particulars most 
eminent and remarkable in each county ; whether waters, mine- 
rals, plants, animals, manufactures, buildings, battles, proverbs, 
&c. ; then the Worthies born or residing therein, marshalled 
under their respective ranks or professions ; the whole contents of 
each county ending with tables of the Gentry that were therein 
in the reign of king Henry the Sixth ; and a list of the Sheriffs, 
for several kings' reigns, down to king James or king Charles 
the First, with their arms described, and places of abode. Pre- 
fixed to the whole, is a copious Introduction, in near twenty 
sheets,* divided into many chapters ; distinctly treating of this 
grand and comprehensive plan, the matter, order, and style, 
&c., shewing how methodical and uniform he has been through- 
out ; also apologizing for any defects that may have escaped his 
pen, and answering many objections which might be made to 
any part thereof,. But, as the heads of those preliminary dis- 
courses will best explain the contents of the book, and display 
as well the variety as the grandeur of the undertaking ; and as a 
recital of them will give the most ready command of the whole 
scheme, to those who would only be informed or reminded 
thereof ; or such as may be inclined to revive the author in a 
more correct edition, or give us a continuation or any other im- 
provement of his model; the said heads are therefore here 
offered to their consideration, as follow : 

CHAP. I. Contains the general design; wherein, as learned 
Camden and painful Speed, with others, have described the 

* In the present edition making 109 pages. 


rooms in that convenient structure, to which he compares 
this nation ; so he intends to describe the furniture of them, 
in the most signal products and persons of distinction, adorn- 
ing the same : to these five ends : 1. To gain some glory to 
God : 2. To preserve the memory of the dead : 3. To pre- 
sent examples to the living : 4. To entertain the reader with 
delight : 5. And lastly, to procure some honest profit to 

CHAP. II. Of the National Commodities ; as the manufactures, 
wonders, buildings, local proverbs, medicinal herbs, waters, 

III. The first Quaternion of Persons ; Princes, Saints, 

Martyrs, and Confessors. 

IV. Of Popes, Cardinals, and Prelates, before the Refor- 

V. Of Popes, &c. since the Reformation. 

*VI. Of our Statesmen ; as Chancellors, Treasurers, Se- 
cretaries of State, Admirals, and Deputies of Ireland. 

VII. Capital Judges, and Writers of the Common Law. 

VIII. Soldiers and Seamen ; with the Necessity of en- 
couraging our Fishery. 

IX. Of Writers on the Canon and Civil Law ; Physic, 

Chemistry, and Surgery, &c. 

X. Other Writers ; in Divinity, Philology, and Philo- 
sophy, History, Music, and Poetry ; also on Popery, c. ; with 
a complaint of the number of needless Books. 

XI. Of Benefactors to the Public, with a recommen- 
dation of choice charities; under the heads of Churches, 
Free-schools, Colleges, and Alms-houses ; with a distinction 
of Benefactors since, from those before, the Reformation. 

XII. Of Memorable Persons ; or such as were extraor- 
dinary for stature, strength, age, fertility, &c. 

XIII. Lord Mayors of London. 

- XIV. Catalogues of the Gentry under Henry the Sixth ; 
why inserted. 

XV. Of the Sheriffs. 

XVI. Of the Sheriffs' Arms. 

XVII. Observations on Surnames being often altered, 

and variously written. 

XVIII. Of Modern Battles. 


CHAP. XIX. Of the Shires, and why the Worthies are digested 
under them. 

XX. Of the Surnames of Clergymen, and that their sons 

have been as successful as others ; with his expedient, where 
several places claim the birth of one person. 

XXI. Other general rules and distinctions for the author 

and reader's ease ; as his use of the word Ampliendum, ex- 
pressing a want of fuller intelligence ; and his use of S. N. 
signifying second nativity : that is, when a Worthy whose na- 
tive country is not known, he is historized under that which 
was his place of residence ; and by the abbreviation REM. 
which implies removeable, upon better information : also his 
rule for ranking, under some one head, persons who have a 
claim to several. 

XXII. The Precedency of several Professions adjusted. 

XXIII. Of the Authorities from whence the work is de- 

XXIV. Concerning his double division of the English, 

according to their nation and profession. 

XXV. General exceptions against the style and matter 

of the author prevented ; by his propositions of and answers 

to them, being twenty-four in number. 
XXVI. An apology for the involuntary omissions in 

this book. 

The whole volume, in the original edition, contains more 
than a thousand pages; and seems to have been not quite finished 
at the end. 

Though our author was very diligent (as hath been attested 
in p. xi.) in collecting his materials for this work ; yet, when 
several parts of it were written, he had the disadvantage of being 
unsettled, remote from proper libraries, and intelligent conver- 
sation, being as it were a travelling writer, and forced to leave 
blank spaces, especially for dates ; wherein he has sometimes 
modestly left his reader rather uninformed than misinformed ; 
and sometimes again filled them up conjecturally, and without 
any supposed need of nice recollection, as he designed to be 
more exact upon better opportunities of examination ; in several 
whereof he was prevented by death. But though he looked 
upon dates as so many little sparkling gems in history, that 
would reflect the clearest and most sudden light a great way off, 


he still found or thought them very slippery ware, liable, by the 
smallest and most imperceptible variations, to lead us greatly 
astray from truth ; and speaks of Chronology, in one of his books, 
as of a little surly animal, that was apt to bite the ringers of 
those who handled it with greater familiarity than was absolutely 
necessary; yet he knew there was no giving any satisfac- 
tory intelligence without it, especially in the writing of lives. 
But, indeed, an accurate regard to the directions thereof was 
little in use with any writers in this particular branch of history 
at those times ; as, among many others, may be observed, to go 
no further, in the author of his own life, whose deficiencies 
we have here been at much trouble to supply ; one instance 
only whereof is, that though he gives us the titles of almost all 
Fuller's books, and their sizes, he has not given us the date of 
one. But it was a general or fashionable neglect, especially in 
the more polite and ornate writers, as if they thought that arith- 
metical figures would look like so many scars in the sleek face 
of their rhetorical phrase. But what our author, in apology 
for himself, has ingeniously observed further on this topic, we 
refer to his own words, in one or two of the chapters, whereof 
we have before given the heads. As to the historical particu- 
lars of these lives, no man could pretend to be very circumstan- 
tial, in a work that proposed to revive the famous men in a 
whole nation ; such an undertaking can or should give but a 
general and compendious view of them. Suppose here are 
eighteen or twenty hundred eminent persons characterized, much 
after the manner of those in his te Church History ; " to have 
given a general satisfaction in all parts of the lives, actions, and 
works, of one or two only in every hundred, might have required 
more eyes, hands, and years, than nature allowed this author ; and 
perhaps more abilities, knowledge, or information, than could 
be justly pretended to, by any of his ungrateful cavillers. Then 
for the errors that must unavoidably occur in the revival of such 
multitudes in all ages, our author's own apology, as it will be 
equally needful to any other compiler of a numerous collection 
of lives, is here produced from his own words, upon some ob- 
ec tions made to Mr. Fox the Martyrologist, as follow : " It is 
impossible for an author of a voluminous book, consisting of 
jseveral persons and circumstances, (reader, in pleading for Mas- 
ter Fox I plead for myself,) to have such ubiquitary intelligence, 


as to apply the same infallibly to every particular."* But there 
is no winning the favour of those who think they have a licence 
for detraction, and may spoil an author with impunity," when 
he is incapable of self-defence, both of his reputation and his 
labours. Thus we may see some very rash censurers superfi- 
cially read, who have often pronounced their anathemas upon 
many other historians, from the titles only of their writings, and 
sometimes without having ever seen so much as them, treating 
him also like those who cannot be content with shearing the 
inoffensive prey that is free-yielding of his wool, but they must 
butcher him too : for surely few have been so much pillaged 
who have been so much disparaged ; he has been reproached 
for his ingenuity by those who have no wit ; and robbed of hi s 
knowledge by those who have no gratitude. Bishop Nicolson, 
who was too censorious upon Dr. Fuller's Church History, will 
also run the hazard of recrimination upon this. Our author 
began his " Worthies of England " when he was chaplain to 
the Lord Hopton ; and it was his chief study, or mostly under 
his consideration by intervals, for near seventeen years, as it 
may be from this account computed ; but the bishop says it 
was huddled up in haste. Our author mentions (as we have 
quoted in p. xviii.) five reasons for publishing this book ; but, as 
if he had nothing more than a mercenary motive therein, the 
bishop has sunk four of them, and, quoting but the last, induced 
you to believe it was only for the procurement of some mode- 
rate profit to .the author : and yet not quoted this honestly. 
The bishop says, it corrects many mistakes in his " Church His- 
tory ; " but our author was acquainted with few mistakes till a 
little time before he died, and then had little leisure or room 
to correct many, when the greatest part of his " Worthies " was 
printed off. The bishop says, that Fuller's chief author is Bale, 
for the lives of his eminent writers ; and he must have been 
his also, if he had wrote in Fuller's time of the writers Bale 
has given account of, when Leland was not published ; unless 
he would rather have followed Bale's Popish plagiary. But a 
great part of the writers in Fuller lived and wrote since Bale, 
therefore he had many other authorities for his writers, as may 
be sufficiently seen in his work. And whether our author has 
given more mis-shapen scraps, or lies, as they are called,f of his 

* See the present volume, in Berkshire, p. 127. 
t Nicolson's Historical Library, fol. 1736, p. 6. 


heroes, than the bishop of his historians, those may best judge 
who have read the one and the other : but if the bishop would 
have undertaken to reform or rectify both, it might have been 
more acceptable, as well as more discreet, than to revile an au- 
thor so extravagantly as to vilify himself. In short, notwith- 
standing these hasty and immoderate aspersions, the characters 
or memorials here assembled of so many great men, will always 
make the book necessary to be consulted; especially as there 
are preserved therein abundance of lives then first or newly 
written, and nowhere else to be had ; which have been of good 
service to many grave writers of substantial credit, even in his- 
tory, antiquities, and heraldry ; who, wanting neither the judg- 
ment nor justice in themselves which they might covet in their 
own readers, knew how to make proper uses of his work, and 
acknowledgments for what they drew from it, without turning 
executioners upon every trivial oversight, or expressing any 
grievance at his humour or his wit. But, since his character 
has been so much degraded by some, it will be but equitable to 
shew that it has been no less exalted by others ; and as he has 
bestowed a grateful remembrance upon many poets, we have 
met with a retribution that has been attempted by one, in a 
panegyric upon biography in general, and this biography in par- 
ticular. It was freely communicated from the author's original 
in the possession of a late nobleman, who was a signal patron 
to some of the greatest poets and other ingenious men in his 
time ; and since it has never been published ; since it is entirely 
suitable in this, as it may be partly serviceable in any other, col- 
lection of illustrious men ; or may in some part be no less ap- 
plicable to any other compiler, than to every peruser of such 
collections, we shall here present it as follows, faithfully in its 
own language, without any apology for its length. 



Here, from Fame's wardrobe, you may dress to please, 
In suits adorned, and shaped to all degrees ; 
Each genius hence may graceful habits take ; 
No mind so warp'd, some mould won't straighter make. 
Patterns that best become you still prefer, 
Without some wearing, they to ruin wear ; 
Some patterns yet, like tarnish'd lace, are worn, 
And now disguise what once they did adorn ; 
Then be not servilely a slave to those : 
Reform their fashions, but refrain their clothes. 

By the best chemic skill, their gifts combin'd 
May so concocted be, and so refin'd; 
May, through your works, so undistinguished wreathe, 
As incense rich, from holy altars breathe ; 
Till, so the blended aromatics rise, 
In grateful gales, to greet the deities, 
That we perceive no frankincense exhale, 
No cassia here, or storax there prevail ; 
Nor this, can myrrh, that ambergrise can call ; 
But one strong, curling odour, spires from all ; 
So when such sweets you from these flowers have hiv'd, 
From each they differ, as from all deriv'd. 

Choose then with prudence, in your choice proceed, 
Till those you follow, you're improv'd to lead. 
The object equal to the human mind, 
And most instructive, must be human kind. 
Read manly books then, books of men, and so, 
That you proceed to do the best you know. 
Peruse such lives, or parts, as you can live ; 
It is the practice must perfection give. 
Souls, in which samples great, no semblance breed, 
Like cold and hungry soils, but rot the seed ; 
Or, like weak stomachs, with strong food oppress'd, 
By that ne'er nourished, which they ne'er digest. 
For as your meals should suit, to thrive aright, 
Your constitution and your appetite ; 
So your examples should proportion' d be, 
Both to your power, and your capacity. 

Some seek their minds with marvels to replete, 
And taste no objects they should emulate : 
Of things incredible, experience saith, 
The feeblest judgments have the firmest faith : 
Such, in admiring, still those hours destroy, 
They in excelling only should employ. 

Some think, distemper' d times less heal'd may be, 
By wise men's woes, than fools' felicity : 
Think not that fortitude grows more unsound, 
By vice's balsam, than by virtue's wound : 
That, without deeds, words hold no lasting height, 
Unbodied feathers wanting nerves for flight : 

While airy sounds soon lose their empty name, 

Surviving record is substantial fame, 

To boundless forms, some, crude collections breed, 

And write a life would waste a life to read ! 

With griping hands, some shrink up life's short span, 

And to a mite epitomize a man ! 

Others add streams, to rivers swolu too high, 

While drowned pastures unrecover'd lie ; 

Prop those who boast superfluous aids to stand, 

While crowds deserted most their aid demand ! 

The aim's more lofty, th' art in more esteem, 

To save the sinking, than sink those who swim. 

Thus, upon others' lives their own are lost, 

Or least devoted, where deserved most. 

But worse, desert in others there is known, 

Where none from others, or themselves, is shown ; 

Whose memory of the good, the learn'd, the brave, 

Should be their monument, and is their grave. 

But victories o'er death must be renown'd ; 
Triumphs like those must through fame's clarion sound ; 
His victors should her richest trophies wear, 
To fame who rescue what the fates won't spare, 
Garlands shall crown their works, that cannot fade ; 
The lights they rend with lustre be repaid. 
Who noblest do, most nobly must deserve ; 
Great who perform, but greater who preserve . 
If virtue most directs, which most dilates, 
The draught excels, that most communicates ; 
Such copy spread thus durably to all, 
Begets more virtue than th' original : 
'Tis an original ; it's own outvied ; 
Where life less copied is, than multiplied ; 
And when they are deathless made, who long since died. 
Thus, when a hero is compar'd to you, 
Th' historian is the hero of the two ; 
The brave, learn'd, good, more efficacious grown, 
In your immortal lives, than in their own. 

Your merit is, who labour'd hath so much, 
Such to revive, to be revived as such : 
Our shame is, in your WORTHIES to be read, 
Till one at least each to their number add : 
Till we, your WORTHIES reading, such shall turn, 
As sacred relics sanctify the urn : 
Till they, through you, dart influential worth, 
As stars, though fixt in heaven, shine down on earth. 

Phoebus, the sire of your resplendent wit, 
Who blinds all brightness, must to yours submit : 
He, only in th' horizon, gilds our day, 
You here, though set, your glory still display. 



CHAP. I. - Design of the Work 1 

CHAP. II. On the real topics insisted on in the respective Counties: Native 
Commodities ; Manufactures ; Medicinal Waters ; the Wonders ; Buildings ; 

Local Proverbs ; Medicinal Herbs 3 8 

CHAP. Ill Of the first quaternion of Persons: Princes; Saints; Martyrs; 

Confessors 914 

CHAP. IV. Of Popes, Cardinals, and Prelates before the Reformation . . 1520 

CHAP. V. Of Popes, &c. since the Reformation 21 

CHAP. VI. Of Statesmen : Lord Chancellors ; Lord Treasurers ; Secretaries of 

State ; Admirals ; Lord Deputies of Ireland 22 27 

CHAP. VII Of Capital Judges, and Writers on the Common Law 28 

CHAP. VIII Of Soldiers and Seamen, with the necessity of encouraging the trade 

of fishing 30 

CHAP. IX. Of Writers on the Civil and Canon Law, Physic, Chemistry, and 

Chirurgery 34 36 

CHAP. X. Of Writers on Philology, Divinity, and History ; Musicians ; Romish 

exile Writers ; number of needless Books 37 42 

CHAP. XI Of Benefactors to the Public : Builders of Churches ; Free Schools 
and Colleges ; Bridges ; Alms-houses ; Choice Charities recommended ; Bene- 
factors since and before the Reformation; on the word " Reformation " 43 54 

CHAP. XII. Of Memorable Persons 55 

CHAP. XIII Of Lord Mayors of London 56 

CHAP. XIV On the Catalogue of Gentry, and the general method pursued . . 58 

CHAP. XV. Of Shire-Reeves, or Sheriffs 60 

CHAP. XVI Of the Coats of Arms to those who have been Sheriffs . . 65 

CHAP. XVII. On the frequent alterations in the spelling of Surnames 70 

CHAP. XVIII On Modern Battles 71 

CHAP. XIX. On the number of Shires or Counties in England, and why the 

Worthies in this Work are arranged according to Counties 72 

CHAP. XX Why Clergymen formerly carried the register of their Birth-place in 
their Surnames, &c. ; expedient when several persons claim the birth of the same 

person ; success attending the Children of Clergymen 72 80 

CHAP. XXL General Rules for the convenience of the Author and Reader : of 
Dates ; Apology for Qualifications used, and Blanks left in this History ; on the 
signification of " AMPLIANDUM," or * AMP. ;" of " S. N. ;" and of " REM." 
or " REMOVE ;" method of ranking the respective Personages introduced into 

this Work 81 8 6 

CHAP. XXII. On the Precedency of Persons and Professions 86 

CHAP. XXIII On the Authorities from which the Work has been derived . . 89 
VOL. I. c 


CHAP. XXIV On the Division of the English Gentry 92 

CHAP. XXV On the Style and Matter of the Author 99 

CHAP. XXVI. Apology for involuntary Omissions; a Corollary on the reciproca- 
tion of " Alumnus " 107109 


Boundaries, &c. 110. Natural Commodities: Oaks, Bark, Trouts, 110, ill. 
Manufactures: Clothing, 111. Buildings : Proverbs, 112. Princes, 121. 
Saints: Margaret and Alice Rich, St. Edmund, 123, 124. Martyrs : Anth. 
Persons, Robt. Testwood, Henry Fillmer, Julius Palmer, 124-126 Confessors: 
John Marbeck, Robt. Benett, 126, 127. Cardinals, 127 Prelates : Wm. of Read- 
ing, John de Bradfield, Rich. Beauchamp, Tho. Godwin, Tho. Ramme, Wm. Laud, 
128, 129 Statesmen : Sir J.Mason, Sir Tho. Smith, 130, 131 Soldiers : Henry 
Umpton, 131. Writers : Hugh of Reading, Roger of Windsor, Robt. Rich, Rich, 
of Wallingford, Henry Bullock, Wm. Lyford, Tho. Hyde, 132-135. Benefactors : 
Alfred the Great, Peter Chapman, John Kendrick, Rich, Wightwick, 135, 136 
Memorable Persons: Tho. Cole, John Winscombe, 136, 137 Lord Mayors, 
137 Gentry, 138 List of Sheriffs; with notices of Will. Briewere, Philip de 
Marton, Fulco de Breantree, Rog. Episc. Covent. et Lich., Phil, de la Beach, 
Tho. Chaucer, Tho. Wikham, Joh. Gowfre, John Howard, Humph. Foster, 
Rob. Harecourt, John Basket, Wm. Essex, Francis Inglefield, John Williams, 
Henry Norrice, Edw. Unton, Besilius Fettiplace, Rich. Lovelace, and Sir J. 
Darell, 141-160. Battles : Newbury, 161. The Farewell, 162. Worthies since 
the time of Fuller, and topographical Works relative to the County, 162, 163. 


Boundaries, Soil, &c. 164. Natural Commodities : Barley, Malt, Fuller's-earth, 

Larks, 164, 165 Manufactures: Buildings : Wonders : Proverbs, 166. 

Princes: Margaret Beaufort, 167. Saints: Arnulphus, 168 Martyrs: Thos. 

Chase, ib Prelates : Silvester de Everton, #. Capital Judges, and Writers of 

the Law: Sir John Cokeyn, Edm. Wingate, 169 Writers: John of Dunstable, 

Geo. Joy, Francis Dillingham, Wm. Sclater, 169-171. Benefactors to the 
Public: Sir Wm. Harper, Henry Grey, Francis Cleark, 172, 173. Memorable 
Persons, 173 Lord Mayors: Gentry, 174. List of Sheriffs; with notices of 
Rich. Basset, Henry de Essex, David Archidiaconus, Rob. de Braybrook, Hen. 
Braybrook, Edvard. filius Hen. III., Tho. Hoo, John Wenlock, Sir John St. 
John, Wm. Gascoigne, John Mordant, Wm. Windsor, Francis Russel, Oliver 

St. John, Wm. Dormer, 176-190. The Farewell, 190 Worthies since the time 

of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 191. 


Boundaries, &c. 192. Natural Commodities: Beech, Sheep, Tame Pheasants, 
192, l93._The Manufactures, 193. Proverbs, 194,Saints : St. Edburg, St. Ru- 

ald, 194, 195 Martyrs: John Scrivener, 196 Prelates : Rich, de Wendover, 

John Buckingham, John Young, John Holyman, John Harley, Robt. Aldrich, 
M m. Alley, Rich. Cox, Thos. Bickley, John King, Rich. Montague, Henry King, 
lOl.-Writers on the Law: Sir Geo. Crook, Edw. Bulstrode, 202, 203.- 
ir Wm. Windsor, Arthur Gray, 203, 204. Writers : Roger de Wen- 
dover, John Amersham, Matt. Stokes, Walter Haddon, Laur. Humphred, Roger 


Goad, John Gregory, Sam. Collins, Wm. Oughtred, 205-209. Romish Exile 
Writers : Thos. Dorman, 209. Memorable Persons : John Mathew, Daine 

Hester Temple, 210 Lord Mayors: Gentry, 211 List of Sheriffs; with 

notices of John Croke, Robt. Dormer, Edw. Bulstrod, Henry Longvile, Benedict 
Winchcombe, Sir Edw. Coke, Francis Cheney, 213-218 The Farewell, 218 
Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 219, 220. 


Boundaries, &c. 221. Natural Commodities : Eels, Hares, Saffron, Willows, 222. 
Manufactures : Paper, Baskets, 223, 224. -Buildings : Ely Minster, 224, 225. 
Wonders, 225. Proverbs, 226, 227 Martyrs: William Flower, 228. Prelates: 
Stephen de Fulborn, Nicholas of Ely, William, John, and Nicholas of Bottlesham, 
Thomas of Newmarket, Thos. Thirtby, Dr. Godf. Goldsborough, Dr. Robt. 
Townson, Dr. Thos. Westfield, 228-232. Statesmen : John Tiptoft, Sir John 
Cheeke, 233, 234. Soldiers, 234 Writers: Matt. Paris, Helias Rubeus, John 
Eversden, Rich. Wetherset, Wm. Caxton, Rich. Huloet, John Richardson, Dr. 
Andrew Willet, Sir Thos. Ridley, Arthur Hildersham, R. Parker, Mich. Dalton 
Dr. Thos. Goad, Andrew Marvail, 235-240. Benefactors: Hugo de Balsham, 
Sir Wm. Horn, Sir Wm. Purcase, Sir Thos. Kneisworth, John Crane, 241, 242. 
Memorable Persons : Wm. Collet, Edw. Norgate, 242 Lord Mayors, 243 
Gentry, 244 List of Sheriffs ; with notices of Thos. Cotton, Thos. Eliot, Thos. 
Cromwell, Edw. North, John Huddleston, John Cuts, Henry Cromwell, Jarvasius 
Clifton, Simon Steward, 247-259. The Farewell, 260 Worthies since the time 

. <3f Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 260, 261. 


Boundaries, Rivers, Gentry, &c. 262. Natural Commodities : Salt, Cheese, Mill- 
stones, 263, 264 Buildings, 264. Wonders : Proverbs, 265, 266. Cardinals : 

Wm. Makilesfield, 267 Prelates: Wm. Booth, Laurence Booth, John Booth, 
Thos. Savage, Dr. Wm. Chaderton, Dr. Wm James, John Richardson, 267-270. 

Statesmen : Sir Thos. Egerton, 270 Capital Judges : Sir Humphrey Stark ey, 

Sir Henry Bradshaw, Sir Randal Crew, Sir Humf. Davenport, 270-274. Soldiers: 
Sir Hugh Calvely, John Smith, 274, 275. Physicians : 276 Writers: Thos. 
Eclestone, Ralph Radcliffe, John Speed, John Dod, 276-278. Benefactors : Sir 
Rich. Sutton, Robt. Brassy, Geo. Palin, Sir John Brewerton, Dr. John Barnston, 

279-281 Memorable Persons : Wm. Smith, Wm. Webb, Randal Crew, 281, 

282. Lord Mayors, 282. List of Sheriffs ; with notices of Hugh de Hatton 
Sir Hugh Cholmly, or Cholmondeleigh, John Savage, 283-289 Battles : Row- 
ton-heath, 289 The Farewell, ib. 


Boundaries, &c. : Buildings, 290 Proverbs : Martyrs, Geo. Marsh, 291. Pre- 
lates: Dr. Geo. Dounham, 291 Seamen-. David Middleton, Sir H. Middleton, 

292. Writers: Roger of Chester, Randal Hygden, Henry Bradshaw, Edw. 

Brierwood, John Downham, 293-295 Benefactors : Wm. Aldersey, Sir Thos. 

Offley, John Terer, 295, 296. The Farewell, 297- 

Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 297, 298. 

xxv iii CONTENTS, 


Boundaries Dialect, &c. 299. Natural Commodities: Diamonds, Ambergris, 
Garlic Pilchards, Blue Slate, Tin, 300-302. Buildings : Mount-Edgecombe, 303. 
Medicinal Waters, 304. - Wonders : the'Hurlers, Main Amber, 304, 305 Pro- 
verbs, 306. Saints : St. Kiby, St.Ursula, St. Meliorus, 307,308. Prelates : Win. 
de Grenvil, Michael Tregury, John Arundel, 309, 310 Capital Judges .and Writers 
on the Law: Wm.Noy, 310, 311. Soldiers : King Arthur, 311. Seamen : John 
Arundel, 312. Civilians : John Tregonwell, 313 Physicians: Rawe Hayes, 

Atwell, ib. Writers : Hugarius the Levite, John of Cornwall, Simon Thur- 

way, Michael Blaunpayn, Godfrey of Cornwall, John Trevisa, John Skuish, 
Bartholomew Traheron, Rich. Carew, Chas. Herle, 314-318 Memorable Persons : 
Kiltor, John Bray, John Roman, Veal, Edw. Bone, 319. Lord Mayors, 320 
List of Sheriffs ; with notices of Roger de Priddeaux, John Arundel, Thos. Green- 
vil, Jas. Tirrell, John Basset, Pet. Edgcombe, Rich, diamond, Wm. Mohun, 
Ant. Rouse, Francis Godolphin, Wm. Wrey, Rich. Roberts, 320-330 Battles : 
Liskeard, Stratton, 331-334 The Farewell, 334 Worthies since the time of 
Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 335, 336. 


Boundaries, 337 Natural Commodities : Pearls, Black-lead, Copper, 337, 338 

Buildings, 338 Wonders : the Moss-troopers, 339. Proverbs, 340 Saints : St. 

Herebert, St. Alrike, 341. Martyrs: Eliz. Forster, ib Prelates: Roger Whelp- 
dale, Roger Layburn, Edm. Grindall, Dr. Henry Robinson, Dr. Rich. Senhouse, 
342, 343. Capital Judges, and Writers on the Law : Sir Rich. Hutton, Sir John 
Banks, 344 Civilians : Geo. Porter, 345. Writers : John Canon, Wm. Egre- 
mont, John Skelton, Dr. Rich. Crakenthorp, John Salkeld, Dr. Gerard Langbain, 

345-347 Benefactors: Robt. Eaglesfield, 348 Memorable Persons : Maud, ft. 

Lord Mayors: Gentry, 349 List of Sheriffs; with notices of Robertus de 
Vaus, Walt. Epis. Carliol. et Rob. filius Will, de Hampton, Andreas de Harcla, 
Richard duke of Gloucester, Thos. Wharton, 350-362 The Farewell, 362 
Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 362-364. 


Boundaries, Soil, &c. 365 Natural Commodities : Lead, ib Manufactures: Malt, 

Ale, 366, 367. Buildings : Chatsworth, 367 Wonders: Maim-tor, 368 

Medicinal Waters: Princes, ib Saints: St. Alkmund, ib Martyrs: Joan 

Wast, 369 Cardinals : Rog. Curzon, Philip de Repingdon, ib Prelates : Wm. 

Gray, Dr. Geo. Cooke, 370, 371 Statesmen: Sir John Cooke, 371 Capital 

Judges, and Writers of the Law : John Stathom, Sir Anth. Fitz-Herbert, 371, 

372 Seamen: Sir Hugh Wllloughby, 372 Physicians: Thos. Linacer, 374 

Writers : Thos. Ashburne, 376 Benefactors : Eliz. Hardwick, ib. Gentry, 

377 List of Sheriffs ; with notices of John Vernon, 381-390 The Farewell, ib. 

Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 391-393. 


Boundaries, &c. 394 Natural Commodities : Silver, Tin, Herrings, Strawberries, 
:bernes, 394-396. Manufactures : Bone-lace, 396 Buildings: Bediford- 


bridge, 397. Wonders: the Gubbings, 397,398. Proverbs, 399 Saints: St. 

Wenfride Boniface, St. Willibald, 400 Martyrs: Agnes Pirest, 401 Confes- 
sors: John Molle, ib Cardinals: Wm. Courtney, 402 Prelates: Robt. 

Chichester, Gilb. Foliot, Robt. Foliot, Wm. Brewer, William de Raleigh, Rich. 
Courtney, Jas. Cary, John Stanbery, Pet. Courtney, John Jewel, John Prideaux, 

403-408 Statesmen : Sir Arthur Chichester, 409 Capital Judges : Sir Wm. 

Herle, Sir John Cary, Sir Wm. Hankford, Sir John Fortescue, Sir Lewis Pollard, 
Sir John Doderidg, 410-412. Soldiers : Sir Rich. Greenvil, James Lord Audley, 
Thos. Stuckley, Geo. Monck, 413-417 Seamen: Wm. Wilford, Sir Humph. 

Gilbert, Cock, Sir Francis Drake, Sir Walt. Raleigh, 417-419 Civilians: John 

Cowel, Arthur Duck, 420. Writers : Roger the Cistercian, John de Ford, Rich. 
Fishaker, John Cut-clif, Rich. Chichester, Robt. Plympton, Nich. Upton, Rich. 
Hooker, John Reinolds, Nath. Carpenter, 421-424. Benefactors : Pet. BlundeU, 
Wm. Burgoin, 424, 425. Memorable Persons : Henry de la Pomeray, Sir John 
de Beigny, Child, Nich. and Andrew Tremaine, 425-427 Lord Mayors : Gentry, 

427 List of Sheriffs; with notices of Richardus Comes, Willielmus Brewer, 

Wm. Yoo, John Damerell, Rich. Edgcombe, Peter Carew, Robt. Dennis, Amias 
Bampfield, Dennis Rolls, 428-441. The Farewell, 441. 


Boundaries : Manufactures, 442. Buildings : Wonders. 443 Princes : Prelates : 
Bartholomeus Iscanus, Baldvinus Devonius, Walt. Bronscombe, 444 Writers : 
Josephus Iscanus, William of Exeter, Rich. Martin, Wm. Martin, Wm. Tucker, 
John Barkham, 445-447 Benefactors : John Tuckvile, 447 The Farewell, 448. 

Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 448-450. 


Boundaries, &c. 451. Natural Commodities : Tenches, Tobacco-pipe Clay, Hemp, 
451, 452. Buildings: Proverbs, 453. Saints: Edward, ib. Cardinals: John 
Morton, 454 Prelates : John Stafford, Robt. Morton, Jas. Turbevil, Thos.Win- 
niffe, 455, 456 Soldiers : Thos. Basket, John Russel, Sir Rich. Bingham, 457 
Seamen : Rich. Clark, Geo. Summers, 458, 459. Civilians : Sir Thos. Ryves, 
460. Benefactors : Robt. Rogers, 461 Memorable Persons : Thomas de la 
Lynd, Arthur Gregory, Wm. Englebert, ib. Gentry, 462. List of Sheriffs ; 
with notices of John Newburgh, Egidius Strangways, Thos. More, 463-474. 
The Farewell, 475 Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to 
the County, 475, 476. 


Boundaries, &c. 477 Princes : Cicely Neville, ib Saints : Bede, 478 Confes- 
sors : John Wickliffe, 479. Prelates : Ralph, Alexander, Robert and Geo. Nevil, 
Robt. Horn, Dr. John Cosen, 480-483. Civilians : Rich. Cosin, 484 Writers : 
Wm. Shirwood, John of Darlington, Wm. Siveyer, Thos. Jackson, Sam. Ward, 
485-487 Memorable Persons : Anthony Lord Gray, 488 Sheriffs : the Fare- 
well, 489. Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the 
County, 490, 491. 


Boundaries, &c. 492 Natural Commodities: Saffron, Oysters, Hops, Puets, 

492-494. Manufactures: Gunpowder, 494. Buildings, 495 Wonders, 496, 


Proverbs, 497, 498.-Princes: Henry Fitzroy, 499 Saints : St. Helen, St. Con- 
stantine, St. Ethelburgh, Hildetha, Theorithoid, Edilburge, Wolfhild, St. Osith, 

St. Neot's, 499-501 Martyrs: John Laurence, Thos. Hawkes, Rose Allin, 

50*1, 502. Confessors : Rich. George, 502. Cardinals: Thos. Bourchier, 503 
Prelates: Richard de Barking, John de Chesill, John of Waltham, Rog. Walden, 
Rich. Howland, John Jegon, Sam. Haresnet, Dr. Augustine Linsell, 504-507 
Statesmen: Sir Thos. Audley, Sir Rich. Morisin, Sir Anthony Cook, Sir Thos. 
Smith, Thos. Howard, Rich. Weston, 507-511. Capital Judges: Sir John 

Bramstone, 511 Soldiers: Robt. Fitz-Walter, Sir John Hawkewood, Thos. 

Ratcliff, Sir Francis and Sir Horace Vere, 512-514 Physicians: Wni. Gilbert, 

515 Writers: Gervase of Tilbury, Adam of Barking, Ralph of Cogshall, Roger 

of Waltham, John Godard, Aubrey de Vere, Thos. Maldon, Thos. Waldensis, 

Thos. Tusser, Francis Quarles, Jos. Mede, 516-519 Benefactors: Rich. 

Bedew, Walt. Mildmey, Dorothy Petre, Dr. Thos. Eden, 520-522 Memorable 

Persons: Matilda Fitz-Walter, Simon Lynch, 523 Lord Mayors, 524. 

Gentry ; with notices of Henry Bourchier, John Tyrrell, John Mountgomery, 
Maurice Bruyn, Win. Goldingham, John Doreward, Robt. Darcy, Henry Lang. 
ley, Thos. Heveningham, Johannes Leventhorp, Thos. Barington, Thos. Ben- 
dysh, Egidius Lucas, Thos. Barrett, 526-528 List of Sheriffs; with notices 
of Will, de Longo Campo, Cancellarius Dom. Regis, Hugo de Nevil, et Johan. 
de Nevil, Walter de Baud, Philip Bottiller, Henry Marny, Wm. Fitz Williams, 
John Christmas, Sir Brian Tuke, Sir John Gates, Sir Ralph Rowlet, Jas. Al- 
tham, Sir Henry Maynard, Sir Paul Bayning, John Lucas, 529-544. Battles, 
544. The Farewell, ib. Worthies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative 
to the County, 545. 


Boundaries, &c. 546 Natural Commodities : Tobacco, Oak, Steel, 546, 547 

Manufactures : Clothing, Mustard, Wine, Cider, 547, 548 Buildings, 549 

Wonders : the Higre, 550. Proverbs, 551, 552 Princes, 553 Saints : St. Ke- 
nelme, ib Martyrs : Jas. Baynam, ib. Prelates : Ti.deman de Winchcombe, 
JohnChedworth, John Carpenter, Thos. Ruthall, Edw. Fox, 554-556. Statesmen : 
Sir Ralph Butler, 557 Capital Judges, and Writers on the Law : Anthony 
Fitz-Herbert, Edw. Trotman, 557-558 Soldiers . Sir Wm. Tracy, 558. Sea- 
men : Sir Wm. Winter, ib Writers : Osbernus Claudianus, Robert of Glouces- 
ter, Alan of Tewkesbury, Alexander of Hales, Thomas de la More, Thos. of Hales, 
Thos. Neale, Rich. Tracy, Sir Thos. Overbury, Rich. Capel, John Sprint, John 
Workman, 559-564. Benefactors : Kath. Clyvedon, Sir Wm. Hampton, Thos. 

Bell, Edw. Palmer, Hugh Pirry, 565-567 Lord Mayors : Gentry, 567 List of 

Sheriffs ; with notices of Walt, de Stuchesly, Thos. Berkeley de Cobberley, John 
Points, Wm. Kingston, Anth. Kingston, 568-581 The Farewell, 581 Wor- 
thies since the time of Fuller, and Works relative to the County, 581, 582. 





ENGLAND may not unfitly be compared to a house, not very 
great,, but convenient ; and the several Shires may properly be 
resembled to the rooms thereof. Now, as learned Master Cam- 
den and painful Master Speed, with others, have described the 
rooms themselves, so it is our intention, God willing, to 
describe the furniture of these rooms; such eminent commo- 
dities which every county doth produce, with the persons of 
quality bred therein, and some other observables coincident 
with the same subject. 

Cato, that great and grave philosopher, did commonly 
demand, when any new project was propounded unto him, 
" Cui bono 1" what good would ensue, in case the same was 
effected ? A question more fit to be asked than facile to be 
answered in all undertakings, especially in the setting forth of 
new books, insomuch that they themselves, who complain that 
they are too many already, help daily to make them more. 

Know then, I propound five ends to myself in this Book : 
first, to gain some glory to God : secondly, to preserve the 
memories of the dead: thirdly, to present examples to the 
living : fourthly, to entertain the reader with delight : and 
lastly (which I am not ashamed publicly to profess), to procure 
some honest profit to myself. If not so happy to obtain all, I 
will be joyful to attain some ; yea, contented and thankful too, 
if gaining any (especially the first) of these ends, the motives of 
my endeavours. 

First, glory to God, which ought to be the aim of all our 
actions ; though too often our bow starts, our hand shakes, and 
so our arrow misseth the mark. Yet I hope that our describing 
so good a land, with the various fruits and fruitful varieties 
therein, will engage both writer and reader in gratitude to that 
God who hath been so bountiful to our nation. In order 
whereunto, I have not only always taken, but often sought 

VOL. I. B 


occasions to exhort to thankfulness, hoping the same will be 
interpreted no straggling from my subject, but a closing with 
my calling. 

Secondly, to preserve the memories of the dead. A good 
name is an ointment poured out, smelt where it is not seen. 
It hath been the lawful desire of men in all ages to perpetuate 
their memories, thereby in some sort revenging themselves of 
mortality, though few have found out effectual means to per- 
form it. For monuments made of wood are subject to be 
burnt ; of glass, to be broken ; of soft stone, to moulder ; of 
marble and metal, (if escaping the teeth of time) to be demo- 
lished by the hand of covetousness ; so that, in my apprehen- 
sion, the safest way to secure a memory from oblivion is (next 
his own virtues) by committing the same in writing to posterity. 

Thirdly, to present examples to the living, having here 
precedents of all sorts and sizes ; of men famous for valour, 
wealth, wisdom, learning, religion, and bounty to the public, 
on which last we most largely insist. The scholar, being taxed 
by his writing master for idleness in his absence, made a fair 
defence, when pleading that his master had neither left him 
paper whereon or copy whereby to write. But rich men will 
be without excuse, if not expressing their bounty in some 
proportion, God having provided them paper enough ["the 
poor you have always with you "*] and set them signal exam- 
ples, as in our ensuing work will plainly appear. 

Fourthly, to entertain the reader with delight. I confess, the 
subject is but dull in itself, to tell the time and place of men's 
birth, and deaths, their names, with the names and number of 
their books ; and therefore this bare skeleton of time, place, 
and person, must be fleshed with some pleasant passages. To 
this intent I have purposely interlaced (not as meat, but as 
condiment) many delightful stories, that so the reader, if he do 
not arise (which I hope and desire) religiosior or doctior, with 
more piety or learning, at least he may depart jucundior, with 
more pleasure and lawful delight, 

Lastly, to procure moderate profit to myself in compensation 
of my pains. It was a proper question which plain-dealing 
Jacob pertinently propounded to Laban his father-in-law : 
" and now when shall I provide for mine house also ?" t 
Hitherto no stationer hath lost by me ; hereafter it will be high 
time for me (all things considered) to save fer myself. 

The matter following may be divided into real and personal, 
though not according to the legal acception of the words. By 
real, I understand the commodities and observables of every 
county : by personal, the characters of those worthy men who 
were natives thereof. We begin with a catalogue of the parti- 
cular heads whereof this Book doth consist, intending to shew 

* John xii. 8. f Gen. xxx. 30. 


how they are severally useful ; and then I hope, if good as 
single instruments, they will be the better as tuned in a 



No County hath cause to complain with the Grecian widows, 
that they are neglected in the daily ministration,* God hath 
not given all commodities to one, to elate it with pride, and 
none to others to deject them with pensiveness ; but there is 
some kind of equality betwixt the profits of counties, to con- 
tinue commerce, and balance trading in some proportion. 

We have therefore in this Work taken especial notice of the 
several commodities which every Shire doth produce. And 
indeed God himself enjoineth us to observe the variety of the 
earth's productions in this kind. For speaking of the land of 
Havilah, where, saith he, "there is gold, and the gold of that 
land is good ; there is bdellium, and the onyx-stone :"t see 
here how the Holy Spirit points at those places where God hath 
scattered such treasure, and the best thereof in all kinds, that 
man, if so disposed, may know whereto gather them up. 

I confess, England cannot boast of gold, and precious stones, 
with the land of Havilah ; yet affordeth it other things, both 
above and beneath ground, more needful for man's being. 
Indeed some Shires, Joseph-like, have a better coloured coat 
than others ; and some, with Benjamin, have a more boxintiful 
mess of meat belonging unto them. Yet every County hath a 
child's proportion, as if God in some sort observed gavel-kind 
in the distribution of his favours. " Oh that men would there- 
fore praise the Lord for his goodness, and declare the wondrous 
works which he doeth for the children of men.J" 

Know, reader, when a commodity is general to all England, 
then, to avoid repetition, it is entered in that county where 
there was the first, or else the most and best of that kind. 
And we have so contrived it, that, generally, three commodities 
are treated of in every county. 


Some Heathen have causelessly complained of Nature as a 
step-mother to mankind, because other creatures come into the 
world clothed with feathers, furs, or fleeces, &c., or armed with 
paws, claws, beaks, tusks, horns, hoofs; whilst man is exposed 
naked into the world: I say a causeless charge, because Provi- 

* Acts vi 1. f Gen. ii. 12. J Psalms cvii. 8. 

B 2 


dence having given men hands, and reason to use them (two 
blessings denied to other creatures), all clothing and fencing is 
eminently and transcendantly bestowed upon him. 

It is very remarkable to see the manufactures in England, not 
knowing whether more to admire the rarity or variety thereof. 
Undoubtedly the wealth of a nation consisteth in driving a na- 
tive commodity through the most hands to the highest artificial 
perfection, whereof we have taken especial cognizance in- the 
respective counties, yet so as (though briefly naming) not 
largely handling that manufacture whereon we have formerly 

It must not be forgotten that there be some things which 
cannot properly be termed natural commodities, because of 
their quality altered and disguised by men's industry; and yet 
they attain not the reputation of manufactures. As salt, being 
water boiled; malt, barley dried; cider, apples pressed. See- 
ing therefore they have a mixed nature, they are promiscuously 
placed as suiteth best with my own conveniency. 


The God of Nature hath not discovered himself so variously 
wonderful in any thing, as in the waters of fountains, rivers, &c. 
England hath as large a share herein as any country, and her 
springs wonderful on several accounts. 

1. Colour; black, red, yellow, &c. 2. Taste; sweet, bitter, 
salt, acid, corroding, astringing, &c. 3. Odour ; stinking of 
sulphur, like the scouring of a gun very foul. 4. Sound ; beat- 
ing sometimes like a march, sometimes like a retreat on several 
occasions. 5. Heat; lukewarm, and gradually hot even to 
scalding. 6. Weight; considerably heavier or lighter in pro- 
portion to other waters. 7. Motion; though many miles from 
the sea, sympathizing therewith, ebbing and flowing accord- 
ingly. 8. Effects; some being surgeons to heal sores, others 
physicians to cure diseases. 

The last is proper for our pen, being the largess of Heaven 
to poor people, who cannot go to the price of a costly cure. 
Of these more have been discovered by casualty than industry, 
to evidence that therein we are not so much beholden to man's 
pains as God's providence. Many springs formerly sovereign, 
have since lost their virtue, yet so that other springs have found 
it ; so that their sanative qualities may seem not taken away, 
but removed. And as there are many mean men of great ability 
yet depressed in obscurity; so no doubt there are in our land aquae 
incognita* of concealed worth and virtue ; in effect no whit infe- 
rior to those which in fame are far above them. However, the 
gift which Nature holdeth forth may be doubled in the goodness 
thereof, if the hand of Art do but help to receive it. and the 
patients be prepared with physic, in the using of such water ; 


otherwise fons vita may be fons mortis, if diet, due time-, and 
quantity be not observed. 

Some will say that our English waters must needs be raw, 
because so far from the fire ; whilst those are better boiled, 
which, lying more south, are nearer the sun. But experience 
avows the contrary, that England affordeth most sanative 
waters for English bodies, if men were as judicious in taking, 
as Nature is bountiful in tendering them. 

As for the proprietaries of such (or rather of the ground sur- 
rounding such) medicinal waters, as I would not have them de- 
trimented in the least degree by the conflux of people unto 
them; so it is injurious in my judgment for them to set them 
to sale, and make gain of God's -free gift therein. I confess, 
water was commonly sold in the land of Canaan, proved by 
that passage in the Prophet, "Oh, every one that thirsteth, 
come ye to the waters; and he that hath no money/'* &c. 
Yea, so churlish were the Edomites to the Israelites, that " they 
would not give/' that is, "afford them water for money ."t 
But it is considerable : well-water in those hot countries was 
acquired with vast pains and expence, it being dearer to sink a 
well than build an house, besides many frustrations in that kind, 
before their endeavours found full effect; which made it the 
more equal for the owners, by such sales, to make profit, or 
rather to make up their reparations. But no such cost being 
expended in the case in hand, it may be accounted a kind of 
simony, in such as sell ease and help to poor people, though 
they may lawfully buy it, as passive and necessitated thereunto. 


Of these England affordeth many, which by several authors 
are variously reckoned up. One reckoneth four as most re- 
markable ;{ another accounted six; a third bringeth them up 
to thirteen, 1 1 which since some have increased. Indeed if so 
many men had all agreed in one number, that had been a 
wonder indeed. 

But under this title we comprehend all rarities, whish are out 
of the ordinary road of nature, the illustration whereof may 
minister unto us matter of profitable discourse. Of these 
wonders, some were transient, lasting only for a time (like ex- 
traordinary ambassadors employed on some great affair) ; others 
liegers and permanent, the most proper for our pen to observe. 
And to prevent vacuity in some counties (that this topic of 
wonders might be invested with some matter), some artificial 
rarities are (but very sparingly) inserted, such as transcend the 
standard of ordinary performance : but these are cast in as over- 
weight, the former being only our proper siibject. 

* Isaiah, Iv. 1. f Deut. ii. 28. I H. Huntington. Sir John Sidney. 
SI Samuel Beaulaud on Nennius. 


Our great design herein is, that men may pay the tribute of 
their admiration, where the same is due, to God himself, who, 
as David observeth, "only doth great wonders/ 5 * Only, ex- 
clusively of men and angels; doth, that is, really, solidly, and 
substantially. Jugglers do shew, not do, whose pretty works are 
not pr&stationes, but prastigice. Great wonders, called in 
Scripture MAGNALIA; and, if the Latin alloweth the word, we 
could grant the devil his Parvalia, doing, of petty feats, great- 
ened into wonders by his cunning and our credulity. 

Well, let our admiration be given to God, seeing deliberate 
wondering (when the soul: is not suddenly surprised) being 
raised up to an height is part of adoration, and cannot be given 
to any creature without some sacrilege. Such wondering con- 
sists of reverence and ignorance, which best becometh even the 
wisest of men, in their searches after God his ways. As for 
that unkind wondering, which melts not man's heart like wax 
into the praising of God, but clay-like hardeneth it unto stupe- 
faction, "Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish." t 
God keep all good men from being guilty thereof ! 

A secondary end I have herein, to shew that England falls 
not short of foreign countries in wonderful sights, the same in 
kind, though not in degree. Italy hath her Grotta della Sibilla ; 
we in Somersetshire our Wockley Hole. Spain her Anas; we 
our Mole, &c. But wonders, like prophets, are not without 
honour save in their own country, where constancy (or at least 
commonness of converse) with them abateth their respect and 


[Reader, in our following book we have inverted the method, 
and more properly placed buildings next to manufactures.] 

Next we take notice of the signal structures which each 
County doth afford. Indeed the Italians do account all English 
to be Gothic buildings, only vast * (and greatness must have 
something of coarseness therein). However, abating for their 
advantage above us in materials, marble, porphyry, &c. their 
palaces may admire the art in some English fabrics, and in our 
Churches especially. 

Elisha, beholding Hasael, wept by way of prophecy, foresee- 
ing that, amongst other many mischiefs, he would set fire on the 
strong cities, J and, by consequence, on the fair houses in Israel. 
But well may we weep, when looking back on our late civil w r ar, 
remembering how many beautiful buildings were ruined thereby, 
though indeed we have cause to be thankful to God that so 
many are left standing in the land. 

But what said our Saviour to his disciples, when transported 
with wonder at the goodly stones in the Temple ? " Are these 

* Psalm cxxxvi. 4. f Acts xiii. 41. % 2 Kings viii. 12. 


the things you look upon ? "* Such transitory buildings are 
unworthy of a Christian's admiration. And let it be our 
care, that when the fairest and firmest fabrics fall to the ground, 
yea, when (C our earthly house be dissolved, we may have an 
house not made with hands, but eternal in the heaven s."f 


A Proverb is much matter decocted into few words. Hear 
what a learned critic saith of them :{ "Argutae hse brevesque 
loquendi formulae, quamvis e trivio petitatee et plebi frequentatee, 
suas habent veneres, et genium cujusque gentis penes quam ce- 
lebrantur, atque acumen ostendunt." 

Some will have a proverb so called from verbum a word, 
and pro (as in proavus ) signifying before ; being a speech which 
time out of mind hath had peaceable possession in the mouths 
of many people. Others deduce it from verbum a word, and 
pro for vice (as in proprases) in stead of, because it is not to 
be taken in the literal sense; one thing being put for another. 

Six essentials are required to the completing of a perfect 
proverb; namely, that it be 

1. Short. -\ /-I. Oration. 

2. Plain. j ^2. Riddle. 

3. Common. (^ Otherwise it is no j 3. Secret. 

4. Figurative. ( proverb, but a ^4. Sentence. 

5. Ancient. \ / 5. Upstart. 

6. True. ^6. Libel. 

I have only insisted on such local Proverbs in their respec- 
tive counties, wherein some proper place or person is men- 
tioned ; such as suggest unto us some historical hint, and the 
interpretation thereof afford some considerable information, and 
conduce to the illustration of those counties wherein they are 

Herein I have neglected such narrow and restrictive Pro- 
verbs as never travelled beyond the smoke of the chimneys of 
that town wherein they were made, and, though perchance sig- 
nificant in themselves, are unknown to the neighbouring coun- 
ties, so far they are from acquiring a national reception. Be- 
sides, I have declined all such which are frivolous, scurrilous, 
scandalous, confining ourselves only to such whose expounding 
may contribute to the understanding of those shires wherein 
they are in fashion. 

Objection. It is more proper for a person of your profession 
to employ himself in reading of and commenting on the Pro- 
verbs of Solomon, to "know wisdom and instruction, to per- 
ceive the words of understanding/ 5 Whereas you now are 
busied in what may be pleasant, not profitable ; yea, what may 
inform the fleshly, not edify the inward man. 

* Lukexxi. 6. f 2 Cor. v. 1. \ Salmasius e Levino Warnero. 

Prov. i. 2. 


Answer. Let not our fellow-servants be more harsh unto 

us than our Master himself : we serve not so severe a Lord, 
but that he alloweth us sauce with our meat, and recreation 
with our vocation. 

Secondly, God himself, besides such as I call supernatural 
Proverbs (as Divinely inspired), taketh notice, and maketh use of, 
the natural or native proverbs of the country, praising, approv- 
ing, and applying some; "Physician, cure thyself ;"* f The 
dog is returned to his vomit, and the swine which was washed 
to her wallowing in the mire/' t Disliking and condemning 
others, and commanding them to be abolished: " The fathers 
have eaten sour grapes, and the children's teeth are set on 
edge.":f Now seeing antiquity without verity is no just plea 
that any thing should be continued, on this warrant I have, in 
these our country proverbs, alleged more than I allow; branding 
some with a note of infamy, as fit to be banished out of our dis- 

Lastly, besides information much good may redound to the 
reader hereby. It was the counsel which a wise gave to a great 
man; fe Read histories, that thou dost not become a history." 
So may we say, "Read Proverbs, that thou beest not made a 
proverb/' as God threatened the sinful people of Israel. Sure 
I am that David, by minding of a country (no canonical) pro- 
verb viz. " Wickeiness proceedeth from the wicked," || was 
thereby dissuaded from offering any violence to the person of 
Saul, then placed in his power, whereby he procured much 
tranquillity to his own conscience. 

We have not confined ourselves to Proverbs in the strict 
acception thereof; but sometimes insist on such which have 
only a proverbial tendency, or lie, as one may say, in the 
marches betwixt proverb and prophecy ; where they afford us a 
fit occasion to sally forth into such discourse as may conduce to 
the history of our nation. 


Some maintain this position, " that every country cures the 
diseases which it causes, and bringeth remedies for all the ma- 
ladies bred therein." An opinion which, grant not true, yet 
may have much truth therein, seeing every country, and Eng- 
land especially, affordeth excellent plants : were it not partly 
for men's laziness, that they will not seek them; partly for their 
ignorance, that they know not when they have found them ; and 
partly for their pride and peevishness, because, when found, they 
disdain to use and apply them. Indeed, quod charum, charum ; 
what is fetched far, and bought dear, that only is esteemed ; 
otherwise, were many English plants as rare as they are useful, 
we would hug in our hands what we now trample under our feet. 

* Luke iv. 23. f 2 Peter ii. 22. J Ezek. xviii. 2. 

1 Kin^s ix. 7. || l Sam. xxiv. 1?. 


For proof hereof, let not the reader grudge to peruse these 
words of a grand herbalist,* speaking of virga aurea, or golden 
rod, growing plentifully, but discovered lately in Middlesex : 
(f It is extolled above all other herbs for the stopping of blood in 
sanguinolent ulcers and bleeding wounds ; and hath in time past 
been had in greater estimation and regard than in these days. 
For, in my remembrance, I have known the dry herb, which 
came from beyond the seas, sold in Bucklersbury, in London, 
for two shillings and sixpence the ounce ; but since it is found 
in Hampstead Wood, even as it were at the town's end, no man 
will give two shillings and sixpence for an hundred weight of 
it ; which plainly sets forth our inconstancy and sudden muta- 
bility, esteeming no longer of any thing, how precious soever it 
be, than while it is strange and rare." 

We may also observe, that many base and barren heaths and 
hills, which afford the least food for beasts, yield the best phy- 
sic for man. One may also take notice that such places that are 
nearest to London, Cambridge, Oxford, Bath, or where some emi- 
nent herbalist hath his habitation, afford us the greater variety 
of medicinal herbs. Not that more have grown, but more are 
known thereabouts, where the native plants are not better, but 
more happy in their vicinity to such discoverers. And now, to 
be always within the reach if not the touch of mine own calling, 
we may observe in Scripture that God's Spirit directs men to 
the gathering of such simples of his own planting : e( Is there 
no balm in Gilead ?"f True in a literal sense, as well as mys- 
tically of our Saviour. 

Now the reason why I have been so sparing on this topic, 
and so seldom insist thereon, is because these herbs grow 
equally for goodness and plenty in all countries ; so that no 
one shire can, without manifest usurpation, entitle itself 
thereunto. Besides, they are so common and numerous, they 
would jostle out matter of more concernment. However, we 
have noted it where the herb is rare and very useful : and in our 
following Book (though here the method be transposed) have 
placed medicinal herbs next medicinal waters, conceiving that 
order most natural. 





WE take the word, as it is of the common gender, inclusive 
of both sexes, and extend it only to kings with their wives and 

* Gerard, in his Herbal, p. 430. f Jcr. viii. 22. 


children. Of the second sort we have but few,, and those only 
from the time of king Edward the Fourth, who first married 
his subject, or native of his dominions. 

We confine ourselves to such as were born since the Con- 
quest ; otherwise we should be swallowed up, should we launch 
out beyond that date into the Saxon government, especially into 
the gulf of their Heptarchy, where a prince could not be seen for 
princes. But, if a British or Saxon king comes under our pen, 
we prefer to take cognizance of him in some other notion (as 
of saint, martyr, soldier, &c.) so to preserve the topic of prince- 
ship entire according to our design. 

We have stinted ourselves only to the legitimate issue of 
kings ; and after such who are properly princes, we have, as 
occasion is offered, inserted some who in courtesy and equity 
may be so accepted, as the heirs to the crown (in the Lancas- 
trian difference) though not possessed thereof ; or else so near 
a kin thereunto, that much of history doth necessarily depend 
upon them. 

We have observed these nativities of princes, because 
such signal persons are not only oaks amongst under- woods, but 
land-marks amongst oaks, and the directory for the methodical 
regulation of history. Besides, in themselves they are of spe- 
cial remark, as more or less remote from the crown ; not only 
their own honour, but the happiness of thousands being con- 
cerned in their extraction, and Divine providence most visible 
in marshalling the order thereof. For, although " Nasci a prin- 
cipibus fortuitum est " may pass for a true instance in gram- 
mar, it is no right rule in divinity, which, though acknowledging 
"rich and poor the work of God's hands,"* pronounceth 
princes to be men " of his right hand, made strong for him- 
self,"f that is, purposely advanced to employ their own great- 
ness to his glory. 

Let none object that the wives of kings need not to have 
been inserted, as persons of no such consequence in govern- 
ment, seeing it is the constant practice of the Spirit of God, 
after the mention of a new king in Judah, to record the name 
of his mother and her parentage: "His mother's name also 
was Micaiah, the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah :"J "His 
mother's name was Althaliah, the daughter of Omri :" "His 
mother's name was Hamutal, the daughter of Jeremiah of Lib- 
nah :"|| and divines generally render this reason thereof, that if 
such kings proved godly and gracious, then the memory of their 
mothers should receive just praise for their good education ; if 
otherwise, that they might be blamed for no better principling 
them in their infancy. 

* Jobxxxiv. 19. f Psalm Ixxx. 17. Chron. xiii. 2. 

2 Chron. xxii. 2. || 2 Kings xxiii. 31. 



This word accepts of several interpretations, or rather they 
are injuriously obtruded upon it. 1. Saints of fiction, who 
never were in rerum naturd, as St. Christopher, &c. 2. Saints 
of faction, wherewith our age doth swarm, alleging two argu- 
ments for their saintship : first, that they so call themselves ; 
secondly, that those of their own party call them so. Neither 
of these belong to our cognizance. 3. Saints of superstition, 
reputed so by the court of Rome. 4. Saints indeed, parallel to 
St. Paul's " Widows indeed,"* and both deserve to be honoured. 

It is confessed, in this our book, we drive a great trade in the 
third sort ; and I cannot therefore but sadly bemoan that the 
lives of these saints are so darkened with popish illustrations, 
and farced with faussetts to their dishonour, and the detriment 
of church history ; for, as honest men, casually cast into the 
company of cozeners, are themselves suspected to be cheats, by 
those who are strangers unto them ; so the very true actions 
of these saints, found in mixture with so many forgeries, have a 
suspicion of falsehood cast upon them. 

Inquiring into the causes of this grand abuse, I find them 
reducible to five heads. 

1. Want of honest hearts in the biographists of these saints, 
which betrayed their pens to such abominable untruths. 

2. Want of able heads, to distinguish rumours from reports, 
reports from records; not choosing, but gathering; or rather 
not gathering, but scraping what could come to their hands. 

3. Want of true matter, to furnish out those lives in any pro- 
portion. As cooks are sometimes fain to lard lean meat, not 
for .fashion, but necessity, as which otherwise would hardly be 
eatable for the dryness thereof ; so these, having little of these 
saints more than their names, and dates of their deaths, and those 
sometimes not certain, do plump up their emptiness with such , 
fictious additions. 4. Hope of gain ; so bringing in more cus- 
tom of pilgrims to the shrines of their saints. 5. Lastly, for 
the same reason for which Herod persecuted St. Peter (for I 
count such lies a persecuting of the saints' memories) merely 
because they saw it pleased the people.f 

By these and other causes it is come to pass, that the obser- 
vation of Vives is most true : (( Quee de sanctis scripta sunt, 
preeter pauca qusedam, multis foe data sunt commentis, dum qui 
scribit affectui suo indulget, et non quee egit divus, sed quae 
ilium egisse vellet, exponit.^J (" What are written of the saints, 
some few things excepted, are defiled with many fictions, whilst 
the writer indulgeth his own affection, and declareth not what the 
saint did do, but what he desired that he should have done/') 
To this let me couple the just complaint of that honest Domi- 
nican Melchior Canus : " Dolenter hoc dico, multo severius & 

* l Tim. v. 3. f Acts xii. 3. J De Trad. Discrip. 1. v. 


Laertio vitas Philosophorum scriptas, quam a Christianis vitas 
Sanctorum, longeque incorruptius et integrius Suetonium res 
Ceesarum exposuisse, quam exposuerint Catholici, non res dico 
imperatorum, sed martyrum, virginum, et confessorum."* (" I 
speak it to my grief," saith he, " that the lives of the Philoso- 
phers are more gravely written by Laertius, than Saints are by 
Christians ; and that Suetonius hath recorded the actions of the 
Csesars with more truth and integrity, than Catholics have the 
lives, I say not of princes, but even of martyrs, virgins, and con- 

To return to our English saints. As our catalogue beginneth 
with Alban, it endeth with Thomas bishop of Hereford, who 
died anno Domini 1282, the last Englishman canonized by the 
Pope : for though Anselm was canonized after him (in the 
reign of king Henry the Seventh) he was no English but a 
Frenchman, who died more than an hundred years before him. 
Since which time, no English, and few foreigners, have attained 
that honour; which the Pope is very sparing to confer : First, 
because sensible that multitude of saints abateth veneration. 
Secondly, the calendar is filled, not to say pestered, with them, 
jostling one another for room, many holding the same day in 
co-partnership of festivity. Thirdly, the charge of canonization 
is great ; few so charitable as to buy it, the Pope too covetous 
to give it to the memories of the deceased. Lastly, Protestants 
daily grow more prying into the Pope's proceedings, and the 
[suspected] perfections of such persons, who are to be sainted ; 
which hath made his Holiness the more cautious, to canonize 
none whilst their memories are on the must, immediately after 
their deaths, before the same is fined in the cask, with some 
competent continuance of time after their decease. 


St. Ambrose, in his Te Deum, doth justify the epithet ; and 
by Martyrs, all know such only are imported who have lost 
their lives for the testimony of a fundamental truth. However, 
we find the word by one of the purest writers in the primitive 
times attributed to such who were then alive : ee Cyprianus 
Nemisiano Felici, Lucio, alteri Felici, Litteo, Coliano, Victori, 
Faderi, Dativo, Coepiscopis ; item, Compresbyteris et Diacon- 
ibus, et ceeteris fratribus in metallo constitutis, Martyribus Dei 
Patris Omnipotentis et Jesu Christi Domini, et Dei Conser- 
vatoris nostri, seternam salutem."f 

See here how he bemartyreth such who as yet did survive ; 
but in so servile a condition (condemned to the mines) that 
they were almost hopeless, without miracle, to be released. 
Yet dare we not presume on this precedent of St. Cyprian 
(children must not do what their fathers may) to use the word 

Lib. xi. c. 6. | Cyprianus, Epist. 77. as marshalled by Pamelian. 


so extensively ; but by martyrs understand persons (not in the 
deepest durance and distress) but actually slain for the testi- 
mony of Jesus Christ, which by an ingenious pen is thus not ill 
expressed : 

" What desperate challenger is he, > For all the way he goes he's none 

Before he perish in the flame, Till he be gone. 

What e'er his pain or patience be, It is not dying, but 'tis death 

Who dares assume a MARTYR'S name ? Only gains a MARTYR'S wreath." 

Now such martyrs as our land hath produced are reducible to 
three different ranks : 

1. Britons, suffering under Dioclesian, the persecuting 
Roman emperor ; as Alban, Amphibalus, &c. 2. Saxons, mas- 
sacred by the Pagan Danes ; as king Edmund, Ebba, &c. 
3. English, murdered by the cruelty of papists, since the year 
1400; as William Sawtree, John Badby, &c. 

In the two former of these we are prevented, and they antici- 
pated from us, by the Pope's canonizing them under the title 
of Saints. The third and last only remain proper for our 
pen, martyred by the Romish prelates for above an hundred and 
fifty years together. 

I confess I have formerly met with some men, who would not 
allow them for martyrs who suffered in the reign of queen 
Mary, making them little better than felons de se, wilfully draw- 
ing their blood on themselves. Most of these, I hope, are 
since convinced in their judgment, and have learned more cha- 
rity in the school of affliction, who by their own losses have 
learned better to value the lives of others, and now will willingly 
allow martyrship to those from whom they wholly withheld or 
grudgingly gave it before. 

We have reckoned up these martyrs according to the places 
of their nativity, where we could find them, which is my first 
choice, in conformity to the rest of this work. But in case this 
cannot be done, my second choice is (for know, reader, -'tis no 
refuge) to rank them according to the place of their death, 
which is their true birth-place in the language of antiquity.* 
Hear how a right ancient author expresseth himself to this pur- 
pose : Apte consuetudinem tenet Ecclesia, ut solennes bea- 
torum Martyrum vel Confessorum Christi dies, quibus ex hoc 
mundo ad regionem migraverunt vivorum, nuncupentur Natales, 
et eorum sollennia non funebria, tanquam morientium, sed 
(utpote in ver vita nascentium) Natalitia vocitentur/"t Now 
if the day of their death be justly entitled their birth-day, the 
place of their death may be called their birth-place by the same 
analogy of reason and language. 

We have given in a list of martyrs' names in their respective 
counties, but not their total number, only insisting on such 

* Origen, lib. iii. Comment, in Job. Albinus Flac. de Divin. Offic cap. de 

xta Feria, p. 60. 

f Nichol. Papa in Epist. ad Consulta Bulgarorum, cap. 5. in fine. 


who were most remarkable ; remitting the reader for the rest 
to the voluminous pains of Mr. Fox, who hath written all, and 
if malicious papists be believed, more than all, of this subject. 


All good Christians are concluded within the compass of 
Confessors in the large acception thereof. "With the mouth 
confession is made unto salvation."* But here we restrain this 
title to such who have adventured fair and far for martyrdom, 
and at last not declined it by their own cowardice, but escaped 
it by Divine Providence. Confessor is a name none can wear 
whom it cost nothing. It must be purchased for the mainte- 
nance of the faith, with the loss of their native land, liberty, 
livelihood, limbs, any thing under life itself. 

Yet in this confined sense of confessors, we may say with 
Leah, at the birth of Gad, " Behold a troop cometh,"t too 
many to be known, written, read, remembered ; we are forced 
therefore to reconfine the word to such who were canditates 
and probationers for martyrdom in proximo, potentia. There 
was not a stride, "but (to use David's expression) a step 
betwixt them and death ;"J their wedding clothes were made, 
but not put on, for their marriage to the fire. In a word, they 
were soft wax, ready chafed and prepared, but the signature of 
a violent death was not stamped upon them. 

Manifold is the use of our observing these confessors : First, 
to show that God alone hath paramount power of life and 
death ; preserving those who by men are " appointed to die." 
One whose son lay very sick, was told by the physician, " Your 
son, sir, is a dead man." To whom the father (not disheartened 
thereat) returned, "I had rather a physician should call him so an 
hundred times, than a judge on the bench should do it once, 
whose pronouncing him for a dead man makes him to be one." 
But though both a physician in nature, and a judge in law, 
give men for gone, the one passing the censure, the other sen- 
tence of death upon them; God, "to whom belongeth the 
issues from death/' || may preserve them Idng in the land of the 
living. Hereof these confessors are eminent instances ; and 
may God therefore have the glory of their so strange deli- 
verances ! 

Secondly, it serveth to comfort God's servants in their great- 
est distress. Let hand join in hand ; let tyrants piece the lion's 
cruelty with the fox's craft; let them face their plots with 
power, and line them with policy; all shall take no effect. 
God's servants, if he seeth it for his glory and their good, shall 
either be mercifully preserved from or mightily protected in 
dangers, whereof these confessors are " a cloud of witnesses." 
We have an English proverb, " Threatened folks live long ;" 

* Rom. x. 10. f Gen. xxx. 11. J i Sam. xx. 3. || Psalm Ixviii. 20. 


but let me add, I know a threatened man who did never die at 
all; namely, the prophet Elijah, threatened by cruel and crafty 
Jezebel, " The gods do so to me, and more also, if I make not 
thy life like one of their lives by to-morrow at this time."* 
Yet did he never taste of mortality, being conveyed by a fiery 
chariot into heaven. Now, although our ensuing history pre- 
senteth not any miraculously preserved from death, yet affordeth 
it plenty of strange preservations of persons to extreme old age, 
though they wear the marks of many and mighty men's menaces, 
who plotted and practised their destruction. 

We have pursued the same course in confessors, which we 
embraced in -martyrs; viz. we have ranked them according 
to their nativities, where we could certainly observe them, to 
make them herein uniform with the rest of our book. But 
where this could not be attained, we have entered them in 
those counties where they had the longest or sharpest sufferings. 
And this we humbly conceive proper enough, seeing their con- 
fessorship in a strict sense did bear true date from the place of 
their greatest persecution. 




I MEET with a mass of English natives advanced to that 
honour. Pope John Joan is wholly omitted ; partly because 
we need not charge that see with suspicious and doubtful crimes, 
whose notorious faults are too apparent, partly because this 
He- she, though allowed of English extraction, is generally be- 
lieved born at Mentz in Germany.f 

Wonder not that so few of our countrymen gained the triple 
crown. For, first, great our distance from Rome, who, being 
an island or little world by ourselves, had our Archbishop of 
Canterbury, which formerly was accounted alterius orbis Papa. 
Secondly, the Italians of late have engrossed the papacy to them- 
selves : and much good may their monopoly do them ; seeing 
our English may more safely repose themselves in some other 
seat than the Papal chair, more fatal, it is to be feared, to such 
as sit therein, than ever Eli's proved unto him-t 

Yea, I assure you, four Popes was a very fair proportion for 
England. For having perused the voluminous book of Panta- 
leon, "De Viris illustribus Germanise," I find but six Popes, 

* 1 Kings xix. 2. f Godwin, in Catal. Cardinal, p. 159. 

: 1 Sam. iv. 18. 


Dutchmen by their nativity, viz. Stephen the Eighth, Gregory 
the Fifth, Silvester the Second, Leo the Ninth, Victor the 
Second, and Adrian the Sixth. Seeing therefore Germany, in 
the latitude thereof, a continent five times bigger than England, 
measured by the aforesaid Pantaleon with advantage ; I say, 
seeing Germany, the Emperor whereof is, or ought to be, Pa- 
tron to the Pope, produced by but six of that order, England s 
four acquit themselves in a very good appearance. 

I need not observe that our English word Pope came from 
the Latin Papa, signifying a father, a title anciently given to 
other bishops, but afterwards fixed on the see of Rome. One 
would have him called Papa by abbreviation, quasi PAter 
PAtriarcharum, flitting only the two first syllables ; a pretty 
conceit, which I dare no more avouch than his fancy who 
affirmed the former syllable in Papa to be short in verse, for 
the Popes personal, who indeed are short-lived ; whilst the same 
syllable is long, the word being taken for the succession of 
Popes, who have lasted above a thousand years. 


A word of their names, numbers, degrees, dignities, titles, and 
habit. Cardinals are not so called, because the hinges on which 
the church of Rome doth move, but from cardo, which signi- 
fieth the end of a tenon put into a mortise,* being accordingly 
fixed and fastened to their respective churches. Anciently, 
cardinalis imported no more than an ecclesiastical person, bene- 
ficed and inducted into a cure of souls; and all bishops gene- 
rally made cardinals as well as the Pope of Rome. 

In proof whereof, there were anciently founded, in the church 
of Saint Paul's, two cardinals chosen by the dean and chapter 
out of the twelve petty canons ; whose office it was to take 
notice of the absence and neglect of all in the choir, to give the 
eucharist to the minister of that church and their servants, as 
well in health as in sickness ; to hear confessions, appoint 
penance, and to commit the dead to convenient sepulture. And 
two of them lie buried in the church of Saint Faith, with these 
epitaphs : 

" Hie homo Catholicus "Willielmus West tumulatur, 
Pauli Canonicus Minor Ecclesise vocitatur, 
Qui fuerat Cardinalis bonus atque sodalis," &c. 

" Perpetuis annis memores estote Johannis 
Good, Succentoris, Cardinalisque minoris," &c. 

Many other churches besides Saint Paul's retained this 
custom of cardinal-making ; viz. Ravenna, Aquileia, Milan, 
Piso, Beneventana in Italy, and Compostella in Spain. 

But in process of time cardinal became appropriated to such 
as officiated in Rome; and they are reckoned up variously by 

* Vitruvius, lib. 10, c. 20. 


authors,, fifty-one,, fifty-three, fifty-eight, sixty; I believe their 
number arbitrary, to be increased or diminished ad libitum 
Domini Papae. They are divided into three ranks: Cardinal 
Bishops, assessors with the Pope ; Cardinal Priests, assistants 
to the Pope; and Cardinal Deacons, attendants on the Pope. 

The former of these have chairs allowed them, and may sit 
down in presence of his Holiness; and these are seven in 
number, whose sees are in the vicinage of Rome; and some 
Englishmen have had the honour to be dignified by them. 
1. Bishop of Hostia. 2. Bishop of Rorto, R. Kilwardby. 
3. Bishop of Sabine. 4. Bishop of Alba, Nic. Breakspeare. 

5. Bishop of Preneste, Bernar. Anglicus and Simon Langham. 

6. Bishop of Rufine. ? Bishop of Tusculane. 

Cardinal Priests succeed, generally accounted twenty-eight, 
divided into four septenaries, whose titles are here presented, 
with such Englishmen* who attained to be honoured with such 
churches in Rome. 

1. St. Mary's beyond Tiber. 2. St. Chrysogon ; Stephen 
Laughton, A. D. 1212. 3. St. Cecily beyond Tiber; Thomas 
Wolsey, A. D. 1515. 4. St. Anastasia; John Morton, A. D. 
1493. 5. St. Laurence in Damaso. 6. St. Mark. J. St. Mar- 
tin in the Mount; William Alan, A. D. 1587- 8. St. Sabine; 
John Stafford, A. D. 1434. 9. "St. Prisca; Reginald Pole, A. D. 
1540. 10. St. Balbine. 11. St. Nereus and Achileus ; Phil. 
Repington, A. D. 1408. 12. St. Sixtus. 13. St. Marcellus. 14. 
St. Susan. 15. St. Praxis; Ancherus, A. D. 1261. 16. St. Pe- 
ter ad vincula; Christopher Bambridge, A. D. 1511. 17. St. 
Laurence in Lucina. 18. St. Crosses Jerusalem; Boso, A. D. 
1156. 19. St. Stephen in Mount Celius ; Robert Curson, A. D. 
1211. 20. St. John and St. Paul; Robert Summercote, A. D. 
1234. 21. The four Crowned Saints. 22. The holy Apostles. 

23. St. Cyriacus in the Baths ; Thomas Bourchier, A. D. 1464. 

24. St. Eusebius; Robert Pullen, A. D.I 144. 25. St. Pun- 
tiana; Boso, A. D. 1160. 26. St. Vitalis St.' ; John Fish- 
er, A.D. 1535. 27. St. Marceline and Peter. 28. St. Cle- 

Observe, I pray you, this catalogue of titles (taken out of Sir 
Henry Spelman his glossary) is imperfect, St. Pastor being 
omitted therein, whereof Boso was at last made cardinal.f 
For these cardinals were not so mortised to their churches, but 
that they might be removed, especially if advanced a story higher 
(from cardinal deacons to priests, from priests to bishops); 
and sometimes, though remaining on the same floor, they were 
removed (to make room for others) to some other title. Many 
more Englishmen we had created cardinals, whose certain titles 
are unknown, 

* Sometimes there were several English Cardinals successively of the same title, 
whose names and numbers will be exhibited in their respective counties. 
t Bishop Godwin, in his Catalogue of Cardinals, p. 165. 
VOL. I. C 


But let us proceed to the Cardinal Deacons, sixteen in num- 

>e i." St. Mary in Dompusinica. 2. St. Lucy. 3. St. Mary 
the New 4. St. Comus and St. Damian. 5. fc (jregory. 6. 
St Mary in the Greek School. 7- St. Mary in the Porch. 8. 
St. Nicholas by the Prison. 9. St. Angelus. 10. St. kusta- 
chius. 11. St. Mary in the Water. 12. St. Mary in the broad 
Way. 13. St. Agathe. 14. St. Lucia on the top of Sabme. 
15. St. Quintin. 16. St. [The last lost by the Scribe in 


I only find one Englishman, Boso by name, made cardinal 
deacon of St. Cosmus and St. Damian 5 but it was not long 
before he was advanced to be a cardinal bishop. 

The habit of cardinals is all scarlet; whereof Theodore Beza 
tartly enough thus expresseth himself : 

Crede mees nullo saturantur murice vestes, 

Divite nee cocco pallia tincta mihi. 
Sed qua rubra vides Sanctorum ccede virorum, 

Et mersa insonti sanguine cuncta incident, 
Aut memor istorum qua celat crimina veslis, 

Pro Domino justo tincta pudore rubet. 

" My clothes in purple liquor ne'er were stew'd, 

Nor garments (trust me) richly dyed in grain. 
These robes you see so red I have imbru'd 

In gore of guiltless saints, whom I have slain. 
Or, mindful of the faults they hide, with shame 

The bashful clothes do blush their wearer's blame." 

They wore also a red hat of a peculiar fashion to themselves, 
and rode abroad on horseback on scarlet foot-clothes ! and 
Pope Paul the Second made it penal for any beneath their order 
in Rome to use the same ;* yea, to such a height of pride did 
they aspire, that we read this note in the Roman Pontifical : 
"Notandum, quod Caesar antequam coronetur simplici diade- 
mate sedet post primum episcopum cardirialem : et si quis rex 
adest, sedet tune post primum omnium presbyterum cardina- 
lem." Indeed, making their own canons, and being their own 
heralds to marshal their own precedency, they had been much 
to blame if not carving a good portion, of honour to themselves, 
whilst devout princes, abused by bad instructors and their own 
erroneous consciences, gave to the clergy what they were pleased 
to demand. 

None might elect the Pope save such as were cardinals ; yea, 
none out of that order were eligible into the Papacy ; as in 
England one must first be a serjeant before he be a judge. 
Cardinal deacons were in equal capacity of being popes with car- 
dinal priests, and oftentimes were preferred before them, as they 
could strengthen their faction, which carried all in these, and I 
could wish in no other, elections. 

* Platina in ejus vita. 


William Allen, who died anno 1594, was the last Englishman 
advanced to this honour ; so that our country hath not had a 
cardinal these sixty years, which from the former six '^hundred 
years was never without one or two of that order. This may 
seem a wonder ; our nation being as meriting as any for the 
Romish cause, and having as good heads as any, why should 
they not wear as gay hats as others ? Nor will the reasons 
assigned for the contrary give satisfaction : viz. 

1. That the Pope commonly makes Cardinals to gratify foreign 
kings, whilst our English sovereigns have ever since been of a 
different religion from his holiness. 2. That our English Ca- 
tholics living beyond seas in the nature of exiles, and under 
persecution, as they call it, so high an honour is inconsistent 
with their suffering condition. 3. That our Englishmen want 
preferment and estates to maintain the distance of so great a 

There are at the present two English natives in France of noble 
extraction and Romish persuasion, much voiced in common 
discourse for their probability to such preferment ; but on what 
grounds I do not know, and list not to inquire. 

Surely the matter is not great, seeing that dignity hath been 
observed to be rather fatal than fortunate to the English, and 
attended with some sad and sudden casualties. 1. Cardinal 
Mackelsfield was four months buried before his cap was brought 
him. 2. Cardinal Sertor died in Italy in the juncture of time 
inter pileum datum et susceptum. 3. Cardinal Fisher, when his 
cap was come to Calais, had his head struck off at Tower Hill. 
4. Cardinal Somercot was poisoned in the very conclave, to 
prevent his selection to the popedom. 5. Cardinal Evosham 
was sent the same way on the same occasion. 6. Cardinal 
Bambridge was poisoned at Rome by one of his servants, being 
an Italian. 

If such their success, I suppose it far easier for Englishmen 
to have their caps (though coarser and cheaper) made of our 
own country wool, which will be more warm, and may prove 
more healthful for the wearers thereof. I have done with this 
subject when I have observed that there is a cardinal bishop of 
Sabine, a place near Rome ; and a cardinal priest of St. Sabine, 
a church dedicated to her memory in the same city; the not 
heeding whereof, I suspect, hath bred much confusion in our 
English writers. The best is, our Englishmen, when they write 
of places in Italy, cannot commit greater and grosser mistakes 
than what Italians have done, when they have written of towns 
and places in England ; though perchance, such is their pride, 
that they will say it is our duty to be exact in Italy, and their 
courtesy to take any notice of England. 

Let not the reader wonder if cardinals inserted in others are 
omitted in our catalogue ; viz. Ulricus, Ancherus, Theobaldus, 
Bernadus de Anguiscello, &c. ; seeing I am unsatisfied in some 

c 2 


of them whether they were cardinals ; in others whether they 
were Englishmen ; foreign countries laying more probable 
claim unto them. Nor will it quit the cost of a contest,, nothing 
more than their names being left in history, without any other 


Next succeed such eminent clergymen who attained to the 
honour of being archbishops and bishops in England, and 
were famous in their generations. 

Objection. These popes, cardinals, and prelates, were su- 
perstitious persons, and limbs of Antichrist, whose names are 
better lost than kept. Yea, it mattered not much if some good 
Josiah served their bones as those of the idolatrous priests of 
Jeroboam ; even burn them to ashes, that so their bodies and 
memories might perish together.* 

Answer. I am afraid our age affords those who, if they were 
to manage that act, would, together with their bones, sans differ- 
ence) notwithstanding the distinguishing epithet, burn the bodies 
of the young and old prophet ; I mean, utterly extirpate the 
ministerial function. But I answer, it must be confessed they 
were deeply dyed with the errors and vices of the age they lived 
in, yet so that some of them were for their devotion exemplary 
to posterity ; and the very worst of them, though yielding no- 
thing fit for our imitation, may afford what is well worth our 

And here be it remembered, that the same epithet in several 
places accepts sundry interpretations. He is called a Good 
Man, in common discourse, who is not dignified with gentility : 
a Good Man upon the exchange, who hath a responsible es- 
tate ; a Good Man in a camp, who is a tall man of his arms ; 
a Good Man in the church, who is pious and devout in his con- 
versation. Thus, whatsoever is fixed therein in other relations, 
that person is a Good Man in history, whose character affords 
such matter as may please the palate of an ingenuous reader ; 
and I humbly crave the honour to be his taster in this behalf. 

Now of bishops before the Conquest, the most were merely 
nuda nomina, naked names. As for such appearing clothed with 
remarkable history, most of them move in an higher sphere of 
saints, and so are anticipated. Since the Conquest, for the first 
seven kings, many prelates were foreigners, generally French, 
and so aliens from our subject. It will therefore be seasonable 
to begin their catalogue about the time of king Henry the Third, 
deducing it unto the popish bishops who were deprived in the 
first of queen Elizabeth. 

* 2 Kings xxiii. 10. 




NEXT those prelates before, follow such as were since the 
Reformation ; much different, not in title but tenure, from the 
former holding their places, not from the Pope but their prince, 
and practising the principles of the Protestant religion, for the 
term of a hundred and twenty years, since the latter end of the 
reign of king Henry the Eighth. Amongst these, malice itself 
meets with many, which it must allow, for their living, preach- 
ing, and writing, to have been the main champions of truth 
against error, learning against ignorance, piety against profane- 
ness, religion against superstition, unity and order against faction 
and confusion ; verifying the judicious observation of foreigners, 
" Clerus Britannise, gloria mundi." 

These prelates may be digested into five successive sets, or 
companies, under their respective archbishops ; allowing each of 
them somewhat more than twenty years, as large a proportion 
for the life of a bishop as seventy years for the age of a man. 

1. Archbishop Cranmer's; whereof four, besides himself, 
were burnt at the stake, and the rest exiled in Germany. 2. 
Archbishop Parker's ; in the beginning of queen Elizabeth 
leading halcyon-days, without any considerable opposition 
against the hierarchy. 3. Archbishop Whitgift's ; much pen- 
persecuted, and pelted at with libellous pamphlets ; but sup- 
ported by queen Elizabeth^ zeal to maintain the discipline 
established. 4.. Archbishop Abbot's ; fortunate all the peace- 
able reign of king James, and beginning of king Charles, 
though the sky was red and lowering, foretelling foul weather to 
follow, a little before their death. 5. Archbishop Juxton's ; 
whose episcopal chairs were not only shrewdly shaken, but (as 
to outward appearance) overturned in our late mutinous disr, 

I know the man full well, to whom Mr. Charles Herle, pre- 
sident of the assembly, said somewhat insultingly, ee He tel 
you news : last night I buryed a bishop, dashing more at his 
profession then person, in Westminster Abbey." To whom 
the other returned, with like latitude to both, " Sure you buried 
him in hope of resurrection." This our eyes at this day see 
performed ; and, it being " tlie work of the Lord, may justly 
seem marvellous in our sight." 

It is also very remarkable, that of this fifth and last company 
[all bishops in 1642] nine are alive at this present; viz. par- 
don me if not enumerating them exactly according to their 
consecration London, Bath, Wells, Ely, Salisbury, Bangor, 
Coventry and Lichfield, Oxford, Rochester, and Chichester ; a 
vivacity hardly to be paralleled of so many bishops in any 
other age, Providence purposely prolonging their lives, that as 


they had seen the violent ruining, they might also behold the 
legal restitution of their order. 

Now although not the quick but (the) dead worthies properly 
pertain to my pen, yet I crave leave of the reader in my follow- 
ing work, to enter a brief memorial of the place of their nativi- 
ties : partly because lately they were dead, though not in law, 
in the list of a prevalent party ; partly because they are dead to 
the world, having most attained, if not exceeded, the age of 
man, three score and ten years. 

To conclude : though the Apostle's words be most true, " that 
the lesser are blessed of the greater," and that imperative and 
indicative blessings always descend from the superior ; yet an 
optative blessing, no more than a plain prayer, may properly 
proceed from an inferior ; so that a plain priest and submissive 
son of the Church of England may bless the bishops and 
fathers thereof. God sanctify their former afflictions unto 
them, that as the " fire in the furnace"* only burnt the bonds, 
setting them free who went in fettered, not the clothes, much 
less the bodies, of the children of the captivity ; so their suffer- 
ings, without doing them any other prejudice, may only dis- 
engage their souls from all servitude to this world. 

And that, for the future, they may put together, not only the 
parcels of their scattered revenues, but compose the minds of 
the divided people in England, to the confusion of the factious, 
and confirmation of the faithful in Israel. 



THE word Statesmen is of great latitude, sometimes signify- 
ing such who are able to manage offices of state, though never 
actually called thereunto. Many of these men, concealing 
themselves in a private condition, have never arrived at public 
notice. But we confine the term to such who, by their prince's 
favour, have been preferred to the prime places : 

1. Of Lord Chancellors. 2. Of Lord Treasurers of England. 
3. Of Secretaries of State. To whom we have added some 
Lord Admirals of England, and some Lord Deputies of Ireland. 


The name is taken from cancelli, which signifies a kind of 
wooden network, which admitteth the eyes of people to behold, 
but forbids their feet to press on persons of quality, sequestered 
to sit quietly by themselves for public employment. Hence 
chancels have their denomination, which by such a fence were 

* Dan. iii. 25. 


formerly divided from the body of the church ; and so the lord 
chancellor had a seat several to himself, free from popular in- 

I find another notation of this office, some deducing his name 
a cancellandOy from cancelling things amiss, and rectifying them 
by the rules of equity and a good conscience ; and this relateth 
to no meaner author then Johannes Sarisburiensis.* 

Hie est qui leges Regni cancellat iniquas, 

Et mnndata pii principis tequa facit* 
Siquid obest populis, uut legibus est inimicum, 

Quicquid obest, per eum desinit esse nocens. 

" 'Tis he, who cancelleth all cruel laws, 

And in kings' mandates equity doth cause. 
If aught to land or laws doth hurtful prove, 
His care that hurt doth speedily remove." 

He is the highest officer of the land, whose principal employ- 
ment is to mitigate the rigour of the common law with consci- 
entious qualifications. For as the prophet complaineth that the 
magistrates in Israel had " turned judgment into wormwood," f 
the like would daily come to pass in England, where high jus- 
tice would be high injustice, if the bitterness thereof were not 
sometimes seasonably sweetened with a mixture of equity. 

He also keepeth the great seal of the land, the affixing 
whereof preferreth what formerly was but a piece of written 
parchment to be a patent or charter. For though it be true 
what Solomon says, <e Where the word of a king is, there is 
power ;J yet that word doth not act effectually, until it be pro- 
duced under the public seal. 

Some difference there is between learned authors about the 
antiquity of this office, when it first began in England. Polydore 
Vergil, who, though an Italian, could (when he would) see well 
into English antiquities, makes the office to begin at the Con- 
queror. And bishop Godwin accounteth them sufficiently ridi- 
culous, who make Swithin bishop of Winchester, chancellor of 
England, under king Athelwolfe. Several persons are alleged 
chancellors to our English kings before the Conquest, and king 
Ethelred appointed the abbot of Ely, " ut in regis curia can- 
cellarii ageret dignitatem/' |j The controversy may easily be 
compromised by this distinction. Chancellor before the Conquest 
imported an office of credit in the king's court (not of judicature, 
but) of residence, much in the nature of a secretary. Thus 
lately he was called the chancellor (understand, not of the diocese, 
b'ut) of the cathedral-church, whose place was to pen the letters 
belonging thereunto; whereas the notion of the king's chan- 
cellor, since the Conquest, is enlarged and advanced to signify 
the supreme judge of the land. 

* In his book called " Nugse Curialium," or Polycraticon. f Amos, v. 7. 

J Eccles. viii. 4. 

See Master Philpott's Catalogue of English Chancellors, pp. l, 2, 3. 

J| History of Ely. 


The lord keeper of the great seal is in effect the same with 
the lord chancellor of England : save that some will have the 
lord chancellor's place ad terminum vita, and the lord keeper's 
adplacitum Regis. Sure it is, that because Nicholas Heath,, late 
archbishop of York and chancellor of England, was still alive, 
though ousted of his office, Sir Nicholas Bacon was made lord 
keeper; and in his time the power of the keeper was made 
equal with the authority of the chancellor by act of parliament. 

We have begun our catalogue of chancellors at Sir Thomas 
More, before whose time that place was generally discharged by 
clergymen, entered in our book under the title of eminent pre- 
lates. If any demand, why such clergymen, who have been lord 
chancellors, are not rather ranked under tjie title of statesmen, 
than under the topic of prelates; let such know, that seeing 
episcopacy is challenged to be jure divino, and the chancellor's 
place confessed to be of human institution, I conceive them 
most properly placed, and to their best advantage. 

If any ask, why the lord chancellors, who meddle so much in 
matters of law, are not rather digested under the title of lawyers 
than under that of statesmen: let such know, it is done because 
some chancellors were never lawyers ex professo 5 studying the 
laws of the land for their intended function, taking them only in 
order to their own private accomplishment; whereof Sir Chris- 
topher Hatton was an eminent instance. As we begin our 
catalogue with Sir Thomas More, we close it with Sir Thomas 
Coventry; it being hard to say, whether the former were more 
witty and facetious, or the latter more wise and judicious. 


Kings without treasure will not be suitably obeyed : and 
treasure without a treasurer will not be safely preserved. 
Hence it w r as that the crowns and sceptres of kings were made 
of gold, not only because it is the most pure and precious of 
metals, but to shew that wealth doth effectually evidence and 
maintain the strength and state of majesty. We may therefore 
observe, not only in profane but holy writ; not only in old but 
new testament, signal notice taken of those who were over the 
treasury,* in which great place of trust the eunuch served Can- 
dace queen of Ethiopia.f 

The office of Lord Treasurer was ever beheld as a place of 
great charge and profit. One well skilled in the perquisites 
thereof, being demanded, what he conceived the yearly value of 
the place was worth, made this return, (( That it might be worth 
some thousands of pounds to him who, after death, would go 
instantly to Heaven ; twice as much to him who would go to 
Purgatory ; and a nemo scit to him who would adventure to go 
tQ a worse place." But the plain truth is, he that is a 

* Ezrai. e. Neh. xiii. 13. -f Apts viii. 27. 


bad husband for himself will never be a good one for 
his sovereign ; and therefore no wonder if they have advanced 
fair estates to themselves,, whose office was so advantageous, and 
they so judicious and prudent persons, without any preju- 
dice to their master-, and, for aught I know, injury to 
his subjects. 

We have begun our catalogue at William Lord Powlett 
Marquess of Winchester. For although before him here and 
there lay lords were entrusted with that office ; yet generally 
they were bishops, and so anticipated under our topic of 
eminent prelates. And blame me not if, in this particular, 
I have made the lustre of the lords spiritual to eclipse the 
lords temporal, drowning their civil office in their ecclesiastical 
employment. We close our catalogue of lord treasurers 
with Francis Lord Cottington. 


There were but two of these at once in the king's time, 
whereof the one was styled the Principal Secretary, the other 
the Secretary of Estate. Some have said that the first in the 
seniority of admission was accounted the principal ; but the ex- 
ceptions in this kind being as many as the regularities, the 
younger being often brought over the head of the elder to 
be principal, their chiefness was penes Regis arbitrium. Nor 
was the one confined to foreign negociations, the other to 
domestic business, as some have believed ; but promiscuously 
ordered all affairs, though the genius of some secretaries did 
incline them most to foreign transactions. Their power was on 
the matter alike ; and petitioners might make their applications 
indifferently to either, though most addressed themselves to him 
in whom they had the greatest interest. Their salaries were 
some two hundred pounds a-piece ; and five hundred pounds 
a-piece more for intelligence and secret service. 

Before the reformation, clergymen, who almost were all 
things, were generally secretaries of estate ; as Oliver King, se- 
cretary to Edward IV., Edward V., and Henry VII. ; and those 
come under our pen in the notion of eminent prelates. We 
therefore begin our catalogue of secretaries from Sir Thomas 
Cromwell, in the reign of king Henry the Eighth, because from 
him until our time a continued series of laymen have discharged 
that office. 

We conclude our secretaries of state with Sir John Cook, 
who, perceiving his aged body not so fit for such active times, 
resigned his place about the beginning of the Long Parliament, 
though surviving some years after in a private condition. We 
will, for the more safety, follow the pattern of so wise a states- 
man ; and where he gave over his office, we will give over 
writing of those officers, for fear we tread too near on the 
toes of the times, and touch too much on our modern dis- 



Much difference there is about the original of this word, 
whilst most probable is their opinion who make it of eastern ex- 
traction, borrowed by the Christians from the Saracens. These 
derive it from Amir, in arabic a Prince, and AXtog belonging 
to the sea, in the Greek language ; such mixture being prece- 
dented in other words. Besides, seeing the Sultan's dominions, 
in the time of the holy war, extended from Sinus Arabius to the 
north-eastern part of the midland-sea, where a barbarous kind 
of Greek was spoken by many, Amiral, thus compounded, was 
significatively comprehensive of his jurisdiction. Admiral is but 
a depraving of Amiral in vulgar mouths. However, it will never 
be beaten out of the heads of common sort, that, seeing the 
sea is scene of wonders, something of wonderment hath incor- 
porated itself in this word, and that it hath a glimpse, cast, or 
eye of admiration therein. 

Our English kings (following the precedent of the politic 
Romans, who very seldom entrusted places of great importance, 
especially during life, in a single person, as also that they might 
gratify more and trust less,) divided the over-sight of sea-matters 
betwixt a triumvirate of amirals, and, like wary merchants, 
ventured the charge in several bottoms for the more safety. 

1. The North Amiral. His jurisdiction reached from the 
mouth of Thames to the outmost Orcades (though often opposed 
by the Scots) and had Yarmouth for his prime residence. 

2. The South Amiral. His bounds stretched from the 
Thames' mouth to the Lands-end, having his station generally 
at Portsmouth. 

3. Tne West Amiral. His power extended from the Land's 
end to the Hebrides, having Ireland under his inspection, Mil- 
ford Haven the chief stable for his wooden horses. 

I find that Richard Fitz-alen, earl of Arundel, was by king 
Richard the Second made the first " Amirall of all England ;" 
yet so, that if three co-admirals were restored as formerly, his 
charter expired. John Vere, earl of Oxford, was, in 1 Henry 
VII. " Amirall of England," and kept it until the day of his 
death. Afterwards, men were checquered, at the pleasure of our 
princes, and took their turns in that office. For this cause I 
can make no certain catalogue of them, who can take with my 
most fixed eye no steady aim at them, the same persons being 
often alternately in and out of the place, whilst officers pro ter- 
mino vita may be with some certainty recounted. 

Yet have we sometime inserted some memorable amirals 
under the title of statesmen ; and vice-amirals under the topic 
of seamen, because the former had 110 great knowledge in navi- 
gation (I say great, it being improper they should be sea-mas- 
ters who in no degree were seamen) ; and were employed, rather 
for their trust than skill, to see others do their duty, whilst the 
latter were always persons well experienced in maritime affairs. 



Ever since king Henry the Second conquered Ireland, few of 
our English princes went thither in person, and none continued 
any long time there, save king John and king Richard the 
Second, neither of them over-fortunate. But that land was 
governed by a substitute, commissioned from our kings, with the 
same power, though sometimes under several names. 

Lord Lieutenants. These were also of a double nature ; for 
some staid in England, and appointed deputies under them, to 
act all Irish affairs. Others went over into Ireland, transacting 
all things by presence, not proxy. 

Lord Deputies. Immediately deputed by the king to reside 
there. We insist on this title, as which is most constant and 
current amongst them. 

Lord Chief Justices. Not of the King's Bench or Common- 
Pleas, but of all Ireland. This power was sometimes sole in a 
single person, and sometimes equally in two together. 

Thus these three titles are in sense synonyma., to signify the 
same power and place. Some erroneously term them presi- 
dents of Ireland, a title belonging to the particular governors of 
Munster and Connaught. 

It is true of Ireland what was once said of Edom, "their 
deputies were kings/ 5 * No viceroy in Christendom (Naples 
itself not excepted) is observed in more state. He chooseth 
sheriffs, and generally all officers, save bishops and judges ; and 
these also, though not made by his commanding, are usually by 
his commending to the king. He conferreth knighthood ; hath 
power of life and death, signified by the sword carried commonly 
before him by a person of honour. His attendance and house- 
keeping is magnificent, partly to set a copy of state to the bar- 
barous Irish, by seeing the difference betwixt the rude rabble 
routs running after their native lords, and the solemnity of a 
regulated retinue ; partly to make in that rebellious nation a 
reverential impression of majesty, that by the shadow they may 
admire the substance, and proportionably collect the state of 
the king himself, who therein is represented. Our English 
kings were content with the title of " Lords of Ireland," until 
king Henry the Eighth, who, partly to shew his own power to 
assume what style he pleased, without leave or liberty from the 
Pope, whose supremacy he had suppressed in his dominions, 
partly the more to awe the Irish, wrote himself king thereof, 
anno Dom. 1541, from which year we date our catalogue of 
lord deputies, as then, and not before, viceroys indeed. 

Indeed it was no more than needs for king Henry the Eighth 
to assume that title ; seeing, " quod efficit tale magis est tale ;" 
and the commission whereby king Henry the Second made 
William Fitz-Adelme his lieutenant of Ireland hath this direc- 

* 1 Kings, xxii. 47. 


tion ; " Archiepiscopis, episcopis, regibus ; comitibus, baronibus, 
et omnibus fidelibus suis in Hibernia, salutem." 

Now,, though by the postponing of these kings to archbishops 
and bishops, it plainly appears that they were no canonical 
kings, as I may say,, I mean solemnly invested with the 
emblems of sovereignty [the king of Connaught,* the king of 
Thomond] ; yet were they more than kings, even tyrants in 
the exercise of their dominions,! so that king Henry was in 
some sort necessitated to set himself king paramount above 
them all. 



BY Capital Judges we undertand not those who have power 
to condemn offenders for capital faults, as all the twelve judges 
have, or any serjeant commissioned to ride the circuit ; but the 
chief judges, who, as capital letters, stand in power and place 
above the rest ; viz. 1. the Chief Justice of the King's Bench ; 
2. of the Common Pleas ; 3. the Chief Baron of the Exchequer. 
And the learned antiquary! Sir Henry Spelman avoweth the 
title of ei Capital Justices properly applicable to these alone. 

1. The Chief Justice of the King's or upper bench is commonly 
called " the Lord Chief Justice of England," a title which the 
lord chancellor (accounting himself chief in that kind) looks on 
as an injurious usurpation. And many alive may remember 
how Sir Edward Coke was accused to king James, for so styling 
himself in the frontispiece of his Reports, (parts the tenth and 
eleventh) ; insomuch that the judge was fain to plead for himself, 
" Erravimus cum patribus," as who could have produced plenty 
of precedents therein. 

2. The Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, in place beneath, 
is in profit above the former; so that some have, out of design, 
quitted that, to accept of this. Amongst these was Sir Edward 
Montague, in the reign of king Henry the Eighth, who being 
demanded of his friends the reason of his self degradation, " I 
am now," said he, " an old man ; and love the kitchen above 
the hall, the warmest place best suiting my age." 

3. The Chief Baron is chiefly employed in the Exchequer, to 
decide causes which relate to the king's revenue. Their brevia, 
or writs, did commonly run with this clause, that the judge 
should "have and hold his place quamdiH se bent gesserit (so 
long as he well behaved himself ") ; on this token, that Sir John 
Walter, lord chief baron of the exchequer, being to be outed 
of his place, for adjudging the loan-money illegal, pleaded for 
himself " that he was guilty of no misdemeanour, who had 
only delivered his judgment according to his conscience." 

* 6 Johannis Claus. raembrana 18. f 6 Hen. III. Chart, m. 2. 

+ Glossary, v. Justiciarius. 


Others are granted from the king, durante nostro beneplacito ; 
to continue in their office " during his will and pleasure." 

We begin the army of our judges, forborne few, like the for- 
lorn hope, advance higher, about the time of king Edward the 
First. It is impossible exactly to observe that inn of court 
wherein each of them had his education, especially some of 
them being so ancient, that, in their times, Lincolns Inn and 
Greys Inn were Lincoln's Inn and Grey's Inn ; I mean, belonged 
to those their owners, from whom they had their names, as 
being, before they were appropriated to the students of our 
municipal laws. 

Here I will condemn myself, to prevent the condemning of 
others, and confess our characters of these judges to be very 
brief and defective. Indeed, were the subject we treat of over- 
strewed with ashes, like the floor of BelPs temple, it were easy 
to find out and follow the footsteps therein. But here is no 
such help to trace the footings of truth, time having almost out- 
worn all impressions thereof. I perceive, though judges leave 
more land than bishops, they leave less memorials behind them, 
of the time, place, and manner, when and where born and died, 
and how they demeaned themselves. 

In the same topic with judges, we have also placed such as 
have been writers of our common law : and such conjunction, 
we hope, is no disparagement, considering many of them were 
capital judges, as Broke, Dyer, Coke, &c. ; and the rest learned 
men, of great repute in their profession, insomuch that the 
judges themselves, in several cases, have submitted to their 

And here I can but admire at the comparative paucity of 
the books of our common law, in proportion to those written 
of the civil and canon law. Oh how corpulent are the cor- 
puses of both those laws ! besides, their shadows are far 
bigger than their bodies ; their glosses larger than their text. 
Insomuch, that one may bury two thousand pounds and up- 
wards in the purchase, and yet hardly compass a moiety of 
them : whereas all the writers of the common law, except they 
be much multiplied very lately, with all the year-books belong- 
ing thereunto, may be bought for threescore pounds, or there- 
abouts ; which with some men is an argument, that the common 
law embraceth the most compendious course to decide causes, 
and, by the fewness of the books, is not guilty of so much 
difficulty and tedious prolixity as the canon and civil laws. 

Yet it is most true, that the common law books are dearer 
than any of the same proportion. Quot libri, tot libra, holdeth 
true in many, and is exceeded in some of them. Yea, should 
now an old common law book be new printed, it would not quit 
cost to the printer, nor turn to any considerable account. For 
the profession of the law is narrow in itself, as confined to few 
persons ; and those are already sufficiently furnished with all 


authors on that subject, which, with careful keeping and good 
using, will serve them and their sons' sons, unto the third gene- 
ration : so that a whole age would not carry off a new impres- 
sion of an ancient law book, and, quick return being the life of 
trading, the tediousness of the sale would eat up the profit 

All I will add is this, that that tailor, who, being cunning in 
his trade, and taking exact measure of a person, maketh a suit 
purposely for him, may be presumed to fit him better than 
those who, by a general aim, at random make clothes for him : 
in like manner, seeing our municipal law was purposely com- 
posed by the sages of this land, who best knew the genius of 
our nation, it may be concluded more proper for our people, 
and more applicable to all the emergencies in this half-island, 
than the civil law, made for the general concernment of the 
whole empire, by such who were unacquainted with the particu- 
larities of our land and nation. 




SOLDIERS succeed, though it almost affrighteth my pen to 
meddle with such martial persons. It is reported of the God 
of the Jews, that he would have no share of the Pantheon at 
Rome, except he might have, and that justly too, the whole 
temple to himself. So lately we have been so sadly sensible of 
the boisterousness of soldiers, one may suspect they will, 
though unjustly, jostle all others out of the book, to make room 
for themselves. 

But since their violence hath, blessed be God, been season- 
ably retrenched, we have adventured to select some signal per- 
sons of that profession, whose prowess made eminent impression 
on foreign parts, so purposely to decline all meddling with the 
doleful and dangerous distractions of our times, beginning our 
list in the reign of king Edward the Third, and concluding in 
the beginning of king Charles. 


Surely Divine Providence did not make the vast body of the 
sea for no other use than for fishes to disport themselves therein, 
or, as some do conceit, only for to quench and qualify the 
drought and heat of the sun with the moisture thereof : but it 
was for higher intendments. Chiefly, that by sailing thereon, 
there may be the continuing of commerce, the communicating 
of learning and religion, the last from Palestine, the staple 


thereof, and the more speedy and convenient portage of bur- 
thens ; seeing a laden ship doth fly, in comparison of the creep- 
ing of an empty waggon. 

Now to speak what envy cannot deny, our Englishmen, either 
for fights for discoveries, whether for tame ships, merchantmen, 
or wild ships, men-of-war, carry away the garland from all na- 
tions in the Christian world. 

Learned Keckerman, who, being a German by birth, was un- 
biassed in his judgment, and living in Dantz, a port of great 
trading, whither seamen repaired from all parts, and writing a 
book, 6( De Re Nautica," may be presumed skilful therein, 
alloweth the English the best seamen, and next to them the 
Hollanders.* And if the latter dare deny the truth hereof, let 
them remember the late peace they purchased of the English, 
and thank God that they met with so conscientious chapmen, 
who set no higher price thereof. 

Yea, let the Dutch know, that they are the scholars to the 
English in some of their discoveries : for I find the four first 
circumnavigators of the world thus qualified for their nativities : 
1. Magellanus, a Spaniard: 2. Sir Francis Drake, an English- 
man: 3. Sir Thomas Candish, an Englishman : 4. Oliver Noort, 
an Hollander. But be it known, that the last of these had an 
Englishman, Captain Mellis by name, pilot, to conduct him. 

Yet let not my commending of our English seamen be mis- 
interpreted, as if I did not refer all success to the goodness of 
God, the grand admiral of the world. The praising of instru- 
ments, by way of subordination, is no more detrimental to the 
honour of the principal, than the praising of the edge of the 
axe is a disparagement to the strength of the arm which useth 
it. God, I confess, by his providence, ordereth all by land and 
by sea ; yea, he may be said to be the first shipwright ; for I 
behold the ark as a bird, wholly hatched, but utterly unfledged ; 
without any feathers of masts and tackling, it could only float, 
and not sail ; yet so, that therein was left pattern enough for 
human ingenuity to improve it to naval perfection. 

Yea, God himself hath in Scripture taken signal notice of 
the dexterous in this nature ; on which account we find the 
Tyrians, or men of Hiram, praised, for that they " had know- 
ledge of the sea," when sent with the servants of Solomon to 

We begin our catalogue of seamen in the reign of king 
Edward the Third, before which time there were many good 
seamen in England, but few good English seamen, our king 
using mariners of the Hanse towns. But it is no good house- 
wifery to hire char-women to do that which may as well and 
better be done by her own servants. In the time of Edward 

* " Hoc certum est, omnibus hodie gentibus navigandi industria, et peritia, 
superiores esse Anglos, et post Anglos Hollandos." 
t 1 Kings ix. 27. 


the Third, England grew famous for sea-fights with the French, 
and increased in credit,, especially since the Navy Royal was 
erected by queen Elizabeth. 

Some conceive it would be a great advancement to the per- 
fecting of English navigation,, if allowance were given to read a 
lecture in London concerning that subject, in imitation of the 
late emperor Charles the Fifth ; who, wisely considering the 
rawness of his seamen, and the manifold shipwrecks which they 
sustained in passing and repassing between Spain and the West 
Indies, established not only a Pilot Major, for the examination 
of such as were to take charge of ships in that voyage, but also 
founded a lecture for the art of Navigation, which t to this day 
is read in the Contraction House at Seville ; the readers of which 
lecture have not only carefully taught and instructed the 
Spanish mariners by word of mouth, but have also published 
sundry exact and worthy treatises concerning marine causes, 
for the direction and encouragement of posterity. 

Here it were to be wished that more care were taken for, and 
encouragement given to, the breeding of fishermen ; whom I 
may call the spawn, or young fry, of seamen ; yea, such as hope 
that mariners will hold up if fishermen be destroyed, may as 
rationally expect plenty of honey and wax though only old 
stocks of bees were kept, without either casts or swarms. 

Nor can fishermen be kept up, except the public eating of 
fish at set times be countenanced, yea, enjoined by the state. 
Some suspect as if there were a pope in the belly of every 
fish, and some bones of superstition in them which would choke 
a conscientious person, especially if fasting days be observed. 
But know, that such customs grew from a treble root of popery, 
piety, and policy ; and though the first of these be plucked up, 
the other must be watered and maintained; and statesmen may 
be mortified and wise without being superstitious. Otherwise 
the not keeping of fasting days will make us keep fasting days ; 
I mean, the not forbearing of flesh for the feeding on fish, for 
the good of the state will in process of time prove the ruin of 
fishermen, they of seamen, and both of Englishmen. 

We are sadly sensible of the truth hereof in part, God forbid 
in whole, by the decay of so many towns on our north-east sea ; 
Hartlepool, Whitebay, Bridlington, Scarborough, Wells, Cromer, 
Lowstoft, Alborough,* Orford, and generally all from Newcastle 
to Harwich, which formerly set out yearly (as I am informed) 
two hundred ships and upwards employed in the fishery, but 
chiefly for the taking of ling ; that noble fish, co-rival in his 
joule with the surloin of beef at the tables of gentlemen. 

These fishermen set forth formerly with all their male family ; 

* In Fuller's time Aldborough consisted of three streets.-most of which have since 
been swallowed up by the sea. At the neighbouring town of Dunwich, once so 
flourishing, the destruction has been almost entire. 


sea-men, sea-youths, I had almost said sea-children too (seeing 
some learned the language of larboard and starboard, with bread 
and butter), graduates in navigation ,- and indeed the fishery did 
breed the natural and best elemented seamen. 

But since our late civil wars, not three ships are employed 
yearly for that purpose ; fishermen preferring rather to let their 
vessels lie and rot in their haven, than to undergo much pain 
and peril for that which would not at their return quit cost in 
any proportion. 

So that it is suspicious, that in process of time we shall lose 
(the masters being few and aged) the mystery of ling- catching, 
and perchance the art of taking and handling some other kind 
of sound and good fish ; no nation, without flattery to ourselves 
be it spoken, using more care and skill in ordering of that com- 

Yea, which is a greater mischief, it is to be feared that the 
seminary of seamen will decay : for, under correction be it 
spoken, it is not the long voyages to the East Indies, &c. which 
do make, but mar, seamen ; they are not the womb, but rather 
the grave of good mariners. It is the fishery which hath been 
the nursery of them, though now much disheartened, because 
their fish turn to no account ; they are brought to so bad mar- 
kets. Nor is there any hope of redressing this, but by keeping 
up fasting days, which our ancestors so solemnly observed. I 
say our ancestors, who were not so weak in making, as we are 
wilful in breaking them : and who, consulting the situation of 
this island, with the conveniences appendant thereunto, suited 
their laws and accommodated their customs to the best benefit 

Nor was it without good cause why Wednesdays and Fridays 
were by them appointed for fish days : I confess some foreigners 
render this reason, and father it upon Clemens Alexandrinus, 
that because those days were dedicated by the heathen, the one 
to Mercury the god of cheating, the other to Venus the goddess 
of lust, therefore the Christians should macerate themselves on 
that day with fasting, in sorrowful remembrance of their pronity 
to the vices aforenamed. But waiving such fancies, our English 
fish or fasting days are founded on a more serious considera- 
tion ; for our English fishermen in Kent, Sussex, Hampshire, &c. 
set forth on Monday and catch their fish, which on Tuesday 
they send up to London, where on Wednesday it is sold and 
eaten. Such, therefore, who lately have propounded to ante- 
date fish eating, and to remove it from Wednesday to Tuesday, 
must thereby occasion the encroaching on the Lord's-day, to 
furnish the markets with that commodity. Again : such fish- 
ermen as returned on Tuesday set forth afresh on Wednesday 
to take fish, which on Thursday they send up to London to 
supply the remainder of the week ; it being observable that so 
great is the goodness of God to our nation, that there is not 

VOL. I. D 


one week in the year wherein some wholesome fish., caught on 
our own coast, is not in the prime season thereof. 

As for staple or salt fish, there are those that are acquainted 
in the criticisms thereof, and have exactly stated and cast up 
the proportions, who will maintain that it will do the deed, and 
set up the fishery as high as ever it was, if every one in England 
able to dispend a hundred pounds per annum were enjoined to 
lay out twenty shillings a year in staple fish ; a sum so inconsi- 
derable in the particulars, that it will hurt none, and so con- 
siderable in the total, it will help all of our nation. If any cen- 
sure this for a tedious digression, let it be imputed to my zeal 
for the good of the commonwealth. 




I SOMETIMES wondered in myself at two things in the primi- 
tive church during the time of the Apostles : First, that seeing 
they " enjoined all things in common/'* what use they had of 
lawyers ; seeing no propriety on pleading, and such a commu- 
nion of all things gave a writ of ease to that profession. And 
yet I find mention made of Zenas the lawyer ;t no scribe of the 
law, as among the Jews, but Nop/co?, an advocate or barrister 

Secondly, I wondered what use there was of physicians in the 
church, seeing the Apostles miraculously cured all maladies, and 
so, in my apprehension, gave a supersedeas to the practitioners 
in that faculty ; and yet I find honourable mention made of 
" Luke, the beloved physician ."t 

But since I have wondered at my wondering thereat ; for that 
communion of goods was but temporal, for a short continuance, 
and topical, of a narrow compass practised only in Judea, or 
thereabouts, whilst the churches amongst the Gentiles continued 
their propriety, and particularly at Rome, where Zenas had his 
habitation, and had work enough, no doubt, to exercise his pro- 
fession, even amongst Christians themselves. 

As for the Apostles, they had not always power at their own 
pleasure to work miracles and cure diseases in all persons, no, 
nor always in themselves, (witness sick St. Paul, receiving in 
himself the sentence of death, ) but as they were directed, for 
the glory of God, and other occasions ; and therefore, notwith- 

* Acts iv. 32. f Titus iii. 13. t Coloss iv. 14. 

2 Cor. i. 8, 9. 


standing their miraculous power, St. Luke might have plenty of 
practice in his profession. Nor was it probable that God, the 
author of all ingenuity,, would, by the giving of the Gospel, 
utterly extinguish any literal calling, which formerly had been 
publicly, lawfully, and needfully professed. 

We have, in our following book, given in the list of some 
eminent lawyers, civilians, and canonists, who have written on 
that subject ; though we confess them very few in number, their 
profession being lately undeservedly disgraced, though now we 
congratulate the probability of the restitution thereof to its 
former dignity. Sure I am, in the days of queen Elizabeth, 
when an ambassador was sent to foreign princes, if it were an 
affair of grand importance, and more than a mere matter of 
magnificent compliment, some able civilian, as doctor Haddon, 
Dale, Fletcher, &c. was joined in commission with the noble- 
man employed on that embassy. And as the iron dogs bear 
the burthen of the fuel, while the brazen-andirons stand only 
for state, to entertain the eyes ; so the negociating part was 
loaded on the civil lawyers, whilst the pomp-pageantry was dis- 
charged at the cost of the nobleman. 


The precept in the Apocrypha hath a canonical truth therein, 
" Honour the physician for necessity sake ;" and although king 
Asa justly received little benefit by them, because of his pre- 
posterous addressing himself to them before he went to God,* 
and the woman in the Gospel, troubled with the issue, f reaped 
less ease by their endeavours, because God reserved her a sub- 
ject for his own miraculous cure ; yet in all ages millions have 
been cured by their practice. 

The ancient Britons, who went without clothes, may well be 
presumed to live without physic. Yet, seeing very beasts know 
what is good for themselves, the deer, (the Cretan dictamum ; 
and toad, his antidote of plantain ;) sure they had some experi- 
mental receipts used amongst them, and left the rest to nature 
and temperance to cure. The Saxons had those they termed 
leeches, or blood-letters, but were little skilled in methodical 
practice. Under the Normans, they began in England ; and 
would we had fetched physicians only, and not diseases from 
France ! Yet three hundred years since it was no distinct pro- 
fession by itself, but practised by men in orders ;J witness 
Nicholas de Fernham, the chief English physician and bishop 
of Durham ; Hugh of Evesham, a physician and cardinal ; Gri- 
sant, a physician and pope. Yea, the word physician appears 
not in our statutes till the days of king Henry the Eighth, who 
incorporated their college at London ; since which time they 

* 2 Chron. xvi. 12. f Luke viii. 43. 

J See their several characters under their names in the ensuing book. 

D 2 


have multiplied and flourished in our nation, but never more, 
and more learned, than in our age, wherein that art, and espe- 
cially the anatomical part thereof, is much improved, our civil 
wars perchance occasioning the latter. 

We begin our catalogue at Richardus Anglicus, our first phy- 
sician, flourishing anno 1230; and continue to doctor Harvey, 
whom I may term Gulielmus Anglicus, such honour he hath 
done England by his worthy writings. Thus wishing them all 
happy success in their practice, I desire a custom in France, and 
other foreign parts, naturalized in England, where a physician is 
liable to excommunication, if visiting a patient thrice before he 
acquainteth a priest of his sickness, that so the medicine for 
soul and body may go hand in hand together. 


Chemistry is an ingenious profession, as which by art will 
force somewhat of worth and eminence from the dullest sub- 
stance, yea, the most obdurate and hardest-hearted body can- 
not but shed forth a tear of precious liquor, when urged there- 
unto with its intreaties. 

They may be termed parcel-physicians, every day producing 
rare experiments, for the curing of many diseases. 

I must confess there occurs but few, (and of those few, fewer 
modern ones,) through the whole series of our books. Yet may 
we be said to have extracted the spirits, (I mean such as were 
eminent therein,) of this profession ; being confident the judi- 
cious reader will value one gem before many barley-corns, and 
one drop of a true extract before many bottles of worthless 


Necessary and ancient their profession, ever since man's body 
was subject to enmity and casualty. For that promise, " A 
bone of him shall not be broken,"* is peculiar to Christ. As 
for the other, " To keep them in all their ways, that they dash 
toot their foot against a stone," t though it be extended to all 
Christians, yet it admitteth, as other temporal promises, of 
many exceptions, according to God's will and pleasure. 

It seemeth by the parable of the good Samaritan, who 
"bound up" the passenger's "wounds, pouring in oil and 
wine/'J that, in that age, ordinary persons had a general in- 
sight in chirurgery, for their own and others' use. And it is 
reported, to the just praise of the Scotch nobility, that anciently 
they all were very dexterous thereat ; particularly it is written 
of James, the fourth king of Scotland, quod vulnera scientissimZ 
tractaret, he was most skilful at the handling of wounds." 
But we speak of chirurgery, as it is a particular mystery, pro- 

* Johnxix. 36. f Psalm xci. 12. J Luke x. 34. 

Buchanan, Rerum Fcoticarum, lib. xiii. fol. 138, p. 1. 


fessed by such as make a vocation thereof. Of whom we have 
inserted some (eminent for their writings or otherwise), amongst 
physicians, and that, as we hope, without any offence, seeing 
the healing of diseases and wounds were anciently one calling, 
as still great the sympathy betwixt them ; many diseases caus- 
ing wounds, as ulcers ; as wounds occasioning diseases, as 
fevers ; till in process of time they were separated, and chirur- 
geons only consigned to the manual operation. Thus, wishing 
unto them the three requisites for their practice, an eagle's eye, 
a lady's hand, and a lion's heart, I leave them, and proceed. 



BEING to handle this subject, let not the reader expect that 
I will begin their catalogue from fabulous antiquity, or rather 
fanciful fables. For if the first century of J. Bale and J. Pits 
their British writers were garbled, four parts of five would be 
found to be trash ; such as 1 . Samothes Gigas : 2. Magus Sa- 
motheus: 3. Sarron Magius : 4, Druys Sarronius : 5. Bardus 
Druydius : 6. Albion Mareoticus : 7- Brytus Julius : 8. Gerion 
Augur: 9. Aquila Septonius : 10. Perdix Prsesagus : 11. Cam- 
bra Formosa: 12. Plenidius Sagax, &c. 

Of these some never were men; others, if men, never were 
writers ; others, if writers, never left works continuing to our 
age, though some manuscript mongers may make as if they' 
perused them. It is well they had so much modesty, as not to 
pretend inspection into the book of life, seeing all other books 
have come under their omnividency. 

We are content to begin our number at Gildas, commonly 
surnamed the ivise y (flourishing about the year 5 80); and are 
right glad to have so good a general to lead our army of wri- 
ters, taking it for a token of good success. 

Now these writers were either such who wrote before or since 
the reformation of religion. The former again fall generally 
under a treble division, as either historians, philologists, or 
divines ; and we will insist a little on their several employments. 


Doctor Collens, King's Professor in Cambridge, and that 
oracle of eloquence, once founded his speech (made to enter- 
tain strangers at the Commencement) on the words of Saint 
Paul, " Salute Philologus and Olympas."* Under the former, 
he comprised all persons present, eminent in human learning; 
under the latter all skilful in heavenly divinity. 

* Rom. xvi. 15, 



Indeed philology properly is terse and polite learning, melior 
litemtura (married long since by Martianus Capella to Mer- 
cury) being that florid skill, containing only the roses ot learn- 
ing without the prickles thereof, in which narrow sense thorny 
philosophy is discharged, as no part of philology. But we take 
it in the larger notion, as inclusive of all human liberal studies, 
and preposed to divinity, as the porch to the palace. 

Havino- passed the porch of philology we proceed to the 
palace of divinity. The writers in this faculty we distinguish 
into two sorts. First, Positive Divines ; such I mean, whose 
works are either comments on, or else expositions of, some por- 
tion of Sacred Writ. Secondly, School-men, who have made it 
their business to weave fine threads of nicer distinctions. 


This is either Ecclesiastical or Civil. Of both these, England 
presenteth many, but generally Monks before the Reformation, 
who, too much indulging to holy fraud, have farced their books 
with many feigned miracles, to the prejudice of truth. How- 
ever, herein foreign historians have been as guilty as English- 
men of the same age ; witness the complaint of Mariana the 
Jesuit,* which one may justly wonder how it passed the Index 
Expurgatorius : " Quis enim negare possit fastos ecclesiasticos, 
aliquando adulatione temporum, aut potius incuria hominum, 
multis maculis contaminatos, libris aliis, quibus preces eccle- 
siastics ritusque sacrorum continentur, multas fuisse inspersas 
eonfusasque fabulas et commenta : Addam nonnunquam in tern- 
plis reliquias dubias, prophana corpora pro Sanctorum (qui cum 
Christo in coelo regnant) exuviis sacris fuisse proposita. Est 
enim miserum negare non posse, quid sit turpe confiteri ; at, 
nescio quo pacto, fictis seepe fabulis, et preeposteris mendacio- 
rum nugis, populus magis quam veritate ac sinceritate capitur : 
ea est mentis nostrse inanitas, has sordes, ubi semel irrepserunt 
in ecclesiam sacrorum ritus libros ecclesiasticos, nobis fortassis 
dormientibus, attrectare nemo audet, mutire nemo, ne impieta- 
tis suspicionem commoveat, scilicet et religioni adversarius esse 

Nor hath our land been altogether barren of historians since 
the Reformation, having yielded some of as tall parts, and large 
performances, as any nation in Christendom. Besides these, 
we have adventured to add such as have been eminent in 
poetry, which may not unfitly be termed the binding of prose to 
its good behaviour, tying it to the strict observation of time and 

Amongst these, some are additioned with the title of Laureat, 
though I must confess I could never find the root whence their 
bays did grow in England, as to any solemn institution thereof 

* In his book of the coming of St. James the Apostle into Spain s chap. I. 


in our nation. Indeed,, I read of Petrarch (the pre-coetanean 
of our Chaucer) that he was crowned with a laurel, in the Ca- 
pitol ,,* by the senate of Rome, anno 1341 ; as also that Frederic 
the third emperor of Germany gave the laurel to Conradus 
Celtes,f and since the count palatines of the empire claim the 
privilege solemnly to invest poets with the bays. 

The branches hereof in all ages have been accounted honour- 
able, insomuch that king James, in some sort, waived his crown 
(in the two and twenty shilling pieces) to wear the laurel in his 
new twenty shilling pieces. On the same token, that a wag 
passed this jest thereon, that poets being always poor, bays 
were rather the emblem of wit than wealth, since king James 
no sooner began to wear them, but presently he fell two 
shillings in the pound in public valuation. 

As for our English poets, some have assumed that style unto 
themselves, as John Kay, in his dedication of " The Siege of 
Rhodes " to king Edward the Fourth, subscribing himself " his 
humble poet laureat." Others have in compliment given the 
title to such persons as were eminent in that faculty ; and 
nothing more usual than to see their pictures before their books, 
and statues on their tombs, ornamented accordingly. However, 
all this is done by civil courtesy, or common custom, no cere- 
monious creation in court or university. I write not this, as if 
I grudged to poets a whole grove of laurel, much less a sprig to 
encircle their heads, but because I would not have any specious 
untruth imposed on the reader's belief. 

Yet want there not those, who do confidently aver that there 
is always a laureat poet in England, and but one at a time ; the 
laurel importing conquest and sovereignty, and so by conse- 
quence soleness in that faculty ; and that there hath been a 
constant succession of them at court, who beside their salary 
from the king, were yearly to*have a tun of wine, as very essen- 
tial to the heightening of fancy : this last, I conceive, founded on 
what we find given to Geoffrey Chaucer : " Vigesimo secundo 
anno Richardi Secundi, concessimus Galfrido Chaucer unum 
dolium vini per annum durante vita, in portu Civitatis London, 
per manus capitalis pincernse iiostri." But Chaucer, besides 
his poetical accomplishments, did the king service both in war 
and peace, as soldier and embassador ; in reward whereof, this 
and many other boons were bestowed upon him. 


Music is nothing else but wild sounds civilised into time and 
tune. Such the extensiveness thereof, that it stoopeth as low 
as brute beasts, yet mounteth as high as angels : for horses will 
do more for a whistle than for a whip ; and, by hearing their 
bells, gingle away their weariness. 

* Vita Petrarc. f Holdastus, tom. iii. p. 482. 


The angels in heaven employ themselves in music, and one 
ingeniously expresseth it to this effect : 

" We know no more what they do do above, 
Save only that they sing, and that they love".* 

And although we know not the notes of their music, we know 
what their ditty is, namely Hallelujah. 

Such as cavil at music, because Jubal,f a descendant from 
wicked Cain, was the first founder thereof, may as well be con- 
tent to lie out of doors, and refuse all cover to shelter them, 
because Jabal, of the same extraction, being his own brother, 
first invented to dwell in tents. 

I confess there is a company of pretenders to music, who are 
commonly called croivders, and that justly too, because they 
crowd into the company of gentlemen both unsent for, and un- 
welcome ; but these are no more a disgrace to the true profes- 
sors of that faculty, than monkeys are a disparagement to man- 

Now right ancient is the use of music in England, especially 
if it be true what I read in a worthy Father ; J and I know not 
which more to admire, either that so memorable a passage should 
escape Master Camden's, or that it should fall under my obser- 

Af-yovcTi os Kat 01 raq taropiac <Tuvraa/ivoi, a^u^u r?jv 
vrjdov avTpov TL vwoKtifjitvov opa" ETTI $ Trie 
. 'E^uTriVrovrog ovv TOV dvfp.ov ilq TO avrpov , /cot irpoa- 
Tprjyvvp,evov roi KoXiroiQ TOV opvy/LiaTOQ, KV /L 

(" They say, even those which compose histories, that in the 
Island of Britanny, there is a certain cave, lying under a moun- 
tain, in the top thereof gaping. The wind therefore falling 
into the cave, and dashing into the bosom of a hollow place, 
there is heard a tinkling of cymbals, beating in tune and 

Where this musical place should be in Britain, I could never 
find: yet have been informed that Dr. Miles Smith, bishop of 
Herefprd, found something tending that way, by the help of 
an active fancy, in Herefordshire. But, waiving this natural, 
the antiquity of artificial music in this island is proved by the 
practice of the Bards, thereby communicating religion, learning, 
and civility, to the Britons, 

* Dr. Fuller says, " The Conceit is Mr. Waller's, whose book is not by me at the 
sent to transcribe the very words." The couplet alluded to stands thus in the 
verses on the death of Lady Rich : 

" So, all we know of what they do above, 
Is that they happy are, and that they love." 
I ^ en ': 21 - . I Clemens Alexand. Strom, lib. vi. p. 632. 
L>r. Miles Smith, who had been a canon residentiary of Hereford, was bishop of 
Gloucester from 16 12 till his death in 1624. 


Right glad I am, that when music was lately shut out of our 
churches, on what default of hers I dare not to inquire, it hath 
since been harboured and welcomed in the halls, parlours, and 
chambers, of the primest persons of this nation. Sure I am, it 
could not enter into my head, to surmise that music would have 
been so much discouraged by such who turned our kingdom 
into a Commonwealth, seeing they prided themselves in the 
arms thereof, an impaled harp being moiety of the same. When 
it was asked, " what made a good musician ? " one answered, 
a good voice ; another, that it was skill. But he said the truth, 
who said, it was encouragement. It was therefore my constant 
wish, that seeing most of our musicians were men of maturity, 
and arrived at their full age and skill, before these distracted 
times began, and seeing what the historian wrote in another 
sense is true here in our acceptation and application thereof, 
" Res est unius seculi populus virorum ; " I say, I did con- 
stantly wish, that there might have been some seminary of 
youth set up, to be bred in the faculty of music, to supply suc- 
cession, when this set of masters in that science had served 
their generation. 

Yet although I missed of what I did then desire ; yet, thanks 
be to God, I have lived to see music come into request, since 
our nation came into right tune, and begin to flourish in our 
churches and elsewhere ; so that now no fear but we shall have 
a new generation skilful in that science, to succeed such whose 
age shall call upon them to pay their debt to nature. 

If any who dislike music in churches object it as useless, if not 
hurtful, in Divine service, let them hear what both a learned 
and able divine* allegeth in defence thereof; " So that although 
we lay altogether aside the consideration of ditty or matter, the 
very harmony of sounds being framed in due sort, and carried 
from the ear to the spiritual faculties of the soul, it is by a na- 
tive puissance and efficacy greatly available to bring to a perfect 
temper, whatsoever is there troubled ; apt, as well to quicken 
the spirits, as to allay that which is too eager ; sovereign against 
melancholy and despair, forcible to draw forth tears of devo- 
tion, if the mind be such as can yield them, able both to move 
and moderate all affections." 

In recounting up of musicians, I have only insisted on such 
who made it their profession ; and either have written books of 
that faculty, and have attained to such an eminence therein as 
is generally acknowledged. Otherwise the work would be end- 
less, to recount all up who took it as a quality of accomplish- 
ment ; amongst whom king Henry the Eighth must be account- 
ed ; who, as Erasmus testifies to his knowledge, did not only 
sing his part sure, but also compose services for his chapel, of 
four, five, and six parts, though as good a professor as he was, 

* Hooker's Ecclesiastical Polity, p. 858, Sect. 38. 


he was a great destroyer of music in this land ; surely not in- 
tentionally, but accidentally, when he suppressed so many 
choirs at the Dissolution. 


After the writers before the Reformation, succeed those Ro- 
mish banished writers since the same, all living since the reign 
of queen Mary, which might have been distanced from the for- 
mer with a black line interposed, as beheld under a far differ- 
ent, yea worse, qualification : for the superstitions of the former 
were the more pardonable, as living in a dark age, which are 
less excusable in these since the light of the Gospel. 

I confess the word exile carries much of commiseration 
therein, and with charitably-minded men bespeaks pity to the 
persons, until the cause of their banishment be well considered : 
for some, in the first of queen Elizabeth, wilfully left the land, 
and so in effect banished themselves ; others, having their lives 
forfeited by the laws, had their deaths mercifully commuted by 
our magistrates into banishment. 

Objection. These men might have been lost without loss ; 
and been omitted in your book, as no limb, but a wen, yea, an 
ulcer thereof. 

Answer. Grant them never so bad, being digested into a 
classis by themselves, their mixture cannot be infectious to 
others. Secondly, abate their errors, and otherwise many of 
them were well meriting of the Commonwealth of learning. 
Lastly, the passages of their lives conduce very much to the 
clearing of ecclesiastical history. 

In noting of their nativities, I have wholly observed the in- 
structions of Pitzeus, where I knock off with his death, my light 
ending with his life in that subject, since which time I have 
neither list to inquire, nor conveniency to attain, of these Ro- 
mish fugitives beyond the seas. 


Solomon was sensible of this vanity, even in his time, when 
pronouncing " of books there is no end."* The heathen poet 
took notice thereof : 

Scribimus indocti doctiqne Poemata passim. 
" Poems write amain we do, 
Learned and unlearned too." 

All this was before the invention of printing, when books 
came but single into the public, which, since that mystery is 
made common, come swimming into the world like shoals of 
fashes, and one edition spawneth another. This made learned 
Erasmus, for company sake, to jeer himself, that he might the 
more freely jeer others: Multi mei similes hoc morbo . laborant, 

* Eccl. xii. 12. 


ut cum scribere nesciant, tamen a scribendo temper are non pos- 
sunt.* (" Many men like myself are sick of this disease,, that when 
they know not how to write, yet cannot forbear from writing.") 

A worthy English baronet, in his book (incomparable on that 
subject,) hath clearly and truly stated this point. 

Here I expect, that the judicious reader will excuse me, if I 
take no notice of many modern pamphleteers ; seeing unlearned 
scribblers are not ranked with learned writers ; yea, it was, though 
tartly, truly said, to the author of such a book : 

Dum scateant alii erratis, daturunica Libro 
Menda tuo, totum est integer error opus. 

" Whilst others flow with faults, but one is past 
In all thy book .'tis fault from first to last.'' 

Indeed the Press, at first a virgin, then a chaste wife, is since 
turned common, as to prostitute herself to all scurrilous pam- 
phlets. When the author of an idle and imperfect book endeth 
with a caetera desiderantur, one altered it non desiderantur, sed 
desunt. Indeed they were not, though wanting, wanted; the 
world having no need of them ; many books being like king 
Joram, who lived not being desired : yea, the press beginneth 
to be an oppression of the land, such the burden of needless 
books therein. 

Some will say, the charge may most justly be brought against 
yourself, who have loaded the land with more books than any 
of your age. To this I confess my fault, and promise amend- 
ment, that, God willing, hereafter I will never print book in 
the English tongue, but what shall tend directly to divinity. 



THESE are reducible to several heads ; and we will begin with 
them who have been 


Such centurions who have erected us synagogues, places for 
God's public worship, seem to me to have given good testimony 
of their love to our nation. Bitter was the brave which railing 
Rabsheca sent to holy Hezekiah, proffering him 2,OOO horses, on 
condition that the other were but able to find riders for them.f 
But it grieves me to see the superstition of the former 
insult over the religion of this present age, bragging that 
she left us ten thousand churches arid chapels, more or 
less, ready built, if we can find but repairers to keep them up. 

It is in my opinion both dishonourable to God and scandalous 

* Iu Prefat. in tertiam seriem quart! Tomi Hierom. p. 408. f Isaiah xxxvi. 8. 


to all good men, to see such houses daily decay : but there is a 
generation of people who, to prevent the verifying of the 
old proverb, "Pater nosier built churches, and Our Father 
plucks them down " endeavour to pluck down both churches 
and our Father together, neglecting, yea despising the use 
both of the one and the other. Be it here remembered, that 
it is not only equal but just, that such as have been founders of 
churches, or grand benefactors unto them, should have due re- 
spect in preserving their monuments from violation or encroach- 
ment of others. I urge this the rather, because abuses have 
been frequent in this kind, even to those that have deserved 
best. I cannot with patience remember the story of Henry 
Keble, lord mayor of London 1511, who, besides other 
benefactions in his life-time, rebuilded Alder-Mary church run 
to very ruins, and bequeathed at his death a thousand pounds 
for the finishing thereof.* Yet, within sixty years after, his 
bones were unkindly, yea inhumanly, cast out of the vault 
wherein they were buried, his monument plucked down for 
some wealthy person of the present times to be buried therein.f 
I could not but on this occasion rub up my old poetry : 

Facit Indignatio Versus. 

The Author to Alder-Mary Church. Alder- Mary Church's Answer. 

' " Ungrateful Church, o'errun with rust, '* Alas ! my innocence excuse : 

Lately buried in the dust ; My Wardens they did me abuse. 

Utterly thou hadst been lost, Whose avarice his ashes sold, 

If not preserv'd by Keble's cost : That goodness might give place to gold ; 

A thousand pounds, might it not buy As for his reliques, all the town 

Six foot in length for him to lie : They are scattered up and down ; 

But, ousted of his quiet tomb, See'st a Church repaired well, 

For later corpse he must make room : There a sprinkling of them fell : 

Tell me where his dust is cast, See'st a new Church lately built, 

Though t be late, yet now at last ; Thicker there his ashes spilt : 

All his bones with scorn ejected, O that all the land throughout 

I will see them re-coUected : Keble's dust were thrown about ; 

Who tain myself would kinsman prove Places scattered with that seed 

I o all that did God's temple love." Would a crop of Churches breed. " 

I could wish this was the last barbarism in this kind 5 and am 
sorry that, upon small inquiry, I could insist on later instances. 


I place schools before colleges, because they are introductory 
thereunto, intended for the breeding of children and youth, as 

3 other for youth and men. And seeing much of truth is 
contained in our English proverb, "It is as good to be unborn 

unbred, such may in some sort seem their second parents, 
who have provided for their education. 

These schools are of two kinds. First, those wherein only a 
lalary is given to the school-master to teach children gratis : 

nnrn^ ' } C ^ T' "? Ood ' Second1 ^ such wherein a select 
scholars have competent maintenance allowed 

* Stow's Survey of London, p. 89. f Idem, p. 267. 


towards their living in the university ; and these, all will 
acknowledge, are better. Some do suspect a surfeit in our land 
of the multitude of schools, because the nursery is bigger than 
the orchard, the one breeding more plants than the other can 
maintain trees ; and the land not affording sufficient preferment 
for them, learning is forced to stoop to mean courses, to make 
a livelihood. But I conceive that 6f store in this kind is no 
sore '" and if we must not (e do evil that good may come 
thereof," we must not forbear doing that which is good, 
for fear of accidental evils which may arise from the same. 


Builders of Bridges, which are high-ways over water, 
and makers of caused-ways or causeways, which are bridges 
over dirt, though last in order, are not least in benefit to the 
commonwealth. Such conveniences save the lives of many, 
ease the labour of more painful travellers, and may be said in 
some sort to lengthen the day, and shorten the way to men in 
their journeys ; yea, bridges make and keep this our island a 
continent to itself. How great the care of the ancient 
Romans to repair them, for the safety of passengers, appears 
by the origination of Pontifex, having the inspection over 
bridges by his primitive institution. 

Indeed the word bridge appears not in all Scripture, whereof 
this the reason. The rivers of Palestine were either so shallow, 
that they were passable by fords, as of Jabbok,* Arnon,f and 
Jordan,! before it grew navigable ; or else so deep, that 
they were ferried over, as Jordan when near his fall into the 
Dead Sea : but most of ours in England are of a middle size ; 
so deep, that they cannot be forded ; so narrow, that they 
need not to be ferried over. Hence come our so eminent 
bridges, insomuch that such structures are accounted amongst 
our English excellences. || 

However, Palestine was subject with England to the same in- 
conveniences of bad high-ways ; and therefore, in the list 
of charitable actors reckoned up by the prophet, he is ac- 
counted as a principal, (e the restorer of paths to dwell in ;"^[ 
for indeed some ways may be said not-habitable, being so deep 
and dirty that they cut off all intercourse, the end general of all 
men's dwelling together. 

I will conclude this topic of bridges with this memorable acci- 
dent. Maud, queen to king Henry the First, being to pass the 
river Lea about Stratford, near the falling of the said river into 
the Thames, was almost drowned in riding over it.** But this 
proved the bad cause of a good effect ; for hereupon she built 
the beautiful bridge there, for the benefit of travellers : and the 

* Gen. xxxii. 22. f Isaiah xvi. 2. J Judges iii. 28. 2 Sam. xix. 18. 

J "Anglia, mons, pons," &c. If Isaiah Iviii. 1?. 

** Camden's Britannia, in Essex. 


village, probably from a fair arch or bow therein, received, as 
some conceive, the addition of Stratford Bow. Far be it from 
me to wish the least ill to any, who willingly would not have 
their fingers to ache, or an hair of their heads lessened. Yet 
this I could desire, that some covetous churls, who otherwise 
will not be melted into works of charity, may, in their passing over 
waters, be put into peril without peril understand me, might 
be endangered to fright, but not hurt that others might fare 
the better for their fears ; such misers being minded thereby to 
make or repair bridges for public safety and convenience. 


Because we live in an age wherein men begin to be out of 
charity with charity itself; and there be many covetous 
(not to say sacrilegious) people, whose fingers itch to be nim- 
ming the patrimony of the poor ; we will here present the cavils 
of this against the charity of former ages herein. 

Cavil 1. Shew us the foundation of such structures in Scrip- 
ture, either in the Old or New Testament. As for the place 
with five porches, wherein " the impotent poor lay,"* near the 
Pool of Bethesda, it was of another nature. Alms-houses 
therefore, not being jure divino, may lawfully be abolished. 

Answer. The constitution of the Jewish was far different 
from our English commonwealth, wherein every one originally 
was a freeholder of some proportion of land, which, though 
alienated, reverted to the owner at the year of Jubilee. There 
needs not an express or particular precept for all our actions ; 
that general one, " He that hath pity upon the poor lendeth unto 
the Lord,"f is bottom broad enough to build more alms-houses 
on, than all ages will afford. Besides this precept, we have the 
practice of the primitive Christians in the time of the apostles, 
parting with the propriety J of all their estate ; and well then 
may we appropriate a part of ours, for the relief of the poor. 

Cavil 2. The builders of them for the most part have been 
people formerly guilty of oppression, who, having lived like 
wolves, turn lambs on their death beds, and part with their 
fleece to people in want. Having ground the faces of the poor, 
they give the toll thereof to build an alms-house, though too 
little to hold half the beggars which they have made. 

Answer. The aspersion cannot be fastened on many found- 
ers ; so free from the same, that malice may sooner break her 
own teeth and jaws too, than make impression on their reputa- 
tion. But grant the charge true in this sense, beatum est fuisse, 
" blessed arethey that have been bad ;" " And such were some 
of you." Let not envious man repine at that whereat the 
blessed angels rejoice, the conversion of sinners, and their testi- 
fying thereof by such public expressions. 

* John v. 2. f Prov. xix. 17. J Actsiv. 34. $ 1 Cor. vi. 11. 


CavilS. Such builders generally have a pope in their belly, 
puffed up with a proud opinion to merit by their performances. 
Answer. When did the caviller steal the touch- stone of 
hearts ? (for God, I am sure, would not lend it him, who saith, 
66 My glory will I not give to another)*" that he is so well 
acquainted with men's thoughts and intentions. " Charity/' 
saith the Apostle, f( thinketh no eviljf" whereas this caviller 
thinks little good. We are bound to believe the best of such 
founders, especially of such who lived since the Reformation, 
whereby the dangerous error of merit was exploded. 

Cavil 4. Grant them guiltless of superstition, they are guilty 
of vain-glory. Witness the building of such houses commonly 
by highway sides ; when, as our Saviour saith, " Let not thy 
left hand know what thy right hand doth.J" 

Answer. The objector shall have leave to build his alms- 
house in what private place he please ; in the middle of a wood, 
if he shall think fitting; but we know who saith, "Let your 
light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, 
and glorify your Father which is in heaven ." " That they 
may see your good works/ 5 though not as finis operis, yet as 
modus operandi, thereby to provoke others to imitation. 

Cavil 5. As some affirm of tobacco, that it causeth as much 
rheum as it bringeth away, alms-houses do breed as many 
poor as they relieve. People in such places presume to be idle, 
beholding hospitals as their inheritance, wherein their old age 
shall be provided for. 

Answer. What is good per se } ought not to be waved for 
what is ill per accidens. This calleth aloud, to the care and 
integrity of feoffees entrusted, to be wary in their elections. 
Besides, I must stick to mine own maxim : it is better that ten 
drones be fed than one bee famished. 

Cavil 6. Such places are generally abused, against the will 
of the founders. Statutes are neglected. What is said of the 
laws in Poland, that .they last but three days, is as true of the 
short lived orders in alms-houses. Not the most indigent, or 
who have been the most laborious, but the best-befriended, reap 
the benefit thereof. 

Answer. I could wish that alms-houses were the only places 
wherein laws were broken. But grant too much truth in the 
cavil, all will say, " From the beginning it was not so ;" and I 
will hope, " unto the end it shall not be so." 

Cavil 7. Hospitals generally have the rickets, whose heads, 
their masters, grow over great and rich, whilst their poor bodies 
pine away and consume. 

Answer. Surely there is some other cure for a ricketish 
body, than to kill it ; viz, by opening obstructions, and deriving 
the nutriment to all parts of the same. But enough of this 

* Isaiah xlii. 8. f 1 Cor. xiii. 5. J Matth. vi. 3. Matth. v. 16. 


unwelcome subject, whereof what is spoken is not to put new 
cavils into the heads of any, but to pluck old ones out of the 
hearts of too many, who have entertained them. If these our 
answers seem not satisfactory to any, know, that as a left- 
handed man hath great odds in fencing against one that is right- 
handed; so in controversies of this kind, cavillers, with their 
sinister 'inferences from men's frailties, have a vast advantage 
over those who are of candid and ingenuous dispositions. 

Many faults must be confessed in such foundations, which 
for the future may be amended. 

But, grant corruptions should continue in such foundations, 
it is not plea enough for their abolition. If the sentence of 
condemnation was pronounced on those who saw Christ naked, 
and would not clothe him ;* how heavy a doom would fall on 
such who found Christ clothed, and stript him in his poor 
members of endowments given to their maintenance ! 


It were arrant presumption for any to imprison freedom itself, 
and confine another's bounty by his own (pretended) discretion. 
Let the charitably-minded do what, when, where, how, to whom, 
and how much, God and their own goodness shall direct them. 
However, it will not be amiss humbly to represent unto them 
the following considerations; the rather, because many well 
affected to the public good have lately been disheartened with 
the frustrations of former charity. 

First, for the time : it is best to do it whilst they are living, to 
prevent all suspicions that their intentions should be misem- 
ployed. Sem wiU not be angry with me for saying Cham was 
a mocker of his father. Peter will not be offended if I call 
Judas a betrayer of his Master. Honest executors will take no 
exception if I justly bemoan that too many dishonest ones have 
abused the good intents of the testators. How many legacies, 
sound and whole in themselves, have proved, before they were 
paid, as maimed as the cripples in the hospitals to whom they 
were bequeathed ! Yea, as the blinded Syrians (desiring to go, 
and believing they went to Damascus) f were led to their ene- 
mies, and into the midst of Samaria ; so is it more than suspi- 
cious, that many blind and concealed legacies, intended for the 
temple of God, have been employed against the God of the 

Next, for the objects of well doing. Surely a vigilant charity 
must take the alarum from the groans of the prisoners. 

The schoolmen reduce all corporal charity to seven principal 
heads : 

1. Visito, to visit men in misery; as Ebed-melech did to 

* Matth. xxv. 43. f 2 Kings vi. 20. 


Jeremiah.* 2. Poto, to give drink to the thirsty ; as Obadiah 
did to the prophets.f 3. Cibo, meat to the hungry; as Nehe- 
miah did to the Jews and Rulers. :f 4. Redimo, to rescue the 
captive; as Abraham did Lot. 5. Tego, to cover the naked; 
as Dorcas did the widows. || 6. Colligo,to dress the wounded; 
as the good jailor did St. Paul.[T 7- Condo, to bury the 
dead ; as the devout men did St. Stephen,** 

See here how these seven kinds of good works are placed like 
the planets ; whilst to redeem captives stands like the sun in the 
midst of all the rest. 

Indeed^ it may be sadly presumed,, that such captives ft oft- 
times want visiting, meat, drink, clothes, dressing, and all 
things but burying (except any will say that they are buried 
alive, liberty being the life of man's life) ; so that the redeem- 
ing of captives is eminently comprehensive "of all these outward 
acts of charity. Yea, this act may extend itself to a spiritual 
concernment; to save many souls from damnation; seeing it 
may be feared that many, despairing of ransom, may put their 
souls in thraldom, to purchase the liberty of their bodies, and 
renounce their religion. 

I could therefore wish that there were in London a corpora- 
tion of able and honest merchants, whereof that city affordeth a 
plentiful choice, legally empowered to receive and employ the 
charity of well-affected people, for a general jail delivery of all 
English captives in Tunis, Tripoli, Algiers, Salli, &c. ; and, our 
countrymen first discharged, if there were any surplusage run- 
ning over, that it might be disposed for the ransoming of Chris- 
tians of what country soever. This were an heroic act indeed, 
whereby Christians endeavour to be like Christ himself, who 
was the Grand Redeemer. 

Oh, that I might be but instrumental, in the least degree, to 
advance their enlargement, I should behold it as an advance- 
ment to myself. Two reasons make me the more importunate 
therein ; one, because the papists had a company of friars in 
England, of the order of the Holy Trinity, de Redimendis Cap- 
tivis ; which being now extinct, I humbly conceive that we are 
bound in conscience, as to quench the superstition, so to con- 
tinue the charity of so good a design. Secondly, because whilst 
other beggars can tell their own tale, we must plead for them 
who cannot plead for themselves ; there being so great a gulf 
of distance betwixt us and them ; and God grant that we may 
never pass over to theirs, but they return to our condition ! 

Objection 1. It maketh mariners cowards, who, presuming 
on good men's charity that they shall be ransomed, do not fight 

* Jer. xxxviii. 11. f l Kings xviii. 13. J Neh. v. 17. 

Gen. xiv. 16. || Acts ix. 39. H Acts xvi. 33. 

** Acts viii. 2 

tf The redeeming of Christians from captivity was, at the time when Dr. Fuller 
wrote, a very important branch of charity ; and briefs for that purpose were frequent 
in our churches. 



it out valiantly against the Turks, as they ought and might, but 
surrender themselves on such expectations. 

Answer. I see not but the same objection lies with equal 
force against the redeeming of soldiers taken in land fights, by 
what foe soever, by exchange or otherwise. Secondly, acciden- 
tal and sinister miscarriages ought not to discourage any sincere 
intention. Lastly, let those who have given the best testimo- 
nies of their valour be first redeemed ; and let them lie longer, 
to suffer bad usage, till the freeing thereof shall convert them 
into more valour, if, after their liberty procured, engaging again 
on the same occasion. 

Objection 2. The late Long Parliament made an act, since 
(after some intermission) renewed, charging a tax on merchants' 
goods, known by the name of Algier duty, for the redemption of 
captives in Turkey. 

Answer. The blessing of God light on the hearts of those, 
if living, who first moved, and since revived it, as I doubt not 
but those departed this life have found their reward. I could 
heartily wish that yearly a catalogue were printed of the names 
of such prisoners thereby redeemed, not knowing whether it 
would be more honourable for, or satisfactory to this nation. 
But, seeing such provisions fall short of doing the work, and 
cannot strike home to break off the fetters of all prisoners, it 
will not be amiss to implore the auxiliary charity of others. 

Next I desire them to reflect upon aged sequestered minis- 
ters, whom, with their charge, the (generally ill-paid) fifth part 
will not maintain. Say not it will be interpreted an affront to 
the state, to relieve them which it hath adjudged offenders. If 
the Best of beings should observe this rule, all the world would 
be starved. Secondly, some of them, abating only that their 
conscience inclined them to the royal cause, were otherwise un- 
blamable both in life and doctrine. Thirdly, the better divines 
they were, the worse they are able to shift for themselves, having 
formerly no excursion into secular affairs; so that applying 
themselves only to, and now debarred the exercise of, the minis- 
try, they are left in a sad condition. Lastly, allow them faulty, 
yet quid teneri infantes ? &c. It is pity their wives and children 
should be ruined for their offence. But enough hereof, seeing, 
in motions of this nature, a word is enough to the wise, and half 
a word too much for others. [Reader, this passage being written 
some three years since, I could not command my own right 
hand to cross it out, but it must stand as it did.] 

Lastly, I recommend unto their charity, such servants who 
have nothing save what they have gained by their industry, and 
have lived seven years and upwards with the same master ; I 
mean not apprentices, but such covenant servants which are 
bound to their masters, their year being ended, with no other 
indentures than their own discretion, and are sensible that they 
must run a hazard, and may lose with their alteration ; especi- 


ally such females, who prefer a good master in certain, before a 
good husband in hopes, and had rather serve in plenty, than 
wed and adventure poverty. 

I confess, such is the. cruelty of some masters, no servant can, 
and such the fickleness of others, no servant may stay long with 
them. Such a master was he, who, being suitor to a gentle- 
woman, came, every time he visited her, waited on by a new 
man, though keeping but one at once ; such was his inconstancy 
and delight in change. Whereupon, when taking leave of his 
mistress, he proffered to salute her ; i Spare your compliments/' 
said she unto him, ft for probably I shall shortly see you again ; 
but let me, I pray you, salute your servant, whom I shall never 
behold any more/* 

However, though sometimes the fault may be in the masters 
or mistresses, yet generally servants are to be blamed in our age, 
shifting their places so often without cause. The truth is, the 
age that makes good soldiers, mars good servants, cancelling 
their obedience, and allowing them too much liberty. What 
Nabal applied falsely and spitefully to David, " There be many 
servants now a days which break away every man from his mas- 
ter/ 5 * was never more true than now. Yea, what Tully said of 
the Roman consul (chose in the morning, and put out before 
night,) f some servants have been so vigilant, they never slept in 
their masters' houses; so short their stay, so soon their de- 

The fickleness and fugitiveness of such servants justly addeth 
a valuation to their constancy who are standards in a family, 
and know when they have met with a good master, as it appears 
their masters know when they have met with a good servant. 
It is pity but such properties of a household should be encou- 
raged ; and bounty bestowed upon them may be an occasion to 
fix other servants to stay the longer in their places, to the gene- 
ral good of our nation. 

I desire these my suggestions should be as inoffensively taken, 
as they are innocently tendered. I know there was in the water 
of Bethesda,J after the angel had troubled it, a medicinal power. 
I know also that such impotent folk as lay in the five porches 
were the proper subjects to be cured : but, alas ! they wanted 
one, at the critical instant, to bring their wounds and the cure 
together, and to put them seasonably into the water. I am as 
confident that there be hundreds in England, really willing and 
able to relieve, as that there are thousands that do desire, and in 
some sort deserve, their charity. But there wanteth one, in the 
proper juncture of time, to present such poor objects to their 
liberality ; and if these my weak endeavours may be in any degree 

* 1 Sam. xxv. 10. 

f " Habemus vigilem consulem qui in consulate suo nunquam dorrnivit." 

I John v. 2. 

E 2 


instrumental to promote the same, it will be a great comfort 
unto me. 

I will conclude this subject with a motive to charity, out of 
the road of, besides, if not against the ordinary logic of men : 
" Give a portion to seven and to eight, for thou knowest not 
what evil shall be upon the earth/'* "To seven and to eight;" 
that is, extend thy bounty to as high a proportion of deserving 
persons as can consist with thy estate ; " for thou knowest not 
what evil will be upon the earth;" matters are mutable, and 
thou mayest need the relief of others. 

Ergo, saith the miser, "part with nothing, but keep all against 
a wet day." Not so Solomon, advising to secure somewhat in 
a safe bank the backs and bowels of the poor. Never evil 
more likely to, never people less known of the same, than our- 
selves. And therefore the counsel never out of, is now most in 


I conceive it not fit to mingle both together, for these two rea- 
sons : first, because of the difference of their charity since the 
Reformation, as not parched up by the fear of the fire of purga- 
tory, but kindly ripened with the sun ; viz. a clear apprehension 
by the light of the Scripture that they were bound to do good 

Secondly, because a Romish Goliah f hath defied our English 
Israel, taxing our church since the Reformation, as able to shew 
few considerable pieces of charity in comparison of those be- 
yond the seas, who may hence be easily confuted. 

Indeed when I read the emulations between Peninna and 
Hannah, it mindeth me of the contests betwixt the church of 
Rome and us ; such the conformity between them. 

" Her adversary provoked Hannah sore, for to make her fret, 
because the Lord hath shut up her womb."{ 

" But how did Hannah rejoice afterwards ? The barren hath 
borne seven, and she that hath many children is waxed feeble." 

It is confessed, immediately after the Reformation, Protestant 
religion stood for a while in amaze, scarcely recovered from the 
Marian persecution, and was barren in good works. || But since 
her beginning to bear fruit, she hath overtaken her Roman co- 
rival, and left her fairly behind. 

Let the extent of time and content of ground be proportion- 
ally stated, and England cannot be matched for deeds of cha- 
rity in any part of Spain, France, and Italy ; as by the ensuing 
catalogue of benefactors to the public will appear. 

* Eccles. xi. 2. f Mr. Knot the Jesuit. 

J 1 Sam. i. 6. i Sam. ii. 5. 

II See the Life of Mr. William Lambert [Lambarde] in Kent. 


Objection. You had better omitted them, leaving them mo- 
destly to multiply and increase in their own silence and secrecy. 
You know how dear David paid for " numbering the people."* 

Answer. David did not offend in mere " numbering the 
people/* but in not paying the poll money appointed by God 
in such cases, t purposely to decline the plague, which omission 
argued his pride of heart. It is lawful for Protestants, without 
any just suspicion of vain glory and ostentation, to make a 
list and take the number of benefactors in this kind, provided 
the quit-rent of praise be principally paid to the Lord of heaven. 
Besides, we are not challengers, but defenders of ourselves here- 
in against the challenge of another; desiring to do it in all 
humility, in confidence of our good cause. 

And here I can hold no longer, but must break forth into a 
deserved commendation of good works. Glorious things in Scrip- 
ture are spoken of you ; yea, fruits of the Spirit. By them the 
Gospel is graced, wicked men amazed, some of them converted, 
the* rest of them confounded, weak Christians confirmed, poor 
Christians relieved, our faith justified, our reward in heaven by 
God's free grace amplified ; angels rejoice for them, devils re- 
pine at them, God himself is glorified in them. Oh, therefore, 
that it were in my power to exhort my countrymen to pursue 
good works with all earnestness, which will add so much to 
their account. 

Some will say, if the English be so forward in deeds of charity 
as appeareth by what you said before, any exhortation there- 
unto is altogether superfluous. 

I answer, the best disposed to bounty may need a remem- 
brancer ; and I am sure that nightingale which would wake 
will not be angry with the thorn which pricketh her breast when 
she noddeth. Besides, it is a truth what the Poet saith, 

Qui monet ut facias quod jam facis, ipse monendo 
Laudat, el hortatu comprobat acta suo. 

" Who, what thou dost, thee for to do doth move, 
Doth praise thy practice, and thy deeds approve.'' 

Thus the exhortations of the Apostles at Jerusalem were 
commendations of St. Paul, ee Only they would that we should 
remember the poor, the same which I also was forward to 

Lastly, though many of our nation be free in this kind, there 
want not those who, instead of being zealous are jealous of good 
works ; being so far from shining themselves, that they enviously 
endeavour to extinguish the light of others, whose judgments I 
have laboured to rectify herein. 

* 2 Sam, xxiv. 15. f Exod. xxx. 12. $ Gal. ii. 10. 



No word occurs oftener in this our book than Reformation. 
It is, as it were, the equator, or that remarkable line dividing 
betwixt eminent prelates, learned writers, and benefactors to the 
public who lived before or after it. 

Know then that this word, in relation to the Church of Eng- 
land, is of above twenty years' extent. For the Reformation was 
not advanced here as in some foreign free states, suddenly, not 
to say rapidly, with popular violence, but leisurely and treatably, 
as became a matter of so great importance. Besides, the meet- 
ing with much opposition retarded the proceedings of the Re- 

We may observe, that the Jews returned from the captivity 
of Babylon at three distinct times, under the conduct of several 
persons. 1 . When the main body of the captives was brought 
home by Zerubbabel,* by whom the second Temple was built. 

2. When a considerable company returned with Ezra,f by whom 
the church part, as I may term it, was settled in that nation. 

3. When Nehemiah,J no doubt with suitable attendance, came 
home, and ordered the state moiety, repairing the walls of Jeru- 

In like manner we may take notice of three distinct dates and 
different degrees of our English Reformation ; though, in rela- 
tion to the Jewish, I confess the method was altogether inverted. 
For, 1 . The civil part thereof, when the Pope's supremacy was 
banished in the reign of king Henry the Eighth. 2. When the 
Church Service was reformed, as far as that age would admit, in 
the first year of king Edward the Sixth. 3. When the same, 
after the Marian interruption, was resumed and more refined in 
the reign of queen Elizabeth. 

The first of these I may call the morning star ; the second, 
the dawning of the day ; the third, the rising of the sun ; and I 
deny not but that since that time his light and heat hath been 

But now the question will be, what is to be thought of those 
prelates, writers, and benefactors, which lived in the aforesaid 
interval betwixt the beginning and perfecting of this Reforma- 
tion. For these appear unto us like unto the bateable ground 
lying betwixt England and Scotland, whilst as yet two distinct 
kingdoms, in so dubious a posture it is hard to say to which side 
they do belong. 

It is answered, the only way to decide this difference is to 
observe the inclinations of the said persons so far forth as they 
are discovered in their writings and actions : such as appear in 

. * Ezraii. 2. f Ezraviii. 114. J Nehem. ii. 6. 


some good degree favourers of the Gospel are reputed to be 
since, whilst those who are otherwise are adjudged to be before, 
the Reformation. 



THE former heads were like private houses, in which persons 
accordingly qualified have their several habitations. But this 
last topic is like a public inn, admitting all comers and goers, 
having any extraordinary, not vicious, remark upon them, and 
which are not clearly reducible to any of the former titles. 
Such, therefore, who are over, under, or beside the standard of 
common persons, for strength, stature, fruitfulness, vivacity, 
or any other observable eminence, are lodged here under the 
notion of memorable persons, presuming the pains will not be 
to me so much in marking, as the pleasure to the reader in know- 
ing them. 

Under this title we also repose all such mechanics, who in 
any manual trade have reached a clear note above others in 
their vocation. 

Objection. It is deforme spectaculum, an uncouth sight, to 
behold such handy craftsmen blended with eminencies in inge- 
nious professions ; such a motley colour is no good wearing. 
How would William Cecil, Lord Treasurer of England, and Ba- 
ron of Burleigh, be offended, to behold James York the black- 
smith set with him at the same table amongst the natives of 
Lincolnshire ? 

Answer. I am confident, on the contrary, that he would be 
highly pleased, being so great a statesman, that he would coun- 
tenance and encourage his industrious countryman, accounting 
nothing little, without the help whereof greater matters can ei- 
ther not be attained, or not long subsist. Yea, we see what 
signal notice the Spirit of God takes of the three sons of La- 
mech,* the first founders of tent-making, organs, and iron- 
works ; and it is observable, that whereas all their names are 
forgotten which built the Tower of Babel, though done on de- 
sign to get them a name,t these three mechanics, viz. Jabal, 
Jubal, and Tubal-cain, are nominatim recorded to all posterity. 
Thus is it better to bottom the perpetuity of one's memory on 
honest industry and ingenuous diligence, than on stately struc- 
tures and expensive magnificence. 

I confess it is easier to add to any art, than first to invent 
it ; yet, because there is a perfection of degrees, as well as kinds, 
eminent improvers of an art may be allowed for the co-invent- 
ors thereof being founders of that accession which they add 

* Gen. iv. 2 22. 23. f Gen. xi. 4. 


thereunto, for which they deserve to be both regarded and re- 

I could name a worshipful family in the south of England, 
which for sixteen several descents, and some hundreds of years, 
have continued in the same stay of estate, not acquiring one 
foot of land, either by match, purchase, gift, or otherwise, to 
their ancient patrimony. The same may be said of some 
handicrafts, wherein men move in the same compass, but make 
no further progress to perfection, or any considerable improve- 
ment; and this I impute generally to their want of competent 



I HAVE concluded this work with these chief officers in that 
great city ; a place of so great honour and trust, that it hath 
commonly been said, that, on the death of an English king, 
the Lord Mayor is the subject of the greatest authority in Eng- 
land 5 many other offices determining with the king's life, till 
such time as their charters be renewed by his successor ; where- 
as the Lord Mayor's trust continueth for a whole year, without 
any renewing after the interregnum. 

Objection. Such persons had better been omitted, whereof 
many were little better than yamjpcc apyol, though by good for- 
tune they have loaded themselves with thick clay ; and will be 
but a burden in your book to the readers thereof. 

Answer. All wise men will behold them under a better no- 
tion, as the pregnant proofs of the truth of two proverbs, not 
contradictory, but confirmatory one to another. Prov. x. 22 : 
"The blessing of the Lord maketh rich." Prov. x. 4 : 
(( The hand of the diligent maketh rich." The one as the prin- 
cipal, the other as the instrumental cause ; and both meeting in 
the persons aforesaid. 

For though some of them were the younger sons of worship- 
ful and wealthy parents, and so had good sums of money left 
them ; yet being generally of mean extraction, they raised 
themselves by God's providence, and their own painfulness ; 
the city, in this respect, being observed like unto a court where 
elder brothers commonly spend, and the younger gain, an es- 

But such Lord Mayors are here inserted, to quicken the in- 
dustry of youth, whose parents are only able to send them up 
to, not to set them up in, London. For what a comfort is it 
to a poor apprentice of that city, to see the prime magistrate 
thereof, riding in his majoralibus, with such pomp and attend- 
ance, which another day may be his hap and happiness ! 


Objection. It cometh not to the share of one in twenty 
thousand,, to attain to that honour ; and it is as impossible for 
every poor apprentice in process of time to prove Lord Mayor, 
as that a minim with long living should become a whale. 

Answer. Not so ; the latter is an utter impossibility as de- 
barred by nature, being fishes of several kinds : whereas there 
is a capacity in the other to arrive at it, which puts hopes, the 
only tie which keeps the heart from breaking, into the hearts 
of all of the attainableness of such preferment to themselves. 

Dr. Hutton, archbishop of York, when he came into any 
great grammar school, which he did constantly visit in his vi- 
sitations, was wont to say to the young scholars, "Ply your 
books, boys, ply your books, for bishops are old men." And 
surely the possibility of such dignity is a great encouragement 
to the endeavours of students. 

Lord Mayors being generally aged, and always but annual, 
soon make room for succession, whereby the endeavours of all 
freemen in companies are encouraged. But if they should 
chance to fall short, as unable to reach the home of honour, I 
mean the mayoralty itself, yet, if they take up their lodgings at 
Sheriff, Alderman, and Common-Councillor, with a good estate, 
they will have no cause to complain. 

I confess some counties, in our ensuing discourse, will appear 
Lord Mayor-less, as Cumberland, Dorsetshire, Hampshire, &c. 
However, though hitherto they have not had, hereafter they 
may have, natives advanced to that honour ; and it may put a 
lawful ambition into them, to contend who shall be their leader, 
and who should first of those shires attain to that dignity. As 
lately Sir Richard Cheverton, skinner, descended, I assure you, 
of a right ancient and worshipful family, was the first in Corn- 
wall, who opened the door for others, no doubt, to follow after 

Nor must it be forgotten that many have been Lord Mayors' 
mates, though never remembered in their catalogues ; viz. such 
who by fine declined that dignity : and as I am glad that some 
will fine, that so the stock of the chamber of London may be 
increased, so I am glad that some will not fine, that so the state 
of the city of London may be maintained. 

I begin the observing of their nativities, from Sir William 
Sevenoke, grocer, Lord Mayor 1418. For though there were 
Lord Mayors 200 years before, yet their birth-places generally 
are unknown. It was, I confess, well for me in this particular, 
that Mr. Stow was born before me, being herein the heir of 
endeavours, without any pain of my own ; for, knowing that 
cuilibet artifici in sud arte est credendum, I have followed him, 
and who him continued, till the year 1633, at what time their 
labours do determine. Since which term, to the present year, 
I have made the catalogue out by my own inquiry, and friends' 
intelligence. To speak truth to their due praise, one may be 


generally directed to their cradles, though by no other candle 
than the light of their good works and benefactions to such 



AFTER we have finished the catalogue of the worthy natives of 
every shire, we present the reader with a list of the Gentry of 
the land, solemnly returned by select commissioners into the 
chancery, thence into the records in the Tower, on this occasion. 

The Commons in Parliament complained that the land then 
swarmed with pilours, robbers, oppressors of the people, man- 
stealers, felons, outlaws, ravishers of women, unlawful haunters 
of forests and parks, &c. Whereupon it was ordered*, for the 
suppressing of present and preventing of future mischiefs, that 
certain commissioners should be empowered, in every county, to 
summon all persons of quality before them, and tender them an 
oath, for the better keeping of the peace, and observing the 
king's laws both in themselves and retainers. 

Excuse me, reader, if I be bold to interpose my own conjec- 
ture, who conceive, whatever was intended to palliate the busi- 
ness, the principal intent was, to detect and suppress such who 
favoured the title of York : which then began to be set on foot, 
and afterwards openly claimed, and at last obtained the crown. 


The first amongst the commissioners is the Bishop of their 
diocese, put before any Earl ; partly because he was in his own 
diocese, partly because giving of oaths, their proper work, was 
conceived to be of spiritual cognisance. 

Besides the bishop, when they were three (as generally) com- 
missioners, the first of them was either an Earl, or at least 
(though often entituled but Chivaler) an actual Baron, as 
will hereafter appear ; and which will acquaint us partly with the 
peerage of the land in that age. 

Next follow those who were Knights for the Shire in the par- 
liament foregoing ; and if with the addition of Chivaler, or Miles, 
were Knights by dubbing, before of that their relation. 

All commissioners expressed not equal industry and activity 
in prosecution of their trust ; for, besides the natural reasons, 
that in all affairs some will be more rigorous, some more remiss, 
by their own temper, some more, some less fancied their 
employment, insomuch as we find some shires, 1 . Over done ; 
as Oxford and Cambridge-shires, whose catalogues are too 


much allayed, descending to persons of meaner quality. 
2. Even done ; as generally the most are, where the returns bear 
a competent proportion to the populousness and numerousness 
of the counties. 3. Underdone ; as Shropshire, Yorkshire, Nor- 
thumberland, &c., where the returns do not answer to the extent 
of those shires. 4. Not done ; which I sadly confess, and 
cannot help ; being twelve in number, as hereafter will appear. 

I dare not conjecture the cause of this casualty ; whether in 
such shires the oaths were never tendered, or tendered and not 
taken, or taken and not returned, or returned and not recorded, 
or recorded and not preserved, or preserved but misplaced 
in some roll which hitherto it hath not been my hap to light 

It is possible that some disgusted the king's design, as who, 
under the pretence of keeping the peace, endeavoured to 
smother and suppress such who should appear for the title of 
York ; whereof more in the respective counties. 

May the reader be pleased to take notice that, in the reign of 
Henry the Sixth, de such a place began then to be left off, and 
the addition of Knight and Squire to be assumed. Yet, because 
no fashion can be generally followed at first, such additions are 
used in the returns of some shires, and neglected in others. 

In some counties we have the names of a few mechanics re- 
turned, with their trades, Brazier, Smith, Ironmonger, &c. ; who, 
no doubt, were considerable, either in themselves, as robustious 
persons ; or in their servants, as numerous ; or in their popular 
and tumultuous influence of others. And grant these passing 
under the name of Valecti (whereof formerly), it appears, by the 
penalty imposed on their recusancy of the oath, that they were 
substantial people, which stood (and probably could make others 
go) on their own account. 

Some clergymen, not only regular, as abbots and priors, but 
secular parochial priests, are inserted in some returns. These, 
some will say, might well be omitted, as nothing informative to 
the gentry of the land, because dead stakes in the -hedge ; then 
unconcerned in posterity, because forbidden marriage. How- 
ever, I have here presented as I found them, intending neither 
to mingle nor mangle ; conceiving that, if I were found guilty 
either of omissions or alterations, it might justly shake the cre- 
dit of the whole catalogue. Indeed if the word superstition im- 
porteth not trespassing on religion, and if the bare signification 
be adequate to the etymology thereof, a super stando, for stand- 
ing in his own opinion too curiously, on a thing which in the 
judgment of others may not merit so much exquisiteness, I here 
voluntarily confess myself superstitious in observing every 
punctilio according to the original. 

May the reader be pleased to take notice, that in men's pro- 
per names, some letters of like sound are confounded in vulgar 
pronunciation, as V for F, Fenner and Venner, K and C, Kary 


and Gary ; F and Ph, as Purfrey and Purphrey, though the 
name be the same in both. Sometimes the name is spelt, not 
truly, according to orthography, but according to the common 
speaking thereof, which melteth out some essential letters, as 
Becham for Beauchamp. 

Again, there is such an allusion betwixt the forms of some let- 
ters (nothing symbolizing in sound) that as they are written 
(though not in ordinary) in record-hand, they may easily be mis- 
taken by a writer or reader, through the similitude of their cha- 
racter; as, 


t * 5 - { * } r { r y t c y 3 

This hath put us many times to a stand, and sometimes to a 
loss, what letter it hath been. But we have in all particulars 
conformed our transcript to the original in all possible exact- 
ness, though afterwards taking the boldness to interpose our 
opinion in our observations. 

A later list might be presented of the English gentry, towards 
the end of the reign of king Henry the Eighth ;* but such would 
be subject to just exception. For, as the Gibeonites, though by 
their mouldy bread, and clouted shoes, pretending to a long pe- 
regrination, were but of the vicinage ; so most of those gentry, 
notwithstanding their specious claim to antiquity, will be found 
to be but of one descent, low enough in themselves, did they 
not stand on the vantage ground, heightened on the rubbish of 
the ruins of monasteries. 



REEVE, which hath much affinity with the Dutch Gh*ave, sig- 
nifieth an officer to oversee and order, being chief in the Shire ; 
in Latin Vice-comes or Vice-count. And seeing shadows in 
effect are as ancient as the bodies, they may be believed as old 
as Counts, and Counts as Counties, and Counties as king Alfred, 
who first divided England into Shires about the year of our 
Lord 888. 

The late fashion was, that the clerk of the peace for each 
county, in Michaelmas term, presented to the lord chief justice 
of the King's Bench six or more names of able persons for that 
office. The lord chief justice calling the other judges into the 
Exchequer Chamber, where the attorney-general and solicitor 
attend, presented three out of that number unto the king, out 

* This List, if it could be discovered, and it is probably in some of the Record 
Jffices, would be a valuable article in continuation of The Worthies of 


of which the king pricks one, who stands sheriff of the 

His power is sufficiently known; to suppress riots, secure 
prisoners, distrain for debts, execute writs, return the choice of 
knights and burgesses for parliament, empannel juries, attend 
the judge, see the execution of malefactors, &c. 

Several statutes have provided, that no man should be sheriff 
in any county, except he hath land sufficient in the same county 
to answer the king and his people.* And it is remarkable that, 
since the beginning of that office, it appeareth not upon any 
record, that ever any sheriff, pro tempore, failed in his estate, 
but was responsible in his place ; whereas it is too plain by sad 
precedents, that some receivers (being men of meaner estates) 

Sheriffs are bound to abide in their proper persons within the 
county, that they may the more effectually attend their office, t 
And in our remembrance, some great persons, whose activity in 
parliament was suspected, have been made sheriffs, to keep 
them out of harm's way, and confine them at home. But later 
years have dispensed with such critical niceties ; unreasonable 
that the sheriff himself should be a prisoner in his own county, 
allowing him more liberty, on the providing of an able deputy 
in his absence. 

Though I will not avouch it true, there may be somewhat of 
truth in their spiteful observation, who maintain, that the shriev- 
alty in ancient times was honos sine onere, in the middle times 
honos cum onere, and in our days little better than onus sine 
honore ; though I trust the office will now be restored to its 
former honour. 

Honos sine onere, a an honour without a burden." As when 
prince Edward the First was for many years together high- 
sheriff of Bedford and Buckinghamshire ; and many prime peers 
of the land were honorary sheriffs, gracing the place with ac- 
cepting it ; living where they pleased themselves, and appoint- 
ing their substitutes to transact the business of the county. 

Honos cum onere, " an honour with a burden ;" from king 
Edward the Third, till within our remembrance. For the prin- 
cipal gentry in every shire, of most ancient extractions and best 
estates, were deputed for that place, keeping great attendance 
and hospitality : so that as some transcripts have, for the fair- 
ness of their character, not only evened but exceeded the 
original, the Vice-comites have, pro tempore, equalled the count 
himself, and greatest lords in the land, for their magnificence. 

Onus sine honore, " a burden without honour ;" when it was 
obtruded on many as a punishment for the trouble and charge 
thereof, and laid as a burden, not on the back of that horse 
which was best able to carry it, but who was least able to cast it 

* 9 Edward II. Lincoln. 4 Edward III. 9. 5 Edward III. 4. 
| 4 Henry IV. 5. 


off, great persons by friends and favour easily escaping it, whilst 
it was charged on those of meaner estates : though I do believe 
it found all them Esquires, and did not make any so, as some 
will suggest. 

Hence was it, that many sheriffs were forced to consult prin- 
ciples of thrift, not being bound so to serve their country, as to 
disserve themselves, and ruin their estates ; and instead of keep- 
ing open houses, as formerly, at the assizes, began to latch, 
though not lock, their doors, providently reducing it to an ordi- 
nary expence ; and no wise man will conclude them to be the 
less loyal subjects, for being the more provident fathers. 

At the end of every shire, after the forenamed catalogue of 
the gentry, in the reign of king Henry the Sixth, I have set 
down a list of the sheriffs from the beginning of king Henry 
the Second until the end of king Charles, carefully collected out 
of the Records. For I hope that by the former, which I call 
my broad (representing the gentry of one generation all over 
England), and this which I term my long catalogue, extending 
itself successively through many ages ; I hope, I say, both being 
put together, may square out the most eminent of the ancient 
gentry in some tolerable proportion. Most eminent ; seeing, I 
confess, neither can reach all the gentry of the land : for as in 
the catalogue of king Henry the Sixth, many ancient gentlemen 
were omitted, who were minors in age, and so incapable of 
taking an oath ; so doth not the list of sheriffs comprehend all 
the gentry in the shire, finding three sorts of people excluded 
out of the same: such who were, 1. Above discharging the 
office : 2. Besides discharging the office : 3. Beneath discharg- 
ing the office. 

Above. Such were all the Peerage in the land, which since 
the reign of king Edward the Third were excused, I am sure, de 
facto, not employed in that place, as inconsistent with their 
attendance in parliament. 

Secondly, such who were besides the place, privileged by their 
profession from that office ; which may be subdivided into 
1. Swordmen, employed in wars beyond the seas. Thus Sir 
Oliver Ingham, and Sir John Fastoffe, both great men, and 
richly landed in Norfolk, were never sheriffs thereof, because 
employed in the French wars, the one under king Edward the 
Third, the other under king Henry the Fifth. 2. Gownmen ; as 
judges, sergeants at law, barristers, auditors, and other officers 
in the Exchequer, &c. 3. Cloakmen ;* such courtiers as were 
the king's servants, and in ordinary attendance about his person. 

Lastly, such as were beneath the place, as men of too narrow 
estates to discharge that office, especially as it was formerly in 
the magnificent expensiveness thereof, though such persons 
might be esquires of right ancient extraction. 

In relation to the present mode ; otherwise they also were gownmen anciently. 



And here under favour I conceive, that if a strict inquiry 
should be made after the ancient gentry of England, most of 
them would be found amongst such middle-sized persons as are 
above two hundred, and beneath a thousand pounds of annual 
revenue. It was the motto of wise Sir Nicholas Bacon, medio- 
criafrma, " moderate things are most lasting/' Men of great 
estates, in national broils, have smarted deeply for their visible 
engagements, to the ruin of their families, whereof we have had 
too many sad experiments, whilst such persons who are mode- 
rately mounted above the level of common people into a com- 
petency, above want and beneath envy, have, by God^s blessing 
on their frugality, continued longest in their conditions, enter- 
taining all alterations in the state with the less destructive 
change unto themselves. 

Let me add, that I conceive it impossible for any man, and 
difficult for a corporation of men, to make a true catalogue of 
the English gentry ; because, what mathematicians say of a line, 
that it is divisibilis in semper divisibilia, is true hereof, if the 
Latin were (which, for aught I know, if as usual is) as elegant, 
addibilis in semper addibilia. Not only because new gentry will 
every day be added, and that as I conceive justly too ; for why 
should the fountain of honour be stopped, if the channel of 
desert be running ? but because ancient gentry will daily be 
newly discovered, though some of them perchance for the pre- 
sent but in a poor and mean condition, as may appear by this 

It happened in the reign of king James, when Henry Earl of 
Huntingdon was lieutenant of Leicestershire, that a labourer's 
son in that county was pressed into the wars, as I take it to go 
over with count Mansfield. The old man at Leicester requested 
his son might be discharged, as being the only staff of his age, 
who by his industry maintained him and his mother. The earl 
demanded his name, which the man for a long time was loath 
to tell, as suspecting it a fault for so poor a man to confess a 
truth. At last he told his name was Hastings. "Cousin Hast- 
ings," said the earl, "we cannot all be top branches of the tree, 
though we all spring from the same root : your son my kinsman 
shall not be pressed." So good was the meeting of modesty in a 
poor, with courtesy in an honourable person, and gentry I believe 
in both. And I have reason to believe, that some who justly own 
the surnames and blood of Bohuns, Mortimers, and Plantagenets, 
though ignorant of their own extractions, are hid in the heap of 
common people ; where they find that under a thatched cottage, 
which some of their ancestors could not enjoy in a leaded castle, 
contentment with quiet and security. 

To return to our catalogue of sheriffs. I have been bold to 
make some brief historical observations upon them, which I hope 
will not be unpleasing to the reader, whom I request first to 


peruse our notes on Berkshire, because of their public influence 
on the rest, facilitating some difficulties which return in the 
sheriffs of other counties. 

After we have presented the sheriffs 5 names, we have annexed 
their addition, either of estate, as Esquire ; or degree, as Knight, 
Baronet, &c. ; and this we have always done after, sometimes 
before, king Henry the Sixth. For although the statute of Addi- 
tions was made in the first of king Henry the Fifth, to indivi- 
duify, as I may say, and separate persons from those of the 
same name ; and although it took present effect in such suits 
and actions where process of outlawry lieth, yet was it not 
universally practised in other writings till the end of the reign 
of king Henry the Sixth. 

After their additions, we have, in a distinct columel, assigned 
the places of their habitation, where we could proceed with any 
certainty, leaving some blanks to employ the industry of others. 
We have endeavoured, as near as we could, to observe propor- 
tion of time in denoting their places, lest otherwise our there be 
confuted by our then, the date of the king's reign which is pre- 
fixed. If sometimes we have made a prolepsis with VirgiPs 
Lavinia litora, (I mean if we have placed some sheriffs too 
early in their possessions, a little before their families were 
fixed there,) I hope the candid reader will either wink or smile 
at the mistake. 

It often cometh to pass that the same sheriff in the same 
shire hath two or more fair seats. This should raise their grati- 
tude to God, whose own Son was not so well provided, not having 
"whereto lay his head." In this variety our catalogue pre- 
senteth but one ; sometimes the oldest, sometimes the fairest, 
and sometimes, freely to confess, what comes first to my me^ 
mory. The best is, truth doth not abate thereby ; knowing so 
much law, that where a man hath an household in two places 
he shall be said to dwell in both of them ; so that this addition 
in one of them doth suffice. 

Next to the place of sheriffs we set down their arms ; whereof 
largely in the next chapter. We conclude the catalogue of 
sheriffs with a comment upon them, presenting their most re- 
markable actions. Our husbandmen in Middlesex make a dis- 
tinction between dodding and threshing of wheat ; the former 
being only the beating out of the fullest and fairest grain, leav- 
ing what is lean and lank to be threshed out afterwards. Our 
comment may be said to have dodded the sheriffs of several 
counties, insisting only on their most memorable actions which 
are extant in our printed histories; otherwise my eyes could 
not look into locked chests I mean, pierce into the private 
records of families, carefully concealed and kept in their choicest 
cabinet. Besides such unprinted records are infinite (under- 
stand it in the same sense in which the strength of Tyre is 


called " infinite,"*) too many for one author to manage, and 
therefore are left to such as undertake the description of several 



SOMETHING must be premised of Arms in general. They 
may seem in some sort to be jure divino to the Jews, having a 
precept for the practice thereof : " Every man of the children 
of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their 
father's house."* 

The use thereof is great, both in war and peace. I begin 
with war, because Arms had their first rise from arms, and had 
a military origin. Without these an army cannot be methodised, 
and is but an heap of men. ef Like an army/ 5 saith the Scrip- 
ture, " terrible with banners ;"J without which an army is not 
terrible, but ridiculous, routing itself with its own confusion. 
Now as no army without banners, so no banner without arms 
therein. ee If the trumpet give an uncertain sound, who shall 
prepare himself to the battle ? w Now, as the trumpet tells 
the time, so the banner proclaims the place of meeting ; and if 
it have not distinguishable emblems therein, who shall know 
whither to repair to his captain or company. 

Arms are also useful in peace, to distinguish one man from 
another. They B be termed nomina visibilia, (( visible names." 
For as a name notifieth a man to the ear, so his arms do signify 
him to the eye, though dead many years since ; so signal the 
service of arms on tombs to preserve the memory of the de- 

Arms anciently were either assumed or assigned : for at first 
men took what arms they pleased, directed by their own fancy ; a 
custom still continuing in the Low Countries, where the burgers 
choose their own arms with as great confidence as tradesmen make 
their mark, or inn-keepers set up their signs in England. As- 
signed arms were such as princes, or their officers under them, 
appointed to particular persons, in reward of their service. And 
whereas assumed arms were but personal, these generally were 
hereditary, and descended to their families. 

It is the rule general in arms, that the plainer the-ancienter ; 
and so consequently more honourable : " Arma prim 6 nuda sine 
ornatu." And when a memorable gentleman (understand me, 
such an one the beginning of whose gentry might easily be re- 
membered) was mocking at the plain coat of an ancient esquire, 

* Nahum Hi. f Num. ii. 2. J Caiit. vi. 4. 1 Cor. xiv. 8. 

VOL. I. F 


the esquire returned,, " I must be fain to wear the coat which my 
great great grandfather left me ; but had I had the happiness to 
have bought one,, as you did, it should have been guarded after 
the newest fashion." Two colours are necessary and most 
highly honourable; though both may be blazoned with one 
word, as Varrey (formerly borne by the Beauchamps, of Hatch 
in Wiltshire, and still quartered by the duke of Somerset). 
Three are very honourable ; four commendable ; five excusable ; 
more, disgraceful. Yet I have seen a coat of arms (I mean 
within the escutcheon) so piebald, that if both the mefals and all 
the colours, seven in all, were lost elsewhere, they might have 
been found therein. 

Such coats were frequently given by the heralds, not out of 
want of wit, but will to bestow better, to the new gentry in the 
end of the reign of king Henry the Eighth. One said of a coat 
that it was so well victualled, that it might endure a siege ; such 
the plenty and variety of fowl, flesh, and fish therein : though 
some done so small, one needed a magnifying glass to discover 
them ; but such surfeited coats have since met with a good 
physician,* who hath cured many of them. 

I can not but smile at his fancy, who counting himself no 
doubt wonderfully witty, would be a reformer of our heraldry, 
and thought it fine, if it were thus ordered, that all, 1. Descend- 
ed of ancient nobility should give their field Or ; 2. Extracted 
from undoubted gentry, Argent ; 3. Advancing themselves by 
sea-adventures, Azure ; 4. Raised by their valour in war, Gules ; 
5. Gownmen preferred for learning, Sable ; 6. Countrymen 
raised by good husbandry, Vert. 

Indeed, as these Metals and Colours are reckoned up in 
order, so are they reputed in honour, save that the contest be- 
twixt Azure and Gules is not so clearly decided, 

Or and Azure in composition are conceived the richest, Ar- 
gent and Sable the fairest coat ; because setting off each other 
discernible at the greatest distance. The lion and eagle are 
reputed the most honourable, the cross the most religious bear- 
ing ; a bend is esteemed the best ordinary, being a belt borne 
in its true posture athwart, as a fess is the same worn about the 
middle. Things natural in the charge presented in their pro- 
per colour are best; and herbs Vert far better than Or, as 
flourishing better than fading; even stained are no stained 
colours when natural. But, seeing the whole mystery of he- 
raldry dwells more in the region of fancy than judgment, few 
rules of assurance can be laid down therein. 

We meet with some few coats which have reasons rendered 
of their bearing. Thus, whereas the earls of Oxford anciently 
gave their coat plain, Quarterly, Gules and Or; they took 
afterward in the first a mullet, or star Argent, because the chief 

* Mr. Camden. 

OF ARMS. 67 

of the house had a falling-star, as my author* saith, alighting on 
his shield, as he was fighting in the Holy Land. But it were a 
labour in vain for one to offer at an account for all things borne 
in armoury. 

This mindeth me of a passage in the north, where the ancient 
and worthy family of the Gascoignes gave for their arms the 
head of a lucie, or pike, cooped in pale ; whereon one merrily, 

" The Lucy is the finest fish 
That ever graced any dish ; 
But why you give the head alone, 
I leave to you to pick this bone." 

A question which on the like occasion may be extended to 
beasts and fowl, whose single heads are so generally borne in 
several coats. 

After the names and places of sheriffs, exemplified in their 
respective counties, we have added their arms ever since the 
first of king Richard the Second. And, though some may 
think we begin too late (the fixing hereditary arms in England 
being an hundred years ancienter), we find it sometimes too soon 
to attain at any certainty therein. 

In perusing these arms, the reader will meet with much ob- 
servable variety : viz. That the same family sometimes gives 
two paternal coats; as Spencer, in Northamptonshire, 1. Quar- 
terly, Argent and Gules ; the second and third charged with a 
fret Or : over all, on a bend Sable, three escallops of the first. 
2. Azure, a fess Ermine betwixt six sea-mews 5 heads erased 

Sometimes two distinct families and names give the self- 
same coat ; as in Berkshire : Fettiplace and Hide, Gules, two 
chevrons Argent. 

The same name, but being distinct families, in several coun- 
ties, give different arms : Grey, in Leicestershire, Barry of six, 
Argent and Azure ; in chief three torteaux : in Northumber- 
land, Gules, a lion rampant with a border engrailed Argent. 

The same name, in the same shire, being distinct families, 
gives different coats ; as in Northamptonshire : Green, of Greeks- 
Norton, Azure, three bucks trippant Or : of Drayton, Argent, 
a cross engrailed Gules. 

The same name and family, in the same shire, gives the same 
coat for essentials, but disguised in colours ; as in Northamp- 
tonshire : Tresham, of Lifden and of Newton. 

The same family giveth a coat this day, bearing some general 
allusion to, but much altered and bettered, from' what they gave 
some sixty years since ; and, forbearing to give an instance 
hereof, for some reason, I refer to the reader's discovery. 

Contented with the coat itself, I have not inserted the differ- 
ences of younger houses, crescents, mullets, martlets, &c. ; 

t Camden's Remains, in the Title of Armory. 

F 2 


chiefly because they are generally complained of, and confessed 
as defective, subject to coincidence, and not adequate to the 
effectual distinguishing of the branches from the same root. 

As the affixing of Differences, if done, were imperfect ; so the 
doing thereof is not only difficult, but also dangerous. Dan- 
gerous, for it would bring many old houses (and new ones too) 
on his head who undertakes it; so undistinguishable are the 
seniorities of some families, parted so long since, that now it is 
hard to decide, which the root and which the branch. I re- 
member a contest in the court of honour, betwixt the two 
houses of Constable, the one of Flamborough-head, the other 
of Constable-Burton, both in Yorkshire, which should be the 
eldest. The decision was, it was never decided; both sides 
producing such ancient evidences, that in mounting up in anti- 
quity, like hawks, they did not only lessen, but fly out of sight, 
even beyond the ken and cognizance of any record. The case, 
I conceive, occurs often betwixt many families in England. 

-Some names we have left without arms. Physicians prescribe 
it as a rule of health, " to rise with an appetite ;" and I am 
loath the reader should fill himself with all which he might de- 
sire. But, not to dissemble, I could not, with all mine own 
and friends' skill and industry, attain their coats, as of families 
either extinct in those counties before the first, or only extant 
therein since the last visitation of heralds. Yet let not my 
ignorance be any man's injury, who humbly desireth that such 
vacuities may hereafter be filled up by the particular chorogra- 
phers of those respective counties. 

This I am sure, fe A needle may be sooner found in a bottle 
of hay" (a task, though difficult, yet possible to be done,) than 
the arms of some sheriffs of counties be found in the herald's 
visitations of the said counties : for many were no natives of 
that shire, but came in thither occasionally from far distant 
places. Thus the arms of Sir Jervis Clifton (thrice high-sheriff 
of Kent, in the reign of king Henry the Sixth), are invisible in 
any Kentish herald's office, as not landed therein himself, 
though living at Braburn, on the jointure of Isabel his wife, 
the widow of William Scot, Esq.* And I doubt not but in- 
stances of the same nature frequently are found in other 

We will conclude this discourse of arms with this memorable 
record, being as ancient as the reign of king Henry the Fifth. 

Clam. 5, Henrici Quinti, membrana 15, in dor so, in Turre 


' f Rex Vicecomiti, salutem, &c. Quia, prout informamur, 
diversi homines qui in viagiis nostris ante hsec tempora factis, 
Arma et Tunicas armorum vocat. Coat-Armours in se susce- 

* Villare Cantianum, p. 26. 

OF ARMS. 69 

perunt, ubi nee ipsi nee eorum antecessores hujusmodi armis 
ac tunicis armorum temporibus retroactis usi fuerint, et ea in 
present! viagio nostro in proximo, Deo dante, faciend' exercere 
proponant; et quanquam Omnipotens suam gratiam disponat 
prout vult in naturalibus, equaliter diviti et pauperi ; volentes 
tamen quemlibet ligeorum nostrorum predictorum juxta status 
sui exigentiam modo debito pertractari et haberi : Tibi preci- 
pimus, quod, in singulis locis intra ballivam tuam, ubi per breve 
nostrum nuper premonst. faciendis proclamari facias, quod 
nullus cujuscunque status, gradus, seu conditionis fuerit, hujus- 
modi arma sive tunicas armorum in se sumat, nisi ipse jure 
antecessorio, vel ex donatione alicujus ad hoc sufficientem 
potestatem habentis, ea possideat aut possidere debeat. Et 
quod ipse arma sive tunicas illas ex cujus dono obtinet, die 
monstrationis sue, personis ad hoc per nos assignatis seu 
assignandis manifeste demonstret, exceptis illis qui nobiscum 
apud bellum de Agincourt arma portabant, sub pcenis non ad- 
missionis ad proficiendum in viagio predicto sub numero ipsius 
cum quo retentus existit, ac perditionis vadiorum suorum ex 
causa predicta preceptorum, necnon rasura et ruptura dictorum 
armorum et tunicarum vocat. Coat-Armours, tempore mon- 
strationis sue predicto, si ea super ilium monstrata fuerint seu 
inventa. Et hoc nullatenus omittas. T. R. apud Civitatem 
Nov. Sarum, secundo die Junii/-* 

Per ipsum Regum. 

" The King to the Sheriff, health, &c. Because there are 
divers men, as we are informed, which before these times, in 
the voyages made by us, have assumed to themselves Arms and 
Coat- Armours, where neither they nor their ancestors in times 
past used such arms or coat-armours, and propound with them- 
selves to use and exercise the same in this present voyage, 
which ( God willing) we shortly intend to make : and although 
the Omnipotent disposeth his favours, in things natural, as he 
pleaseth, equally to the rich and poor ; yet we willing that every 
one of our liege subjects should be had and handled in due 
manner, according to the exigence of his state and condition ; 
we command thee, that in every place within thy bailiwick, 
where by our writ we have lately shewn, you cause to be pro- 
claimed, that no man, of what state, degree, or condition soever 
he be, shall take upon him such arms, or coats of arms, save he 
alone who doth possess, or ought to possess, the same" by the 
right of his ancestors, or by donation and grant of some who 
had sufficient power to assign him the same. And that he that 
useth such arms or coats of arms shall, on the day of his mus- 
ter, manifestly shew to such persons assigned, or to be assigned 
by us for that purpose, by virtue of whose gift he enjoyeth the 
same ; those only excepted who carried arms with us at the 
battle of Agincourt ; under the penalties not to be admitted to 


go with us in our foresaid voyage under his command by whom 
he is for the present retained,, and of the loss of his wages, as 
also of the rasing out, and breaking off, the said arms called 
Coat-armours, at the time of his muster aforesaid, if they shall 
be shewed upon him, or found about him. And this you shall 
in' no case omit. Witness the king, at the city of New Sarum, 
June the second." 

Consimilia brevia diriguntur Vicecomitibus Wilts., Sussex, Dorset, 
sub eadem data. 

I could wish a reviving of this instrument in our age ; many 
up-starts in our late civil wars having injuriously invaded the 
arms of ancient families. 



HAVING dealt so largely in Surnames, it is necessary to 
observe, that Surnames of families have been frequently altered ; 
some families deposing their old and assuming new names on 
several occasions ; but chiefly for, 

1. Concealment, in time of civil wars. A name is a kind of 
face whereby one is known ; wherefore taking a false name is a 
visard, whereby men disguise themselves, and that lawfully 
enough, when not fraudulently done to deceive others ; but dis- 
creetly, in danger, to secure themselves. Thus, during the 
contest betwixt York and Lancaster, Carington in Warwick- 
shire took the name of Smith ; La Blunt the name of Croke in 
Buckinghamshire ; with many others. 

2. For Advancement, when adopted into an estate ; as New- 
port, the name of Hatton, in ^Northamptonshire ; Throckmor- 
ton, the name of Carew, at Beddington in Surrey ; as, long 
before, Westcoat, the name of Littleton, in Staffordshire. 

Besides, the same surname continued hath been variously 
altered in writing. First, because time teacheth new orthogra- 
phy ; altering spelling, as well as speaking. Secondly, the best 
gentlemen anciently were not the best scholars, and, minding 
matters of more moment, were somewhat too incurious in their 
names. Besides, writers engrossing deeds were not over : critical 
in spelling of names ; knowing well, where the person appeared 
the same, the simplicity of that age would not fall out about 

Lastly, ancient families have been often removed into several 
counties, where several writings follow the several pronuncia- 
tions. What scholar knoweth not that Zewc, their Greek name 
for Jupiter, is, by their seven dialects, written ten several ways ; 
and, though not so many dialects in England, there is a real 


difference bewixt our southern, western, and northern pronun- 

Hence it is that the same name hath been so often disguised 
unto the staggering of many, who have mistook them for dif- 

Idem non idem, quaruntque in nomine nomen. 

11 The same they thought was not the same ; 
And in their name they sought their name." 

Thus I am informed, that the honourable name of Villiers is 
written in fourteen several ways in their own evidences ; and the 
like, though not so many, variations may be observed in others. 

And the name of Roper, in Derbyshire, changed from Musard 
to Rubra-Spatha, Rospear, Rouspee, Rooper, Roper. I insist 
the longer on this point, because in our catalogue of sheriffs the 
same surname is variously written ; which some, without cause, 
may impute to my carelessness, being the effect of my care, con- 
forming the orthography exactly to the original, where such 
variation doth plainly appear ; and however such diversity ap- 
peareth in the eye of others, I dare profess that I am delighted 
with the prospect thereof. 



IMMEDIATELY before our Farewell to the respective counties, 
we have inserted a breviate of modern battles since our civil 
distempers. I need here premise nothing of the difference be- 
twixt a skirmish, being only the engagement of parties, and a 
battle, being an encounter betwixt generals with their armies. 
Nor yet of the difference betwixt prcdium a fight or battle, 
and bellum a war ; the former being a fight in field ; the latter 
the continuance of hostility, which may be for many years, 
whilst the difference dependeth undecided. " Peracto preelio, 
manet bellum." And though a truce may give a comma or 
colon to the war, nothing under a peace can put a perfect 
period thereunto. 

In describing these battles, I am, for distinction sake, necessi- 
tated to use the word Parliament improperly, according to the 
abusive acception thereof for these latter years. Let us think 
and judge with the wise ; but, if we do not speak with the vul- 
gar, we shall be dumb to the vulgar. Otherwise I know a 
parliament properly is a complete syllogism, the lords and 
commons being the two propositions, the king the conclusion 
thereof; and our English tongue wanteth one word to express 
the dissenting part of a parliament ; and I trust in God, as our 
language doth not afford the name, so our land shall not here- 
after behold the nature thereof. 

These battles are here inserted, not with any intent (God 
knows my heart) to perpetuate the odious remembrance of our 


mutual animosities; that heart-burnings may remain,, when 
house-burnings are removed ; but chiefly to raise our gratitude 
to God, that so many battles should be fought in the bosom of 
so little a land,, and so few scars and signs thereof extant in 
their visible impressions. Such who consider how many men 
we have lost,, would wonder we have any left; and such who 
see how many we have left,, that we had any lost. In a word, 
as it is said of the best oil, that it hath no taste, that is, no tang, 
but the pure natural gust of oil therein ; so I have endeavoured 
to present these battles according to plain historical truth, 
without any partial reflections. 



I SAY modern, not meaning to meddle with those antiquated 
ones, which long since have lost their names and bounds : as 
Winchelcombshire united to Gloucestershire,* Howdonshire 
annexed to Yorkshire, and Hexamshire to Northumberland. f 
As little do we intend to touch on those small tracts of ground, 
the County of Poole and the like, being but the extended limits 
and liberties of some Incorporations. 

We add Shires, or Counties, using the words promiscuously 
as the same in sense. I confess, I have heard some critics 
making this distinction betwixt them, that such are Shires 
which take their denomination from some principal town : as 
Cambridgeshire, Oxfordshire, &c. ; whilst the rest, not wearing 
the name of any town, are to be reputed Counties, as Norfolk, 
Suffolk, &c. But we need not go into Wales to confute their 
curiosity, where we meet Merionethshire and Glamorganshire, 
but no towns so termed, seeing Devonshire doth discompose 
this their English conceit ; I say English Shires and Counties, 
being both Comitatus in Latin. 

Of these there be nine and thirty at this day, which by the 
thirteen in Wales, J are made up" fifty two ; England largely 
taken, having one for every week in the year. 

Here let me tender this for a real truth, which may seem a 
paradoxy, that there is a County in England, which, from the 
Conquest till the year 1607 (when Mr. Camden's last Latin 
Britannia was set forth) never had Count or Earl thereof, as 
hereby may appear. In his conclusion of Berkshire, " Heec de 
Barkshire, quse hactenus Comitis honore insignivit neminem/' 

* Rob. de Gloucester, & Codex Wigomiensis. f Camden's Britannia. 

J Monmouthshire being now considered as an English County, there are at 
present 40 in England, and only 12 in Wales ED. 


Immediately it followeth, f( In hujus Comitatus complexu sunt 
Parochise 140." 

Now this may seem the more strange, because Comes and Co- 
mitatus are relative. But, under favour, I humbly conceive, 
that though Berkshire never had any titular, honorary, or here- 
ditary Earl till the year 1620, (when Francis Lord Norris was 
created first Earl thereof) ; yet had it in the Saxons 5 time, when 
it was first modelled into a Shire, an Officiary Count, whose 
deputy was termed Vice-comes as unto this day. 


First, this method of marshalling them is new ; and there- 
fore, I hope, nevertheless acceptable. Secondly, it is as infor- 
mative to our judgments, to order them by Counties according 
to their place, as by Centuries, so oft done before, according to 
the time ; seeing where is as essential as when to a man's being. 
Yea, both in some sort may be said to be jure divino, (under- 
stand it ordered by God's immediate providence,) and therefore 
are coupled together by the Apostle : ee And hath determined 
the times before appointed, and the bounds of their habitation."* 
If of their habitation in general, then more especially of the most 
important place of their nativity. 

The Spirit of God in Scripture taketh signal notice hereof : 
"The Lord shall count when he writes up the people, that this 
man was born there. "t (f Philip was of Bethsaida, the city of 
Andrew and Peter."J And all know how St. Paul got his best 
liberty, where he saw the first light, " in Tarsus, a city of Cilicia." 

When Augustus Caesar issued out a decree to tax the whole 
world, it was ordered therein, that " every one should go into 
his own city," || as the most compendious way to prevent con- 
fusion, and effectually to advance the business. I find the same 
to expedite this work, by methodizing the Worthies therein ac- 
cording to the respective places of their nativities. If some 
conceive it a pleasant sight, in the city of London, to behold 
the natives of the several Shires, after the hearing of a sermon, 
pass in a decent equipage to some Hall, there to dine together, 
for the continuance and increase of love and amity amongst 
them ; surely this spectacle will not seem unpleasant to ingenu- 
ous eyes, to see the heroes of every particular county modelled 
in a body together, and marching under the banners of their 
several eminencies. 

Here may you behold how each County is innated with a par- 
ticular genius, inclining the natives thereof to be dexterous, some 
in one profession, some in another ; one carrying away the cre- 
dit for soldiers, another for seamen, another for lawyers, another 
for divines, &c., as I could easily instance ; but that I will not 

* Actsxvii. 26. f Psalm Ixxxvii. 6. J John i. 44, Actsxxii. 3. || Luke ii. 3. 


forestal the reader's observation ; seeing some love not a rose 
of another's gathering, but delight to pluck it themselves. 

Here also one may see how the same County was not always 
equally fruitful in the production of worthy persons ; but, as 
trees are observed to have their bearing and barren years, so 
Shires have their rise and fall in affording famous persons : one 
age being more fertile than another, as by annexing the dates to 
their several worthies will appear. 

In a word, my serious desire is, to set a noble emulation be- 
tween the several Counties, which should acquit themselves 
most eminent in their memorable offspring. Nor let a smaller 
Shire be disheartened herein, to contest with another larger in 
extent, and more populous in persons, seeing viri do not always 
hold out in proportion to homines. Thus we find the Tribe of 
Simeon more numerous than any in Israel (Judah and Dan only 
excepted) as which, at their coming out of Egypt, afforded no 
fewer than "fifty-nine thousand and three hundred."* Yet 
that tribe did not yield prince, priest, prophet, or any remark- 
able person : Apocrypha, Judith only excepted; " multi grega- 
rii, pauci egregii ; " and multitude with amplitude is never the 
true standard of eminency, as the judicious reader, by perusing 
and comparing our County catalogues, will quickly perceive. 


It is this. Many families, time out of mind, have been cer- 
tainly fixed in eminent seats in their respective Counties, where 
the ashes of their ancestors sleep in quiet, and their names are 
known with honour. Now possibly it may happen, that the 
chief mother of that family, travelling in her travail by the way- 
side, or by some other casualty, as visit of a friend, &c., may 
there be delivered of the heir of her family. The question is, 
whether this child shall be reputed the native of that place where 
his mother accidentally touched, or where his father and the 
father of his fathers have landed for many generations. 

On the one side, it seemeth unreasonable to any man, accord- 
ing to his historical conscience, that such a casual case should 
carry away the sole credit of his nativity. This allowed, et 
iota Anglia Londinizabit ; a moiety almost of the eminent per- 
sons in this modern age will be found born in that city, as the 
inn-general of the gentry and nobility of this nation ; whither 
many come to prosecute law-suits, to see and to be seen, and on 
a hundred other occasions, among which I will not name a sav- 
ing of house-keeping in the country. 

One instance of many. I find by the Register of St. Dun- 

m s m the West, London, that Thomas Wentworth, after- 
ts &arl of Strafford, was born in that parish, and christened 

* Numb. i. 23. 


in the Church aforesaid : his mother, big with child, probably 
coming thither for the conveniency of a midwife. Now what a 
wrong is it to deprive Woodhouse Wentworth in Yorkshire, 
where his family hath continued in a noble equipage for many 
years, there possessed of a large revenue, of the honour of his 
nativity ! 

On the other side, it is clear in the rigour of the law, (and I 
question whether Chancery in this case will or can afford any 
remedy) that the minute of the birth of any person at any place 
truly entitles the same to his nativity. This is plain by the sta- 
tutes of those colleges in either University, that confine fellow- 
ships to Counties ; and it will be said, transit onus cum honore, 
the burthen as well as the profit is to be conveyed on the same 

Reader, the case thus stated is remitted to thy own arbitra- 
tion. However, thus far I have proceeded therein in this fol- 
lowing work, that when such alterations (for I can give them no 
better term) and accidental stragglings from the known place of 
their family shall appear unto me, I am resolved to enter them 
in those places accordingly. But, until I receive such intelli- 
gence, I will confidently admit them in that place which is ge- 
nerally known in persons of honour for the principal habitation 
of their family. 



IT was fashionable for the clergy, especially if regulars, 
monks, and friars, to have their surnames (for syr-names they 
were not) or upper-names, because superadded to those given 
at the font, from the places of their nativity ; and therefore they 
are as good evidence to prove where they were born, as if we 
had the deposition of the midwife, and all the gossips present at 
their mother's labours. Hence it is that in such cases we sel- 
dom charge our margin with other authors, their surname being 
author enough to avow their births therein. 

Some impute this custom to the pride of the clergy, whose 
extraction generally was so obscure, that they did InaixyvtaOai 
TOVQ TrarepaQ, were ashamed of their parentage : an uncharitable 
opinion, to fix so foul a fault on so holy a function ; and most 
false, many in orders appearing of most honourable descent. 
Yet Richard bishop of London quitted Angervill, though his fa- 
ther Sir Richard Angervil* was a knight of worth and worship, 

* Burton in his Description of Leicestershire. 


to be called of Bury, where he was born ; and William bishop 
of Winchester waived Pattin to wear Waynfleet, though he was 
eldest son to Richard Pattin,* an esquire of great ancientry. 

Others say, that the clergy herein affected to be Levi-like, 
" who said to his father and to his mother, I have not seen him,"t 
practising to be mimics of Melchisedech, 'And?, djur/rwp, 
iiytveaXoynrog, "without father, without mother, without de- 
scent,"! so to render themselves independent in the world, with- 
out any coherence to carnal relations. Surely some were well 
minded herein, that as they might have no children, they would 
have no fathers, beholding the place of their birth, as co-heir at 
least to their estates, to which many did airolowai TO. rpo^cta, 
plentifully pay for their nursing therein. 

Question. But oftentimes it comes to pass, that there be 
many towns in England, the same to a tittle both in spelling 
and calling ; so that, on such uncertain evidence, no true ver- 
dict can be found for their nativity. One instance of many, 
William of Wickham was the famous founder of New College 
in Oxford. But how can his cradle be certainly fixed in any 
place, when it is equally rocked betwixt twenty villages of the 
same denomination ? 

Shire. Hundred. 

1. Wickham, Berks, Kentbury. 

2. High Wickham, Bucks, Burnham. 

3. West Wickham, Bucks, Disborough. 

4. Wickham West, Camb. Chilforde. 

5. Wickham, Essex, Thurstable. 

6. Wickham, St. Paul, Essex, Hinckford. 

7. Wickham Bonant, Essex, Uttlesford. 

8. Wickham, Hants, Titchfield. 

9. Wickham-brux, Kent, St. Austin's. 

10. Wickham East, Kent, Sutton. 

11. Wickham West, Kent, Ibidem. 

12. Wickham, Line. Ellowe. 

13. Wickham Brook, Suffolk, Risbridge. 

14. Wickham, Suffolk, Wilforde. 

15. Wickham Skeyth, Suffolk, Hartesmer. 

16. Wickham, Oxford, Banbury. 

17. Wickham, Sussex, Bramber. 

18. Wickham, York, RidaU. 

19. Wickham, York, Pickering. 

20. Wickham Abbey, York, Ibidem. 

See here a lottery ; and who dare assure himself of the prize, 
having nineteen blanks against him. Indeed if election should 
be made by the eminency of the place, High Wickham in 
Buckingham-shire would clearly carry it, as an "ancient borough 

f Deut. xxxiii. 9. 
Villare Anglican urn. 1 ' 

TK n .'. in his Catalogue of the Bishops of Winchester. 
Heb. vii. 3. Collected out of the useful Book of 


town, sending burgesses to parliament. But all these being 
Wickhams alike., bring in their claims to the aforesaid William ; 
and how shall the right be decided ? The same question may; 
be demanded of several other persons on the same occasion. 

Answer. I confess the case often occurs, though seldom 
so many places be competitors ; wherefore herein we have our 
recourse to the circumstances in the history of such a contro- 
verted person, and consult the most important of them with our 
greatest diligence and discretion. 

Noscitur e socio gui non noscetur ab ipso. 

1 f We by their company do own 
Men by themselves to us unknown." 

Such circumstances may be called the associates of a man's 
life, as where they most conversed, had their kindred, got their 
preferment, &c. And these, though not severally, jointly serve 
as so many lights to expound the place of his birth, and clear- 
ing the homonymy of many places, state that town justly where- 
in he was born. 

Thus are we not only in bivio or trivio, but, as I may say, in 
vigentwio, being to find Wickhanr's birth amongst twenty of his 
namesake villages. But discovering John Perrot's father 
richly landed about Winchester, and the principal actions of his 
life presented thereabouts, with some other remarks, all meeting 
on the same scene ; one may safely conclude, that Wickham in 
Hampshire (the eighth in the aforesaid catalogue) is that indi- 
vidual Wickham therein this prelate took his first degree I 
mean proceeded into the light of this world, The like evidence 
(though not always so clear) hath, upon diligent search, directed 
us in differences of the same nature. 


It often cometh to pass that two or more places entitle them- 
selves to the nativity of the same man. Here my endeavour is, 
to keep the peace, as well as I may, betwixt them as in the in- 
stance here inserted : 

" Bradwardin Castrum, unde ortum et nomen T. Bradwardinus, Arch. Cant, ha- 

buit.'' Camden, Brit, in Herefordshire ' T. Bradwardinus |Hartfeldiae natus in 

Diocoesi Cicestriensi." J. Hale de Script. Brit. Cent. 5. page 435. " Tho. Brad- 
wardinus Patria Southsaxia, ex civitate Cicestria oriundus." Joh. Pitts, de Angl. 
Scrip, anno 1350. _" Natus fertur Bradwardinus Hatfeldise, in comitatu Suffolci- 
ensi." Godwin, in Catal. Episc. Londini impress, anno 1616. 

See here four places challenge one man ; and I am as unwill- 
ing to accuse any of falsehood, as I am unable to maintain all in 
the truth. 

However, the difference may thus be accommodated : Brad- 
wardin's ancestors fetched their name from that place in Here- 
fordshire, according to Camden ; though he himself was born 


(as Bale saith) at Hartfield in Sussex; within the city (saith 
Pitts) of Chichester, interpret him extensively not to the walls, 
but diocese and jurisdiction thereof. As for Suffolk in Bishop 
Godwin, I understand it an erratum in the printer for Sussex. 

Our usual expedient in the like cases is this, to insert the cha- 
racter at large of the controverted person in that county which 
(according to our apprehension) produceth the best evidence 
for him : yet so, that we also enter his name with a reference 
in the other respective places, which with probability pretend 
unto him. 

If equal likelihood appear unto us on all sides, that county 
clearly carries away his character, which first presenteth itself 
to our pen in the alphabetical order. Thus lately, when the 
same living was in the gift of the Lord Chancellor, Lord Trea- 
surer, and Master of the Wards, that clerk commonly carried 
it who was first presented to the bishop. However, though in the 
disputable nativities of worthy men, i( first come, first served/' 
a caveat is also entered in other counties, to preserve their titles 

It must not be forgotten, that many, without just cause, by 
mistake, multiply differences in the places of men's births. The 
papists please themselves .with reporting a tale of their own in- 
venting, how the men of two towns in Germany fell out, and 
fought together, whilst one of them was for Martin, the other 
for Luther, being but the several names of the same person. If 
one author affirms Bishop Jewel born at Buden, another at Be- 
rinerber, let none make strife betwixt these two writers ; the 
former naming the house and village, the latter the parish wherein 
he was born, a case which often occurs in the notation of nati- 


There goeth a common report, no less uncharitable than un- 
true, yet meeting with many believers thereof, as if clegymen's 
sons were generally signally unfortunate, like the sons of Eli, 
Hophni and Phinehas,* dissolute in their lives, and doleful in 
their deaths ;f this I may call a libel indeed, according to Sir 
Francis Bacon's description thereof : for first, it is a lie, a no- 
torious untruth : and then a bell, some loud and lewd tongue 
hath told, yea rung it out, and perchance was welcome music 
to some hearers thereof. 

It is first confessed, that the best saints and servants of God 
have had bad as well as good children extracted from them. It 
is the note of Illiricus on those words of St. John to the Elect 
Lady : " I rejoiced greatly, when I found of thy children walk- 
ing in the truth "J He saith not all thy, but of thy children ; 

* l Sam. ii. 12. f i Sam. iv. 11. J 2 John 4. 


intimating that she had mingled ware, corn, and tares, in those 
who were descended from her. Thus Aaron (for I desire to re- 
strain myself in instances of the priests) had Nadab and Abihu, 
two " strange fire offerers,,"* as well as his godly sons Eliazar 
and Ithamar. Yea, I find one of the best fathers, having two 
(and those I believe all he had) of the worst sons,f even Samuel 

Nor do we deny but that our English clergy have been un- 
happy in their offspring (though not above the proportion of 
other professions) ; whereof some have not unprobably assigned 
these causes. First, if fellows of colleges, they are ancient 
before they marry. Secondly, their children then are all Ben- 
jamins ; I mean, ee the children of their old age," and thereupon 
by their fathers (to take off as much as we may the weight of 
the fault from the weaker sex) cockered and indulged, which I 
neither defend or excuse, but bemoan and condemn. Thirdly, 
such children, after their father's death, are left, in their minority, 
to the careless care of friends and executors, who too often dis- 
charge not their due trust in their own education; whence it ig, 
such orphans too often embrace wild courses to their own de- 

But, all this being granted, we maintain that clergymen's 
children have not been more unfortunate, but more observed, 
than the children of the parents of other professions. There 
is but one minister at one time in a whole parish ; and there- 
fore, the fewer they are, the easier they are observed, both in 
their persons and posterities. Secondly, the eminency of their, 
place maketh them exposed and obvious to all discoveries. 
Thirdly, possibly malice may be the eye-salve to quicken men's 
sight, in prying after them. Lastly, one ill success in their 
sons maketh (for the reasons aforesaid) more impression in the 
ears and eyes of people, than many miscarriages of those chil- 
dren whose fathers were of another function (I speak not this 
out of intent to excuse or extenuate the badness of the one by 
the badness of the other, but that both may be mutually pre- 
voked to amendment). In a word, other men's children would 
have as many eye-sores, if they had as many eyes seeing them. 
Indeed, if happiness be confined unto outward pomp and 
plenty, and if those must be accounted unfortunate, which I in 
the true meaning of the word must interpret unprovidenced, 
who swim not in equal plenty with others, then that epithet may 
be fixed on the children of the clergy ; whose fathers coming 
late to their livings, and surprised by death, not staying long on 
them, which at the best afforded them but narrow maintenance, 
leave them oft-times so ill provided, that they are forced, without 
blame or shame to them, as I conceive, to take sometimes poor 
and painful employments for their livelihood. 

* Levit. x. l. f 1 Sam. viii. 3. ] 


But, by our following endeavours it will plainly appear,, that 
the sons of ministers have, by God's blessing, proved as eminent 
as any who have raised themselves by their own endeavours. 
For statesmen, George Carew, Privy Councillor of England, 
Scotland, and Ireland, and as able a man (absit invidia) as the 
age he lived in produced, was earl of Totnes, the same place 
whereof his father was archdeacon. Sir Edward Sandys, son to 
archbishop Sandys, will be acknowledged even by his enemies 
a man of such merit, that England could not afford an office 
which he could not manage. For lawyers, Sir Thomas Richard- 
son,* lately, and the never sufficiently to be commended Sir 
Orlando Bridgeman,t now Lord Chief Justice, with many 
others. For seamen, Sir Francis Drake,J that great scourge 
and terror to the Spanish pride. 

If any say, these are but thin instances out of so thick a num- 
ber, de tot modo millibus unus, "few of so many hundreds;" 
know, we have onlji taken some eminent persons, leaving the 
rest for fear to be counted forestallers to the collection of the 
reader in our ensuing book. 

But the sons of ministers have never been more successful 
than when bred in the professions of their fathers, as if some 
peculiar blessing attended them whilst they continue therein. 
Thus, of the prelatical clergy, we have Francis Godwin, a bishop, 
the son of a bishop ; and Doctor John King, son to his reverend 
father the Bishop of London. And of other clergymen we have 
three generations of the Wards in Suffolk ; as many of the 
Shutes in Yorkshire, no less painful than pious and able in their 

Let me add, that there were at one time three Fellows of 
King's College, sons of eminent Divines, and afterwards Doc- 
tors of Divinity: 1. Samuel Collings : 2. Thomas Goad: 3. 
William Sclater. And I believe there were not severally, in 
their generations, men more signal in their different eminen- 

It is easy for any to guess out of what quiver this envenomed 
arrow was first shot against the children of clergymen ; namely, 
'from the Church of Rome ; who, in their jurisdiction, forbid 
the banns of all clergymen, against the law of nature, scripture, 
and the practice of the primitive church ; and in other places 
unsubjected to their power, bespatter the posterity of the clergy 
with their scandalous tongues. Yet be it known unto them, the 
sons of English priests or presbyters may be as good as the ne- 
phews of Roman cardinals. However, because antidotes may 
be made of poisons, it is possible that good may be extracted 

* Of whom see under Norfolk. 

t Sir Orlando Bridgman, who had been a short time Lord Chief Baron of the 
fcxehequer, was appointed Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, Oct. 22, 1660. 
I Ssee under Devonshire. 


out of this false report ; namely, if it maketh clergymen more 
careful to go before their children with good examples, to lead 
them with good instructions, to drive and draw them (if need 
so requireth) with moderate correction seasonably used, putting 
up both dry and wet prayers to God for his blessing on their 
children. As also, if it maketh the children of clergymen to fee 
more careful, by their circumspect lives, to be no shame to the 
memory and profession of their fathers. 



I HAVE ranked all persons under their respective titles, ac- 
cording to their seniorities, of the ages they lived in. Good the 
method of the sons of Jacob, sitting down at the table of their 
[unknown] brother, Joseph, " the first according to his birth- 
right, and the youngest according to his youth."* If, therefore, 
on this account a mean man take place of a mighty lord, the 
latter (as being dead) I am sure will not, and the living reader 
should not, be offended thereat. 


The sun, that glorious creature, doth serve mankind for a 
double use; to lighten their eyes with his beams, and minds 
with his motion. The latter is performed by him as appointed 
S( for signs and for seasons ;"f as ne i s the great regulator of 
time, jointed into years and months, carved into weeks and days, 
minced into hours and minutes. 

At what a sad loss are such, who, living in lone houses, in a 
gloomy winter day, when the sun doth not at all appear, have 
neither the benefit of watches, silent clocks ; nor of clocks, 
speaking watches ; being ready oft-times to mistake noon for 
night, and night for noon ! Worse errors are committed by 
those who, being wholly ignorant in chronology, set the grand- 
children before their grandfathers, and have more Hysteron- 
Proterons than of all other figures in their writings. 

The maxim, " He who distinguished well instructeth well," is 
most true in the observing of the distinction of time. It will 
pose the best clerk to read (yea to spell) that deed, wherein sen- 
tences, clauses, words, and letters, are without points or stops, 
all continued together. The like confusion ariseth, when per- 
sons and their actions are not distanced by years, nor pointed 
with the periods of generations. 

I have endeavoured, in my following work, to time eminent 

* Gen. xliii. 33. f Gen ' * 14 ' 



persons by one of these notations ; first; that of their morning, 
or nativity ; the second, that of their noon, or flourishing ; the 
last, that of their night, or death. The first is very uncertain, 
many illustrious men being of obscure extraction ; the second 
more conspicuous, when men's lustre attracts many eyes to take 
notice of them. Many see the oak when grown, (especially if a 
standard of remark) ; whilst few, if any, remember the acorn 
when it was set. The last is not the least direction, as which is 
generally observed. It cometh to pass sometimes, that their 
deaths acquaint us with their births, viz. when attended on their 
tomb with intelligence of their age ; so that, by going backward 
so many years from their coffins, we infallibly light on their cra- 

Some persons in our work are notified by all of these indica- 
tions, most with two, and all with one of them. When we find 
a contest amongst chronologers, so that, with the mutinous 
Ephesians, (e some cry one thing, and some another,"* being as 
much dispersed in their opinions, as the Amonites in their per- 
sons, when defeated by Saul, so " that two of them were not left 
together ;"t in such a case, I have pitched on that date, iinder 
correction of better judgments, which seemed to me of greatest 


I approve the plain country by-word, as containing much in- 
nocent simplicity therein : 

" Almost and very nigh, 
Have saved many a lie." 

So have the Latins their prope, fere, juxta, rirciter, plus minus, 
used in matters of fact by the most authentic historians. Yea, 
we may observe, that the spirit of truth itself, where numbers 
and measures are concerned, in times, places, and persons, useth 
the aforesaid modificatives, save in such cases where some mys- 
tery contained in the number requireth a particular specification 

In Times. Dan. v. 31 : "Darius being about threescore and two years old." 
Luke iii. 23 : " Jesus began to be about thirty years of age.'' 

In Places Lukexxiv. 13: "From Jerusalem about sixty furlongs." Johnvi. 
19 : " And rowed about five and twenty furlongs." 

In Persons. Exod. xii. 37 : " About six hundred thousand men on foot." Acts 
ii. 41 : " Added to the church about three thousand souls." 

None, therefore, can justly find fault with me, if on the like 
occasion I have secured myself with the same qualificatives. 
Indeed such historians who grind their intelligence to the 
powder of fraction, pretending to cleave the pin, do sometimes 
miss the but. Thus one reporteth how in the persecution un- 
der Dioclesian there were neither under nor over, but just nine 

* Acts xix. 32. f i Sam. xi. 11. 


hundred ninety-nine martyrs. Yea, generally those that trade 
in such retail- ware, and deal in such small parcels, may by the 
ignorant be commended for their care, but condemned by the 
judicious for their ridiculous curiosity. 

But such who will forgive the use of our foresaid qualifica- 
tives, as but limping and lameness, will perchance not pardon 
the many blanks which occur in this book, accounting them no 
better then our flat falling to the ground, in default of our in- 
dustry for not seeking due information. But let such know, 
that those officers, who by their place are to find out persons 
inquired after, deserve neither to be blamed nor shamed, when, 
having used their best diligence, they return to the court a " Non 
est inventus." 

For my own part, I had rather my reader should arise hungry 
from my book, than surfeited therewith; rather uninformed 
than misinformed thereby ; rather ignorant of what he desireth, 
than having a falsehood, or, at the best, a conjecture for a truth, 
obtruded upon him. 

Indeed, I humbly conceive that vacuity, which is hateful in 
nature, may be helpful in history : for such an hiatus beggeth 
of posterity, to take pains to fill it up with a truth, if possible 
to be attained ; whereas, had our bold adventure farced it up 
with a conjecture (intus exist ens prohibuerit extraneumj no room 
had been left for the endeavours of others. 


It is sufficiently known to all antiquaries, that causes brought 
to be heard and determined before the Roman judges were re- 
ducible to two kinds : 

1. Liquets. When the case, as clear and plain, was presently 
decided. 2. Ampliandums. When, being dark and difficult, 
they were put off to farther debate, somewhat alluding to 
our demurs. Hence it is, that we find the Roman orator com- 
plaining of an unjust judge, "cum causam non audisset, 
et potestas esset ampliandi, dixit sibi liquere"* 

I should be loath to be found guilty of the like offence in rash 
adjudging men's nativities to places on doubtful evidence : and 
therefore, when our presumptions do rather incline than satisfy, 
we have prefixed AMP. before the names of such persons. For, 
when they appear undoubted English, and eminent in their re- 
spective qualities, it would be in us a sin of omission not to in- 
sert them ; and yet, being ignorant of the exact place of 
their birth, it would be presumption peremptorily to design it 
without this note of dubitation, though on the most tempting 
probabilities. Know also that when AMP. is used in the arms 
of sheriffs, it is only done in such an exigent, where there are 

* Pro Csec. 290, a. 
G 2 


different coats of very ancient families, and largely diffused, as 
[Nevil, Ferrers, Basset, &c.] ; so that it is hazardous for me to x 
on one in such great variety. 


When we cannot by all our endeavours inform ourselves of 
the nativities of some eminent persons, we are forced to this re- 
fuge (so creditable, that I care not what eyes behold us entering 
under the roof thereof) to insert such persons in those counties 
where we find them either first or highest preferred : and this 
we conceive proper enough, and done upon good consideration. 
For the wild Irish love their nurses as well as (if not better 
than) their own mother, and affect their foster-brothers, which 
sucked the same breast, as much as their natural-brothers which 
sprang from the same womb. If any say these are the wild 
Irish, whose barbarous customs are not to be imitated, I defend 
myself by the practice of more civilized people. 

The Latins have a proverb, " non ubi nascor, sed ubi pascor;" 
making that place their mother, not which bred but which fed 
them. The Greeks have but one word, Bioe, both for life and live- 
lihood. The Hebrews accounted that place was to give a man his 
native denomination, where he had his longest and most visible 
abode, from (though not sometimes in) his infancy ; by which 
common mistake Jesus was intituled on the cross of Nazareth 
instead of Bethlehem. 

Yea, we may observe that though generally our English clergy 
were denominated from their birth-places, yet some few quitted 
them, to be named from those places where they found their 
best preferment, especially if convents or dignities of signal note ; 
as Henry of Huntingdon, not born, but archdeacon there ; 
William of Malmsbury and Matthew of Westminster, no natives 
of those towns, but monks of the monastries therein. 

However, to prevent cavils and avoid confusion, and to dis- 
tinguish those from the former, their names are marked with S.N. 
for Second Nativity, to shew that whencesoever they fetch their 
life, here they found their best livelihood. But when a person 
plainly appears born beyond the seas, we take no notice of him, 
though never so highly advanced in England, as without our 
line of communication, and so not belonging to this subject. 



We meet with some persons in this our work whose nativities 
we cannot recover with any great probability, neither Iby help 
of history, or heraldry, or tradition, or records, or registers, or 
printed or written books, which hitherto have come to our hands. 
Now if such persons be of no eminence, we intend not to trou- 
ble ourselves and reader with them. Let obscurity even go to 


obscurity : when we find no great note in them we take not any 
notice of them. But in case they appear men of much merit, 
whose nativities are concealed by some casualty, we are loath 
that their memories, who whilst living were Worthies, now dead 
should be vagrants, reposited in no certain place. 

Wherefore we have disposed them in some shire or other, 
not as dwellers, no, nor so much as sojourners therein, but only 
as guests ; and we render some slight reasons why we invited 
them to that place rather than another, seeing a small motive 
will prevail with a charitable mind to give a worthy stranger a 
night's lodging. 

However, that these may not be confounded with those of 
whose nativities we have either assurance or strong pre- 
sumption, we have in the margin charactered them with a 
<f RE M/' for " Remove ; " it being our desire that they 
should be transplanted on the first convincing evidence which 
shall appear unto us, to their proper place. And therefore I 
behold them as standing here with a staff in their hands, ready 
to pack up and go away whither any good guide shall give them 

Always provided, that as they are set here with little, they 
be not removed hence with less probability ; an unset bone is 
better than a bone so ill set that it must be broken again, to 
double the pain of the patient. And better it is these persons 
should continue in this their loose and dislocated condition, than 
to be falsely fixed in any place from whence they must again be 

Now, reader (to recollect our marginal or prefixed characters), 
know it is the best sign when no sign at all is added to a 
name : for then we proceed on certainty, at leastwise on the 
credit of good authors, for the place of his nativity. Thus the 
best of the house giveth his coat plain, whilst the following 
differences are but the diminutions of the younger brothers : 

1. "AMP/ 3 Where our evidence of a person's birth is but 
conjectural, and craveth further instruction. 

2. " S. N." When, having no aim at the place of their birth, 
we fix them according to their best livelihood. 

3. ee REM." When, wholly unsatisfied of their position, we 
remit their removal to the reader's discretion. 

Now seeing order only makes the difference betwixt a wall 
and a heap of stones ; and seeing " qui bene distinguit bene 
docet ;" we conceive ourselves obliged to part, and not jumble 
together, the several gradations. 


It often cometh to pass that the same person may justly be 
entituled to two or more topics, as by the ensuing nlay appear. 


Two of bishops, writers ; as Arthur Lakes. Physicians,, bene- 
factors ; as Jo. Caius. Three of bishops, writers,, benefactors ; 
as Lancelot Andrews. Martyrs, bishops, writers; as Thomas 
Cranmer. Four of saints, bishops, writers, statesmen ; as Tho- 
mas Becket. Confessors, bishops, writers, benefactors; as 
Edward Grindall. Two of seamen, soldiers; as Sir Francis 
Drake. Statesmen, soldiers ; as Sir Ralph Sadler. Three of 
statesmen, lawyers, benefactors ; as Sir Nicholas Bacon. States- 
men, lawyers, writers ; as Sir Francis Bacon. Four of lawyers, 
statesmen, writers, benefactors; as William Lord Cecil. Sol- 
diers, seamen, statesmen, writers ; as Sir Walter Raleigh. 

The question is now under what head they shall be properly 
placed, seeing so many lay claim unto them. 

Some will say, let them be ranked in that capacity wherein 
they excelled. This I humbly conceive is an invidious work for 
any to perform : seeing none have made me, I will not make 
myself, a judge in this case, many appearing equally eminent in 
their several capacities ; but have embraced the following order. 

First, the titles of saints and martyrs carrieth it clearly from 
all others : I behold them as heavenly honours ; and glory out- 
shines gold. Next, I deny not I have an affection for benefac- 
tors to the public, and much indulge that topic clean through 
this work. David saith to God himself, " Thou art good ; there 
is a clear spring, and thou doest good : there is a comfortable 
stream ."* Benefaction, therefore, being a God-like act, blame 
me not if under that title those have been ranked who other- 
wise had more outwardly honourable relations. For the rest, I 
am not ashamed to confess, that casualty in such who came first, 
and conveniency in such who agreed best with my present oc- 
casion, regulated them in their method ; and so be it they be 
here, the placing of them is not so much material. 



I AM sadly sensible that being to treat of the Worthies in 
several professions, I shall incur many men's displeasure, in not 
ranking them according to their own desires; the rather because 
there always hath been a battle royal about precedency betwixt 
1. Swordmen and Gownmen: 2. Swordmen and Swordmen : 
3. Gownmen and Gownmen. 

Concerning the first couple, the question, An Doctor prse- 
cedat Militem ? " hangeth as yet on the file, and I believe ever 

* Psal. cxix. 


will, as which is often determined affirmatively in time of peace, 
but always negatively in time of war. 

Nor less is the contest betwixt swordmen and swordmen (I 
mean of the same side arid interest) about priority, whether land 
or sea-captains should take place. The former they plead, that 
they fight ,on a fixed element, not so subject as the sea to casual 
advantages, which being a settled theatre of valour, men may 
indifferently try their courage upon it. The sea-captain 
allegeth, that the greater danger the greater dignity ; and pre- 
cedency therefore due to their profession, who encounter the 
winds and the water, besides the fierceness and fury of their 
enemies. Besides, it is very difficult, if possible, for a ship 
engaged in fight to escape by flight, whereby many in land 
battles easily preserve themselves. 

I confess that custom, the best herald in controversies of this 
kind, hath adjudged the precedency to land- cap tains, but not 
without the great grudge and regret of seamen therein. We 
may observe in nature, that, though the water and earth make 
one globe, and though Providence preserveth the earth from 
being overflown by the water; yet the water, as the lighter 
element, challengeth the highest place to itself, and watcheth 
all opportunities, especially when great rains meet with low 
banks, to regain its superiority by inundations. Sea-captains, 
in like manner, though depressed by practice and custom to 
give place to land-captains, do it with that distaste and dislike, 
that thereby, though they cannot recover their right, they con- 
tinue their claim to precedency, watching their opportunity, and 
now (in our so many naval expeditions) not altogether out of 
hope to regain it. 

Nor less the difference betwixt gownmen and gownmen, who 
should take the upper hand. Witness the contest betwixt the 
Doctors of Physic and of Canon Law, on that account : the for- 
mer pleading the following instrument in their behalf : 

" Memorandum quod anno Domini 1384, in vigilia Purifica- 
tionis Beatae Mariee Virginis, in plena convocatione regentium 
et non regentium, per fidem convocatorum declaratum. est, quod 
Doctor in Medicina dextram partem cancellarii in congrega- 
tionibus et convocationibus retineret, et non sinistram ; Doctor 
vero in Jure Civili partem sinistram, et non dextram. Facta 
est hsec declaratio ex prsecepto regis Ricardi Secundi post Con- 
questum, anno regni sui octavo." * Add to this what a great 
professor of philosophy, living in Padua anno 1482, concludeth 
after a long debating of the question : 6 Dicamus ergo cum 
Sanct Romana Ecclesia, quod Medicina est nobilior Jure Civili, 
quodque Medicinee professores Domini mereantur dici ; Juristee 
vero prsecones." t 

* Caius de Antiq. Cantab, p. 20. 

f Nicholaus Vernias Theatinus, in preefatione in Burleum super Physicis Aris- 


But for all this, the doctors of the canon, since in England 
united with the civil law, will not yield unto them ; pleading 
for themselves, first, that professions are to take place accord- 
ing to the dignity of the subject they are employed about. 
Secondly, that the soul is more worth than the body, which 
is the sphere of the physician. Thirdly, that canonists meddle 
with many cases of soul concernment, and therefore ought to 
have the precedency. 

Wherefore, to prevent all exceptions about priority, may the 
reader acquaint himself with this our method therein. 

1. We place PRINCES ; and both loyalty and civility will 
justify us therein. 

2. SAINTS ; as our Saviour said, " My kingdom is not/ 5 so 
their dignity " is not of this world ;" * and therefore none, I 
hope, will repine thereat. 

3. 4. MARTYRS and CONFESSORS. If any grudge them this 
their high place, let them but give the same price they paid for 
it, and they shall have the same superiority. 

5. EMINENT PRELATES ; a distance which they might justly 
claim in those days above others, as generally the Lord Chancel- 
lors and Treasurers of the land. 

6. STATESMEN ; whose eminent offices do warrant and avouch 
this their station against all opposition. 

7. CAPITAL JUDGES ; to whom this place doth of right 

These premised, in the next four we have observed an order 
without order. Some will maintain that sometimes a riot is as 
good as a diet ; when at a feast all meats cast together help one 
to digest another. " Qui vivit medice, vivit miser e." Sure I 
am, ef scribit misere, qui scribit methodice ;" I mean, when tied 
up to such strict terms of method, in such cases that every 
misplacing is subject to exception. 

I commend the no less politic than peaceable custom of the 
Skinners' and Merchant Tailors 5 of London, who, after many 
long and costly suits betwixt their Companies for precedency, to 
prevent future quarrels, agreed with themselves at last, to go 
first by turns, or alternately. The same method I embrace in 
ranking soldiers, seamen, civilians, physicians, sometimes one 
first, sometimes another, ringing no artificial but a merely casual 
change in the ordering their professions. These thus ranked, 
next follow, 

12. LEARNED WRITERS. Though many of these since the 
Reformation, being Doctors of Divinity, may challenge pre- 
cedency of some name before, yet they will not be discontented 
to come last, having learned the Apostle's rule, " in honour 
preferring one another ; "t and God make us as humble as we 
are humbled. 

* John xviii. 36. f Rom. xii. 10. 


13. BENEFACTORS TO THE PUBLIC. It is good to conclude 
and go out with a good savour ; on which account these worthy 
persons are placed last, to leave the grateful perfume of their 
memory behind them. 

As for MEMORABLE PERSONS, they are last ; last placed, 
because (as that title is taken by, us) they are cast in as super- 
pondium, or overweight, our work being ended before. 



THE plain English saying hath veiy much of downright truth 
therein ; " I tell you my tale, and my tale-master ;" which is 
essential to the begetting of credit to any relation. Indeed, 
when one writeth with St. John, waving his infallible inspira- 
tion, " that which we have heard, which we have seen with our 
eyes, which we have looked upon, and our hands have han- 
dled," * such clogging a book with authors were superfluous ; 
which now is necessary in him that writeth what was done at 
distance, far from, in time long before him. 

First, to assert and vindicate the writer. When Adam com- 
plained that he was naked, God demanded of him, " Who told 
thee that thou wast naked ?"f Intimating thus much, that if he 
could not produce the person who first so informed him, he 
might justly be suspected, as indeed he was, the author as well 
as utterer of that sad truth. Our Saviour said to Pilate, 
" Sayest thou this thing of thyself, or did others tell thee ?" J 
And all things reported are reducible to this dichotomy : 
1. The Fountain of Invention ; 2. The Channel of Relation. If 
one ignorantly buyeth stolen cattle, and hath them fairly 
vouched unto him, and publicly in an open fair payeth toll for 
them, he cannot be damnified thereby : the case I conceive of 
him who writeth a falsehood, and chargeth his margin with the 
author thereof. 

Secondly, to edify and inform the reader ; " frustra creditur, 
quod sine agnitione originis creditur." (" It is vainly believed, 
which is believed without the knowledge of the original thereof.") 
Yea, properly it is no rational belief, but an easy, lazy, supine 

Such as designingly conceal their authors, do it either out of 
guiltiness or envy. Guiltiness, when conscious to themselves, 
that, if inspection be made of such quotations, they will be 
found defectively, redundantly, or injuriously cited, distorted 
from their genuine intention. 

* 1 John i. l. f Gen iii. 11. $ John xviii, 34. 


Or else they do it out of envy. Tyrants commonly cut off 
the stairs by which they climb up unto their thrones (witness 
king Richard the Third beheading the duke of Buckingham) ; 
for fear that, if still they be left standing, others will get up the 
same way. Such the jealousy of some writers, that their readers 
would be as, if not more, knowing than themselves, might they 
be but directed to the original, which they purposely intercept. 

Some, to avoid this rock of envy, run on as bad of ostenta- 
tion ; and, in the end of their books, muster up an army of 
authors (though, perchance, they themselves have not seriously 
perused one regiment thereof) ; so that the goodness of their 
library, not greatness of their learning, may thence be con- 
cluded, that they have (if with the prophet's axe* some were 
not borrowed), for I will not say have read, many books in their 

I have endeavoured to steer my course betwixt both these 
rocks ; and come now to give in the particulars whence I have 
derived my information, knowing full well, quantus author tanta 
fides. These may be referred to three heads ; first, Printed 
Books; secondly, Records in Public Offices; thirdly, Manu- 
scripts in the possession of private gentlemen. To which we 
may add a fourth, viz., Instructions received from the nearest 
Relations to those persons whose lives we have presented. 

We pass by printed books, cited in the margin, and obvious 
to all who are pleased to consult them, and first pitch on the 
Records of the Tower. Master William Riley was then master 
of those jewels ; for so they deserve to be accounted, seeing a 
scholar would prefer that place before the keeping of all the 
prisoners in the Tower. I know not whether more to com- 
mend his care in securing, dexterity in finding, diligence in 
perusing them, or courtesy in communicating such copies of 
them as my occasions required, thanks being all the fees ex- 
pected from me. 

I place next the Records in the Exchequer ; for, although I 
had a catalogue of the sheriffs of England lent me by Master 
Highmore, of the Pipe-office, which I compared with another 
of that learned knight Sir Winkefield Bodenham ; yet, being 
frequently at a loss, I was forced to repair to the originals in 
the Exchequer. Here let not my gratitude be buried in the 
graves of Master John Witt, and Master Francis Boyton, both 
since deceased ; but, whilst living, advantageous to my studies. 

To these authentic records let me add the Church Registers 
in several parishes, denied indeed by our commons-lawyers, but 
stickled for by some canonists to be records-fellows at least, 
and having, though not the formality in law, the force thereof 
in history, very useful to help us in many nativities. 

And here I cannot but bemoan the peya x^^y that great 

* 2 Kings vi. 


gulf, or broad blank, left in our registers during our civil wars, 
after the laying aside of bishops, and before the restitution of 
his most sacred majesty. Yea, hereafter this sad vacuum is 
like to prove so thick, like the Egyptian darkness, that it will 
be sensible in our English histories. 

I dare maintain that the wars betwixt York and Lancaster, 
lasting by intermission some sixty years, were not so destruc- 
tive to church records, as our modern wars in six years : for 
during the former, their differences agreed in the same religion, 
impressing them with reverence of all sacred muniments ; whilst 
our civil wars, founded in faction, and variety of pretended 
religions, exposed all naked church records a prey to their 
armed violence. 

Let me add, that it conduced much to the exactness of 
Jewish genealogies, that their children were solemnly circum- 
cised and named on the eighth day. On the contrary, the 
omitting the baptizing of infants till they be adult (which 
causeth, that though the weekly births exceed the burials, the 
burials exceed the christenings in London), will perplex those 
who in the next age shall write the nativities of such persons. 
Say not it matters not though their nativities be utterly for- 
gotten : for though their fathers were factious fanatics, the sons, 
by God's grace, may prove sober Christians, and eminent in 
their generations. 

The last port to which I trafficked for intelligence, towards 
our issuing work, was by making my addresses, by letters and 
otherwise, to the nearest relations of those whose lives I have 
written. Such applications have sometimes proved chargeable ; 
but, if my weak pains shall find preferment (that is, acceptance) 
from the judicious reader, my care and cost is forgotten, and 
shall never come under computation. 

Here I cannot but condemn the carelessness, not to say in- 
gratitude, of those (I am safe whilst containing myself in 
general terms) who can give no better account of the place 
where their fathers or grandfathers were born, than the child 
unborn ; so that sometimes we have been more beholden to 
strangers for our instructions herein, than to their nearest kin- 
dred. And although some will say sons are more comfortably 
concerned to know the time of their father's death than place 
of their birth, yet I could almost wish that a moderstte fine 
were imposed on such heirs, whose fathers were born before 
them, and yet they know not where they were born. How- 
ever, this I must gratefully confess, I have met with many who 
could not, never with any who would not, furnish me with 
information herein. 

It is observable, that men born an hundred years since, and 
upwards, have their nativities fixed with more assurance, than 
those born some eighty years since. Men's eyes see worst in 
the twilight, in that interval after the sun is set, and natural 


light ended, and before candles are set up, and artificial light 
beo-un. In such a crepusculum of time those writers lived, who 
fall short of the history of Bale and Leland, yet go before the 
memory of any alive, which unhappy insterstice hath often per- 
plexed us, and may easier be complained of than amended. 

To conclude, should I present all with books, who cour- 
teously have conduced to my instruction, the whole impression 
would not suffice. But I remember the no less civil than 
politic invitation of Judah to the tribe of Simeon, " Come up 
with me into my lot [to conquer the Canaanites], and I like- 
wise will go with thee into thy lot." * If such who have lent 
me theirs, shall have occasion to borrow mine assistance, my 
pains, brains, and books, are no more mine than theirs to com- 
mand ; which, besides my prayers for them, and thanks to them, 
is all my ability in requital can perform. 




THIS discourse I tender the reader, as a preparative to dis- 
pose him for the better observing and distinguishing of our 
English gentry, in our ensuing lives and catalogue of Sheriffs. 

We begin with the Britons, the Aborigines, or native inha- 
bitants of the south of this Island, but long since expelled by 
the Saxons into the West thereof; none then remaining in, 
some since returning into our land, of whom hereafter. 

We confess, the Romans conquered our country, planted co- 
lonies, and kept garrisons therein ; but their descendants are not 
by any character discernible from the British. Indeed, if any 
be found able to speak Latin naturally, without learning it, we 
may safely conclude him of Roman extraction. Meantime, it is 
rather a pretty conceit than a solid notion of thatf great anti- 
quary, who, from the allusion of the name, collecteth the noble 
family of the Cecils (more truly Sytsilts) descended from the 
Cecilii, a Senatorian family in Rome. 

The Saxons succeed, whose offspring at this day are the main 
bulk and body of the English (though not gentry) nation ; I 
may call them the whole cloth thereof, though it be guarded 
here and there with some great ones of foreign extraction. 
These Saxons, though pitifully depressed by the. Conqueror, by 
God's goodness, king Henry the First's favour, their own 
patience and diligence, put together the planks of their ship- 

* Judges i. 3. f Verstegan, of Decayed Intelligence, p. 313. 


wrecked estates, and afterwards recovered a competent con- 

The Danes never acquired in this land a long and peaceable 
possession thereof, living here rather as inroaders than inhabi- 
tants, the cause that so few families (distinguishable by their 
surnames) are descended from them, extant in our age. 
Amongst which few, the respected stock of the Denizes, (often 
sheriffs in Devon * and Gloucestershire) appear the principal. 
As for Fitz-Hardinge, the younger son of the king of Denmark, 
and direct ancestor of the truly honourable George Lord 
Berkeley, he came in long since, when he accompanied the 

I must confess that, at this day, there passeth a tradition among 
some of the common people, that such names which terminate in 
son, as Johnson, Tomson, Nicolson, Davison, Saunderson, are 
of Danish origination. But this fond opinion is long since 
confuted by Verstegan,t that ingenious and industrious anti- 
quary. Yea, he urgeth this as an argument (which much pre- 
vaileth with me) why those surnames were not derived from the 
Danes, because they had no such name in use amongst them as 
John, Thomas, Nicholas, David, Alexander, from whence they 
should be deduced. 

Yea, he further addeth, that it is more probable that they 
made the child's name, by adjecting the syllable son to the 
appellation of the father (a custom which is usual even at this 
time amongst the vulgar sort of the Dutch). Yet is there not 
remaining any sign thereof amongst the names of our age; 
which probably might have been, Canutson, Ericson, Gormoson, 
Heraldson, Rofolson, &c. 

The Normans, or French, under the Conqueror, swarmed in 
England ; so that then they became the only visible gentry in 
this nation ; and still continue more than a moiety thereof. 
Several catalogues of their names I have so largely exemplified 
in my " Church History," that some have taxed me for tedious- 
ness therein ; and I will not add a new obstinacy to iny old 

But, besides these, we have some surnames of good families 
in England, now extant, which, though French, are not by any 
diligence to be recovered in the lists of such as came over with 
the Conqueror ; and therefore we suppose them to have remain- 
ed of those gentlemen and others which from Renault attended 
queen Isabel, wife unto king Edward the Second. Of this 
sort was Devreux, Mollineux, Darcy, Coniers, Longchamp, 
Henage, Savage, Danvers, with many more. 

Of the British or Welsh, after their expulsion hence by the 
Saxons, some signal persons have returned again ; and, by the 
king's grant, matches, purchases, &c. have fixed themselves in 

Camden's Britannia, in Devonshire. f Of Decayed Intelligence. 


fair possessions in England,, especially since the beginning of 
the reign of their countryman king Henry the Seventh, reward- 
ing the valour of many contributing to his victory in the battle 
of Bos worth. Of the Welsh, now re-estated in England, and 
often sheriffs therein, some retain their old surnames, as the 
Griffins in Northamptonshire, the Griffiths and Vaughans in 
Yorkshire ; . some have assumed new ones, as the Caradocks, 
now known by the new name of the Newtons* in Somersetshire. 

Many Scotch (long before the union of the two kingdoms 
under king James) seated themselves in this land, flying hither 
for succour from their civil wars ; and surely it was against 
their mind, if they all went back again. Distress at sea hath 
driven others in, as the Stewards, high-sheriffs in Cambridge- 
shire ; as other accidents have occasioned the coming in of the 
Scrimpshires, an hundred years since high- sheriffs in Stafford- 
shire ; more lately the Nappers in Bedfordshire ; and before 
both, the Scots of Scots-hall in Kent. 

I much admire, that never an eminent Irish native grew in 
England to any greatness ; so many English have prospered in 
that country. But, it seems, we love to live there, where we 
may command ; and they care not to come where they must 

Our great distance from Italy, always in position, and since 
the reformation in religion, hath caused that few or none of that 
nation have so incorporated with the English, as to have founded 
families therein. Yet have we a sprinkling of Italian Protes- 
tants ; Castilian, a valiant gentleman of Berkshire. The Bassa- 
noes, excellent painters and musicians, in Essex, which came 
over into England under king Henry the Eighth ; and since, in 
the reign of queen Elizabeth, Sir Horatio Palavicine (receiver of 
the Pope's revenues) landed in Cambridgeshire, and the Csesars 
(alias Dalmarii) still flourishing in Hertfordshire, in worshipful 
estates ; though I never find any of these performing the office 
of sheriff. 

The High-Dutch of the Hans Towns, antiently much conversed 
in our land, (known by the name of Easterlings) invited hither 
by the large privileges our kings conferred upon them, so that 
the Steel-yard proved the Gold-yard unto them. But these 
merchants moved round in their own sphere, matching amongst 
themselves, without mingling with our nation. Only we may 
presume, that the Easterlings (corruptly called Stradlings) for- 
merly sheriffs in Wiltshire, and still famous in Glamorganshire, 
with the Westphalings, lately sheriffs of Oxfordshire, were ori- 
ginally of German extraction. 

The Low Country-men, frighted by Duke d'Alva's tyranny, 
flocked hither under king Edward the Sixth, fixing themselves 

* Camden's Britannia, in Somersetshire. 


in London,, Norwich, Canterbury, and Sandwich. But these 
confined themselves to their own church discipline, and, for 
ought I can find, advanced not forward by eminent matches 
into our nation. Yet I behold the worthy family of De la Fon- 
taine in Leicestershire, as of Belgian original, and have read 
how the ancestors of Sir Symonds d'Ewes in Suffolk came 
hither under king Henry the Eighth, from the Dunasti or 
D'us in Guelderland. 

As for the Spaniards, though their king Philip matched with 
our queen Mary, but few of any eminence now extant (if I well 
remember) derive their pedigrees from them. This I impute to 
the shortness of their reign, and the ensuing change of religions. 
Probable it is, we might have had more natives of that king- 
dom to have settled and flourished in our nation, had he 
obtained a marriage with queen Elizabeth (of blessed memory), 
which some relate he much endeavoured. 

As for Portugal, few of that nation have as yet fixed their 
habitations, and advanced families to any visible height in our 
land. But it may please God hereafter we may have a happy 
occasion to invite some of that nation to reside, and raise fami- 
lies in England. Meantime the Mays (who have been sheriffs 
in Sussex) are all whom I can call to mind of the Portugal 
race, and they not without a mixture of Jewish extraction. 

Come we now to the second division of our gentry, accord- 
ing to the professions whereby they have been advanced. And 
here, to prevent unjust misprision, be it premised, that such 
professions found most of them gentlemen, being the (though 
perchance younger) sons of wealthy fathers, able to give them 
liberal education. They were lighted before as to their gentility, 
but now set up in a higher candlestick, by such professions 
which made a visible and conspicuous accession of wealth and 
dignity, almost to the eclipsing their former condition. Thus 
all behold Isis, increased in name and water, after its conjunc- 
tion with Thame at Dorchester ; whilst few take notice of the 
first fountain thereof, many miles more westward in Glouces- 

The study of the Common Law hath advanced most ancient ex- 
tant families in our land. It seems they purchased good titles, 
made sure settlements, and entailed thrift with their lands on 
posterity. A prime person of that profession* hath prevented 
my pains, and given in a list of such principal families ; I say 
principal, many being omitted by him in so copious a subject. 
Miraculous the mortality in Egypt " where there was not a 
house wherein there was not one dead."f But I hope, it will 
be allowed marvellous, that there is not a generous and nume- 
rous house in England, wherein there is not one (though 
generally 116 first-born, but a younger brother) anciently or at 

* Sir Edward Coke. | Exod. xii. 30. 


this day living, thriving, and flourishing, by the study of the 
law; especially if to them, what in justice ought, be added 
those who have raised themselves in courts relating to the law. 

The city hath produced more than the law in number ; and 
some as broad in wealth, but not so high in honour, nor long 
lasting in time, who like land-floods, soon come, and soon gone, 
have been dried up before the third generation. 

Yet many of these have continued in a certain channel, and 
carried a constant stream, as will plainly appear in the sequel of 
our Worthies. 

The church, before the Reformation, advanced many fami- 
lies : for, though bishops might not marry, they preferred their 
brothers' sons to great estates ; as the Kemps in Kent, Peck- 
hams in Sussex, Wickham in Hampshire, Meltons in Yorkshire. 
Since the Reformation, some have raised families to a knightly 
and worshipful estate ; Hutton, Bilson, Dove, Neil, &c. But 
for sheriffs, I take notice of Sandys in Worcester and Cam- 
bridgeshire, Westphaling in Herefordshire, Elmar in Suffolk, 
Rud in Caermarthenshire, &c. 

Sure I am, there was a generation of people of the last age, 
which thought they would level all clergymen, or any descen- 
dants from them, with the ground. Yea, had not God's arm 
been stretched out in their preservation, they had become a prey 
to their enemies' violence, and what they had designed to them- 
selves, and in some manner effected, had ere this time been 
perfectly completed. 

As for the inferior clergy, it is well if their narrow main- 
tenance will enable them to leave a livelihood to their little 
ones. I find but one, Robert Johnson* by name, attaining such 
an estate, that his grandson was pricked sheriff of a county, but 
declined the place, by pleading himself a deacon, and by the 
favour of Archbishop Laud. 

The study of the Civil Law hath preferred but few ; the most 
eminent in that faculty, before the Reformation, being persons 
in orders, prohibited marriage. However, since the Reforma- 
tion, there are some worshipful families which have been raised 
by the study in this faculty. 

Yet have our wars (which perhaps might have been advo- 
cated for in Turks and Pagans, who bid defiance to all huma- 
nity, but utterly misbeseeming Christians,) been a main cause of 
the moulting of many eminent and worthy persons of this 
profession. Nor could it be expected that the professors of 
human laws should have been allowed favour during our un- 
natural dissensions, the promoters thereof having a constant 
pique at whatever bore but the resemblance of order and civi- 
lity, when the true dispensers of God's laws, yea the law of 
God, yea God himself, was vilified and contemned. 

* See " Benefactours to the Publique " in Lincolnshire. 


The best is, that, as Divine Providence hath in his mercy 
been pleased to restore our sovereign, so with him we have 
received both our ancient laws and liberties. And now it 
begins to be fair weather again, as with this so with all other 
necessary and useful avocations, which in due time may repair 
their decayed fortunes. 

Physic hath promoted many more, and that since the reign of 
king Henry the Eighth. Indeed, before his time, I find a doc- 
tor of physic, father to Reginald, first and last Lord Bray. But 
this faculty hath flourished much the three last fifty years ; it 
being true of physic, what is said of Sylla, ee suos divitiis exple- 
vit." Sir William Butts, physician to king Henry the Eighth, 
doctor Thomas Wendy and doctor Hatcher to queen Elizabeth, 
raised worshipful and wealthy families in Norfolk, Cambridge, 
and Lincolnshire, having borne the office of sheriff in their 
respective counties. 

Some have raised themselves by sea-service, and letters of 
mart, especially in the reign of queen Elizabeth, when we had 
war with the Spaniard. But such estates, as flowing so have 
ebbed with the tide, seldom of long continuance. Such prizes 
have been observed best to prosper, whose takers had least of 
private revenge and most of public service therein. Amongst 
these, most remarkable the baronet's family of Drakes in De- 
vonshire, sometimes sheriffs of that county. 

Some have raised themselves by their attendance at court, 
rewarded by the king^s favour ; court, where many have car- 
ried away more, for bringing the less to it. Here some younger 
brothers have found their lost birth-right, mending their pace 
to wealth, though they started late by their nativity. But I 
only generally point at, without touching them, that I may not 
forestal the reader, whose pains may be pleasant unto him, in 
his own discovery thereof. 

Many have advanced themselves by their valour in foreign 
wars, especially in France, as the Knolls, a noble family ; and 
the Calveleys, often sheriffs in Cheshire ; so that Mars in this 
sense may be said to be the father of Plutus, his steel weapons 
procuring to his followers the more acceptable metals of gold 
and silver. But the worst is, where foreign wars have raised 
one, our late civil ones have ruined ten families. 

Some may object, that as they have destroyed so they have 
raised many families (which before in themselves were mean 
and contemptible) to high titles and large possessions. All I 
shall return in answer thereunto is, that as most alive saw them 
rise, per saltum, by unwarrantable means to such a pitch of 
preferment ; so there is but few alive, but may, if not willingly 
and wilfully blind, see them deservedly thrown down with dis- 
grace and contempt, to their former mean and despicable con- 

VOL. I. H 


Clothing, as it hath given garments to millions of people, 
hath conferred coats of arms, and gentility therewith, on many 
families in this land ; as on the Springs, high-sheriffs of Suf- 

The country, with her two full breasts, Grazing and Tillage, 
hath raised many families. Josephus rendereth a reason, as 
weak in itself as wide from the truth, why Abel's sacrifice was 
preferred before Cain's ; viz. because Abel fairly took what Na- 
ture freely tendered in the increase of his cattle, whilst Cain 
violently wounded the earth with his ploughing. But St. Paul 
teacheth us better doctrine, that faith caused the Deception of 
the one, and unbelief the rejection of the other.* Surely, both 
callings are equally acceptable to God, who hath so blessed their 
endeavours, that thereby many have gained estates, enabling 
them to serve sheriffs of their county. But I forbear to instance 
them, lest what was the honour of their ancestors to raise such 
families, be counted in this captious age to be a dishonour to 
their posterity, to be raised by so plain, though honest and 
necessary, an employment. 

Some, the surer to hit the mark of wealth, have had two 
strings to their bow, a complication of professions concurring 
to their advancement. Thus the Chichleys in Cambridgeshire 
are descendants from a lord mayor ; allied also collaterally to an 
archbishop of Canterbury. 

On the main, we may observe, how happy a liberal (at least 
lawful) vocation hath proved to younger brethren, whereby 
Ephraim hath outgrown Manasseh, the younger outstript the 
heir of the family. I knew a school-boy, not above twelve years 
old, and utterly ignorant in all logical terms, who was com- 
manded to English the following distich : 

" Dat Galenus opes, dat Justinianus honores ; 
Cum genus, et species, cogitur ire pedes." 

Only they favoured the boy so far, to inform him, that Galenus 
did signify the profession of physic, Justinianus of law ; on which 
ground he thus proceeded : 

Galenus, the study of physic, dat giveth, opes wealth ; Jus- 
tinianus, the study of law, dat giveth, honores honours : cum 
when, genus high birth, et species and beauty, [having no 
other calling (saith the boy) to maintain them,] cogitur is com- 
pelled, ire pedes to go on foot." 

To prevent such foot-travelling, it is good to be mounted on 
a gainful vocation, to carry one out of the mire, on all occasions. 

* Hebrews xi. 4. 




Exception 1. You usurp the style of princes, speaking often 
in the plural : 6e come we now ;" " pass we now ;" " proceed 
we now/ 5 &c. ; which is false grammar from a single, ill ethics 
from a private, person. 

Answer. First, I appeal to any exercised in reading of books, 
whether the same be not used in other authors. 

Secondly, we in such cases includeth the writer and reader ; 
it being presumed that the eye of the one goeth along with the 
pen of the other. 

Thirdly, it also compriseth all other writers out of whom 
anything is transcribed, and their names quoted in the margin. 

Let me add, to God's glory, my friends' credit, and my own 
comfort, that our we is comprehensive of all my worthy friends, 
who, by their pains or purses, have been contributive to my 
weak endeavours. 

Exception 2. The WORTHIES of ENGLAND being your 
subject, you have mingled many Un worthies among them, ra- 
ther notorious than notable, except in the same sense wherein 
Barabbas is termed notable in the Gospel. * 

Answer. Such persons are so few, their number is not 
considerable. Secondly, they are so eminent in their gene- 
rations, that their omission would make a maim in history. 
Thirdly, how bad soever their morals their naturals and artifi- 
cials were transcendant, and the oracle-like wisdom of wicked 
Achitophel found praise from the pen of the Holy Spirit, f 
Lastly, the worst of such men have a black line (serving pro 
nigro carbons) prefixed to their name, for distinction sake. 

Exception 3. You might better have omitted the mention 
of some modern persons, reputed Malignants by the present 
power, and blasted by these times in their estates.^ 

Answer. All persons unhappy must not presently be ac- 
counted unworthy, especially in distracted times. Have you not 
heard of that humorous waterman on the Thames, who would 
carry none in his boat save such who would go along with the 
tide, till, by feeding his humour, he had almost starved himself 
for want of employment. I should be as peevish as partial, 
should I admit those only into my Catalogue of WORTHIES, 
who of late years did swim in plenty, seeing many have been 
great sufferers, deservedly commendable by the testimony of 
their adversaries. 

* Matthew xxvii. 16. f 2 Samuel xvi. 23. 

f Reader, this being written in the midnight of our miseries, I could not com- 
mand my hand to expunge it. F. 

H 2 


Exception 4. You only report the virtues, but conceal the 
faults of many persons within our own memories: 

Answer. I conceive myself bound so to do, by the rules of 
charity. When an orator was to praise a person deceased, 
generally and justly hated for his viciousness, it was suspected 
that he would, for his fee, force his conscience by flattery, to 
commend him whose expectations he thus defeated. " This 
dead person," saith he, " must in one respect be spoken well of 
by all, because God made him ; and in another respect should 
not be spoken ill of by any, because he is dead ; e et de 
mortuis nil nisi bonum/" How much more, when men have 
many good virtues, with some faults, ought the latter to be 
buried in their graves with forgetfulness \ 

Exception 5. You make many uncivil and unsatisfactory 
references of your reader, to those books which you have for- 
merly printed, remitting them to be there further informed ; as 
if, when you had invited guests, you consigned them over 
(coming to dine with you) to fetch a dinner at an house they do 
not know ; it being probable that many may read this your 
book, who never had your former works. 

Answer. Such references are very sparing, only to avoid 
repetition in those lives which I have formerly written at large ; 
as St. Dunstan's, Cardinal Wolsey, Thomas Lord Cromwell, 
Sir John Cheke, Archbishop Whitgift, Mr. Perkins, &c. And 
I appeal to all writers of many books (of which fault I myself 
am guilty) whether such references be not usual in the like 
cases. I will not add that I have passed my promise (and that 
is an honest man's bond) to my former stationer, that I will 
write nothing for the future, which was in my former books so 
considerable as may make them interfere one with another to 
his prejudice. 

Exception J. You often apply the word create to men ; as, 
to create a cardinal, an earl, &c. ; whereas conscientious people 
allow that word appropriable to God alone, as importing the 
making of something out of nothing. 

Answer. I hope our common lawyers will plead for me in 
this case, having the phrase so frequent in their mouths, to 
create right, to create a title. Besides, I observe, that such who 
scruple the using the single verb, boggle no whit at the com- 
pound, to recreate and recreations. Now seeing to recreate is 
to create twice, I understand not how the using this word once 
should be a sin, whilst it is no sin in the repetition or reaction 
thereof. In a word, in words of this nature, I conceive one may 
conform himself to the custom of common language. 

Exception 8. You, out of flattery, conceal the mean extrac- 
tion of many (especially modern) men, who have attained to 
great preferment, pointing at the place of their birth, but sup- 
pressing their parentage. 


Answer. I conceive myself to have done well in so doing, 
If inquiry be made into all men's descents, it would be found 
true what the poet doth observe : 

Majorum primus guisquisfuit Hie tuorum, 
Aut pastor fait, aut illud quod dicere nolo. 
" The first of all thine ancestors of yore 
Was but a shepherd, or I say no more." 

Besides, it plainly proveth the properness of their parts, and 
tallness of their industry, who thereby, and by God's blessing 
thereon, reached so high preferment, though disadvantaged by 
standing on so low ground of their extraction. 

Exception 9. " Haste makes waste." You have huddled 
your book too soon to the press, for a subject of such a nature. 
You should have sent to the gentry of several counties, to have 
furnished you with memorables out of their own pedigrees, and 
should have taken a longer time to compose them. 

Nonumque prematur in annum. 

" Eight years digest what you have rudely hinted, 
And in the ninth year let the same be printed." 

Answer. That ninth year might happen eight years after my 
death, being sensible of the impression of age upon me ; and a 
stranger to my method would hardly rally my scattered and 
posthumed notes. By the difficulty to get some few, I conclude 
the impossibility to procure all the observables out of gentle- 
men's records ; and therefore leave the task to the industry of 
others in their respective counties. 

Exception 10. Some instructions have lately been sent you, 
concerning some persons which appear not in this your work. 

Answer. Lately, indeed, though neither many nor consider- 
able, since such shires were put under the press. In Holland, 
waggons go to and return from their stages at set hours, though 
carrying but one passenger, and sometimes altogether empty. 
Such the condition of the press, it stays for no man ; nor will 
attend the leisure (not to say lagging) of any ; but proceedeth 
on with what it hath in present, be it never so little. 

Exception 11. In your Protestant writers you promiscuously 
mingle some very zealous for Episcopacy, others as active for 
Presbytery. These ought to have been sorted severally by 
themselves, seeing the great distance of judgment betwixt them. 

Answer. I hope such conjoining of them may happily pre- 
sage a comfortable expedient betwixt them, who differ not in 
fundamentals of religion. 2. I had rather privately bemoan 
than publicly proclaim the difference betwixt them when alive ; 
charitably believing that being dead, 

Jam bene conveniunt, et inuna sede morantur. 

" Now they are agreed well, 
And in bliss together dwell." 

However it is not without precedents in the best authors, to 
conjoin those in history who dissent in opinion. Witness 


Thuanus, when concluding every year with the funerals of emi- 
nent persons, though fervent in opposite persuasions. 

Exception 12. There is great disproportion betwixt your ca- 
talogue of statesmen ; beginning the lord treasurers under king 
Henry the Seventh ; the lord chancellors under king Henry the 
Eighth ; other statesmen at other epochs : whereas had you ob- 
served the same era in all of them, it had added much to the 
uniformity of your work. And as all start not from the same 
place, they run not to the same mark ; some being continued to 
this day, some concluded seven years since ; such imparity 
making the list seem lame, like the legs of a badger. 

Answer. I hope that a more charitable fancy, with as good a 
judgment, will compare it to the pipes of an organ, which though 
of an uneven length, contribute to the better melody. A rea- 
son is rendered in the respective places where these general 
topics are premised, why such several catalogues begin and end 
at such times. And I do believe that they will prove satisfac- 
tory to such ingenuous readers that come with no cavilling pre- 

Exception 13. In your catalogue of learned writers you have 
omitted many, as may appear by Pitseus's K Appendix Illus- 
trium Angliee Scriptorum." For of the four hundred by him 
mentioned, not fifty appear in your. list of them. 

Answer. Pitseus himseif shall plead for me, who in his Pre- 
face to his Appendix ingenuously confesseth : (e Eos adhuc 
efficere non valeo dignos, qui inter illustres Scriptores locum ob- 
tineant." So that one may call them obscuros illustres; little 
being known of the books which they wrote, less of the times 
when they lived, nothing of the places where they w r ere born. 
However, seeing some persons of eminence have straggled 
amongst them, I have selected such with my best care, and pre- 
sented them in my catalogue. 

Exception 14. Of some men you have little save their name, 
life, and death : and yet you term such Eminent Persons. 

Answer. Surely they were so in themselves, and deserve 
more should be than is left written of them, through the injury of 
time. All that I will plead in my own defence is this : there is an 
officer in the Exchequer called Clericus Nihilorum, or the Clerk 
of the Nichils, who maketh a roll of all such sums as are nichilled 
by the sheriff upon their estreats of the green wax, when such 
sums are set on persons either not found, or not found solvable. 
This roll he delivereth into the treasurer's Remembrancer's 
Office, to have execution done upon it for the king ; and thus 
the clerk hath done his duty, leaving it to them to see if they 
can make any thing of his return. 

I conceive in like manner I have performed my utmost, in 
that I return such persons to have nothing more to be said of 
them, findable by all my endeavours. However I consign them 
over to more able historians, whose pains I will neither prejudice 


nor discourage ; but if they be pleased to begin where I ended, 
I wish them more happy success in their discoveries. 

Exception 15. Your book is surcharged with Scripture ob- 
servations, and reflections in divinity, even when no necessity 
leadeth you thereunto. 

Answer. The reader hath conjitentem ; but I will never ac- 
knowledge reum, pleading custom and conscience in my just ex- 
cuse : custom, being habited by my profession therein. The 
learned observe of St. Luke, that, being a physician by his func- 
tion, and describing the difference between Paul and Barnabas, 
he made use of an expression in his own faculty, " and there was 
betwixt them a dissension "* [in Greek trapofr tr^og] : that is, 
" the height and heat of a burning fever ." So that the Spirit 
of God, guiding his pen, permitted him to make use of the 
language proper to his vocation. And I presume the same fa- 
vour will be indulged to me by all ingenuous persons, to have 
(I will not say a partiality, but) an affection to the expressions of, 
and excursions into, my own calling. Secondly, I plead con- 
science, that seeing some may cavil this work to be a deviation 
from my function (and I myself perchance sensible of some 
truth therein), I will watch and catch all opportunity to make 
a fair regress to my profession. 

Exception 16. You lay down certain rules for the better re- 
gulating your work, and directing the reader, promising to con- 
fine yourself to the observation thereof, and break them often 
yourself. For instance, you restrain the topic of lawyers to 
capital judges and writers of the law ; yet under that head insert 
judge Paston and others, who were only puny judges in their 
respective courts. You limit statesmen to lord chancellors, 
treasurers, English secretaries of state, &c., and put in Sir 
Edward Waterhouse, who was secretary but in Ireland. In a 
word, few heads are preserved pure according to their constitu- 
tion, without the mixture of improper persons amongst them. 
Why did you break such rules, when knowing you made them ? 
Why did you make such rules, when minding to break them ? 
And this is an exception of exceptions against you. 

Answer. I never intended to tie myself up so close, without 
reserving lawful liberty to myself upon just occasion. Indeed 
we read of St. Egwin the Third, bishop of Worcester, f that he 
made for himself a pair of iron shackles, and locking them close 
unto his legs, cast the key thereof into the Severn, desiring never 
to be loosed till he had made satisfaction for his sins. Returning 
from Rome, a fish leaped into the ship, in whose belly was 
found the key ; and so Egwin was miraculously restored to his 

Had I in like manner fettered myself to the topics propound- 
ed, on presumption of so strange a release, none would have 

* Acts xv. 39. f Ranulphus Cestrensis, in ejus vita ; Matth. Westm. anno 

712. Florent. Wigorn. anno 708. 


pitied my restraint, wilfully contracted on myself. But the best 
is, I resolved to keep the key in my own hands, to enlarge myself 
when I apprehended a just cause thereof. However I have not 
made use of this key to recede from my first limitations, save 
where I crave leave of and render a reason to the reader ; such 
anomalous persons being men of high merit, under those heads 
where they are inserted. 

Exception 17- You have omitted many memorable persons 
still surviving, as meriting as any you have inserted. 

Answer. The return of Martial,* in a case not much unlike, 
may much befriend me herein : 

Miraris veteres, Vacerra, solos, 
Nee laudas nisi mortuos poetas. 
Jgnoscas petimus, Vacerra , tanti ' 
Non est, ut placeam tibi, perire. 
" Deceased authors thou admir'st alone, 
And only praisest poets dead and gone. 
Vacerra, pardon me, I will not buy 
Thy praise so dear, as for the same to die." 

All men being like-minded with Martial herein, none surviv- 
ing will distaste their omission in a work, for reasons afore- 
alleged (save in some cases) confined to the memories of the 

Exception 18. Speaking of the commodities of several 
counties, you say the wool of Herefordshire is best, and yet 
Gloucestershire is best : the wheat of Herefordshire is best, and 
yet Middlesex best: the lead of Derbyshire best, and yet 
Somersetshire best : the iron of Sussex best, and Stafford- 
shire best. The same may be observed in your praising of 
persons ; making several men at the same time the best poets, 
divines, schoolmen, &c. ; and this must be both falsehood and 
flattery together. 

Answer. Impute it (I pray) to my peaceable disposition, unwil- 
ling to occasion discord betwixt eminencies, the rather because 
things of the same kind may severally be the best in sundry 
qualities. Some wool best for cloth, other for hats ; some 
wheat best for yielding of most, other finest flower ; some lead 
best for bullets, other for sheeting houses ; some iron best for 
ordnance, other for nails, keys, and smaller utensils. 

Neither is it without precedent in Scripture, to character seve- 
ral men best in the same profession, both Hezekiahf and Josiahf 
being commended to have had none like unto them, neither be- 
fore nor after them. 

Exception 19. During the later years of king Charles of 
blessed memory, you have for the most part omitted the sheriffs 
in your catalogue. 

Answer. There was then (as I may say) a schism in that 
office, betwixt the sheriffs and anti-sheriffs. As for the former, 

* Lib. viii. Epig. 69. f 2 Kings xviii. 5. J Ibid, xxiii. 25. 


made by the king's designation, and beheld as the only legal 
ones,, I durst not name them,, as the times then stood when I 
collected that catalogue, for fear lest thereby I might betray 
some of them (till that time concealed) to a sequestration. I 
therefore preferred to leave a void space in my list, and wish it 
were the worst breach or desolation made by our late civil 

Exception 20. But, since the happy turn of the times, you 
might have inserted them, not only without any danger, but with 
great honour unto them. 

Answer. When the danger was removed, the difficulty did 
deter me. For in those tumultuary times, the royal sheriffs did 
not regularly (according to ancient custom) pass their accounts 
in the Exchequer at London : so that I was at a loss to recover 
certainty herein, Wherefore, according to my general motto, 
" a blank is better than a blot/' I left a vacuity for them. For 
which bald place, the reader (if so pleased) may provide a peri- 
wig, and with his pen insert such sheriffs as come to his cogni- 

Exception. 21 . It was expected that you should have pre- 
sented the maps of all shires, which would have added much 
light and lustre to your work (which now is, as an house with- 
out windows, very dark and uncomfortable) ; as also that you 
should have cut the arms of all gentlemen in copper (at the 
least in wood) which would have been more satisfactory to them, 
and ornamental to your book. 

Answer. Cuts are cuts, as I have found by dear experience. 
Besides, when they are done, they are not done, the working 
them off at the rolling press being as expensive as the graving 
them ; both which will mount our book to an unreasonable 
price. Secondly, it would be disgraceful to cut those maps 
worse, and difficult (if not impossible) to do them better, than 
they are done already. Thirdly, such gentlemen (not formerly 
furnished therewith) may procure them at a cheaper rate than I 
could afford them. Lastly, such new re-graving them would 
be injurious to the owners of the old maps : and I will not bot- 
tom my profit on another man's prejudice. 

Exception 22. You betray unworthy partiality in omitting 
and inserting of persons. For John of Gaunt, though son to a 
king, and worthy warrior, can get no room in your book, whilst 
Simon de Gaunt, a bishop of Salisbury (both of them by their 
surnames equally appearing foreigners) hath a place found for 
him therein. It seems a prelate finds more favour from you 
than a prince. 

Answer. Is there not a cause, and that a satisfactory one ? 
I prefer not a prelate before a prince, but truth before both ; 
and the methodical regulation of my book, according to the 
rules premised, without which all will fall to confusion. It is 


as notoriously known, that John of Gaunt was born at Gaunt 
in Flanders (and so an alien from our subject) ; as plainly it ap- 
peareth, that Simon de Gaunt (though his father was a Fleming) 
was born in London : " Magister Simon de Gaunt," saith Mat- 
thew of Westminster, " editus Londini, vir in arte Theologiee 

Exception 23. You discover much negligence in dating of 
particular persons, instancing the time only when they flou- 
rished, without observing when they were born or died ; and 
this mindeth me of a passage in Tully, charging Verres, the de- 
puty of Sicily, with notorious laziness, " quod nunquam solem 
nee orientem nee occidentem viderat/'* (" that he never saw the 
sun rising, being in bed after : nor setting, being in bed before 
it.") Thus your pen is altogether a sluggard, only taking notice 
of them when shining in the vertical height, without either 
beholding them rising out of their cradle, or setting in their 

Answer. Let Tully tell out his story : and it will befriend 
and furnish me with a just defence. Sicily (saith he) enjoyeth 
so clear a sky, that the sun is seen there every day in the year 
rising or setting. Intolerable therefore the sloth of Verres 
(noble at nothing but oppression) that he never saw the sun 
either to rise or set, as roosted after or before. Were it so 
that either the rising or setting of eminent persons (their birth 
and death) were (with the Sicilian sun) ever visible, as always 
recorded by authors, I would confess myself justly taxed with 
inexcusable laziness; but seeing sometimes a panic silence 
herein, not meeting either with the midwife or sexton, who de- 
livered or buried such people, we conceive ourselves have 
satisfied, if instancing only the time wherein such persons 

Exception 24. It had been more proper and more satisfac- 
tory for you to have placed your Exceptions and Answers ra- 
ther at the end than beginning of your book, when the reader 
had wholly perused it ; only premising, you will be responsible 
to such objections as would be made against your endeavours 

Answer. I am of his opinion, who said, " premising is bet- 
ter than promising." Sure it is a safer way to prevent a dis- 
ease than to remove it. Besides, I hope that, clearing these ob- 
structions in the front of my book, I shall smooth the reader's 
way, and invite him the rather to peruse it. However, these an- 
swers (wherever placed) are placed aright, if meeting (which I 
desire) a candid acceptance thereof. 

Exception 25. It is easy for one to cast down a pillar of his 
own erection ; but let another set it up, and then let him try 
his strength thereat. None will pinch themselves so as to fetch 

* Tully in Verrcra Orat. 


blood^ though others may do it. Your exceptions are all of 
your own making, to your own advantage. 

Answer. I have endeavoured to propound them without any 
partiality. However, if my labours meet with greater and more 
exception from others against them, I hope they shall also meet 
with the general courtesy, and candour of course, which custom 
hath in some sort made due to authors, to forgive their smaller 
faults ; on which comfortable confidence I proceed. 




WHEN I first communicated my design herein to a person of 
honour,* he offered this grand objection against it ; that no in- 
dustry could be so circumspect, or intelligence so comprehen- 
sive, but that many memorable persons would escape his obser- 
vation ; and then exception will be taken at such omissions. 
This objection many since have renewed and enforced, alleging 
that the omitting of one shall get me more anger, than the in- 
serting of many gain me good will. 

To this I answer first, in general. It is the privilege of Di- 
vine Writ alone, to be so perfect that nothing may be taken 
thence, or added thereunto. The best human authors have 
had their failings in their best performances. Far be it from 
me to pretend my dim eyes more quick sighted than St. Ber- 
nard's, who notwithstanding non vidit omnia ; I trust therefore, 
that favour will be indulged to my endeavours, for my many in- 

To come to particulars. Some seeming omissions will ap- 
pear to be none, on better inquiry ; being only the leaving of 
many persons, which belong not to our land, to their foreign 
nativities. If any ask, why have you not written of John a 
Gaunt ? I answer, because he was John of Gaunt, born in that 
city in Flanders. Thus, whilst our kings possessed large do- 
minions in France, from king William the Conqueror to king 
Henry the Sixth, many eminent men had their birth beyond 
the seas, without the bounds of our subject. 

Secondly, I hope real omissions will neither be found many 
nor material. I hope I shall not appear like unto him, who, under- 
taking to make a description of the planets, quite forgot to make 
mention of the sun. I believe most of those who have escaped 
our pen, will be found stars of the lesser magnitude. 

Thirdly, I protest in the presence of God, I have not wit- 
tingly, willingly, or wilfully, shut the door against any worthy 

* The truly Noble Robert Lord Bruce. 


person which offered to enter into my knowledge ; nor was my 
prejudice the porter in this kind, to exclude any (of what per- 
suasion soever) out of my book who brought merit for their ad- 
mission. Besides, I have gone, and rid, and wrote, and sought 
and searched with my own and friends 5 eyes, to make what dis- 
coveries I could therein. 

Lastly, I stand ready with a pencil in one hand, and a spunge 
in the other, to add, alter, insert, expunge, enlarge, and dilate, 
according to better information. And if these my pains shall 
be found worthy to pass a second impression, my faults I will 
confess with shame, and amend with thankfulness, to such 
as will contribute clearer intelligence unto me. 

These things premised, I do desire in my omissions the par- 
don especially of two sorts, concerned in my History : 

First, writers since the Reformation (having those before it 
completely delivered unto us) who cannot be exactly listed : 

1st, For their numerousness, and therefore I may make use 
of the Latin distich, wherewith John Pitseus* closeth his book of 
English writers : 

Plum voluminibus jungenda volumina nostris. 
Nee mild scribendi terminus ullus erit. 

" More volumes to our volumes must we bind ; 
And when that's done, a bound we cannot find." 

2nd, For the scarceness of some books, which I may term 
publici privati juris, because though publicly printed, their copies 
were few, as intended only for friends, though it doth not follow 
that the writers thereof had the less merit, because the more 

I crave pardon, in the second place, for my omissions in the 
list of benefactors to the public ; for, if I would, I could not 
complete that catalogue, because no man can make a fit garment 
for a growing child, and their number is daily increasing. 

Besides if I could, I would not. For I will never drain (in 
print) the spring so low, but to leave a reserve ; and some whom 
I may call breeders for posterity, who shall pass un-named ; in 
which respect, I conceive such benefactors most perfectly 
reckoned up, when they are imperfectly reckoned up. 

All I will add is this. When St. Paul, writing to the Phi- 
lippians, had saluted three by name, viz. Euodias, Syntyche, and 
Clement, he passeth the rest over with a salutation general, 
" whose names are in the book of life.^t Thus I have endea- 
voured to give you the most exact catalogue of benefactors ; but 
this I am sure, what is lost on earth by my want of industry, 
instruction, &c. will be found in Heaven, and their names are 
there recorded, in that register which will last to all eternity. 

As for my omitting many rarities, and memorables in the re- 
spective counties, I plead for myself, that, mine being a general 

* Page 923. f Phil. iv. 3. 


description, it is not to be expected that I should descend to 
such particularities which properly belong to those who write the 
topography of one county alone. He shewed as little ingenuity 
as ingeniousness, who cavilled at the map of Grecia for imper- 
fect, because his father's house in Athens was not represented 
therein. And their expectation in effect is as unreasonable, who 
look for every small observable in a general work. Know also, 
that a mean person may be more knowing within the limits of his 
private lands than any antiquary whatsoever. I remember a 
merry challenge at court, which passed betwixt the king's porter 
and the queen's dwarf ; the latter provoking him to fight with him, 
on condition that he might but choose his own place, and be al- 
lowed to come thither first, assigning the great oven in Hamp- 
ton court for that purpose. Thus easily may the lowest domi- 
neer over the highest skill, if having the advantage of the ground 
within his own private concernments. 

Give me leave to fill up the remaining vacuity with 


The word Alumnus is effectually directive of us (as much as 
any) to the nativities of eminent persons. However, we may 
observe both a passive and active interpretation thereof. I put 
passive first, because one must be bred before he can breed ; 
and Alumnus signifieth both the nursed child and the nurse ; 
both him that was educated, and the person or place which gave 
him his education. Wherefore Laurentius Valla (though an ex- 
cellent grammarian) is much deceived, when not admitting the 
double sense thereof, as by the ensuing instances will appear. 

PassivZ. Pro Educate. Cicero Dolabellae : " Mini vero glori- 
osum, te juvenem Consulem florere laudibus, quasi Alumnum 
discipline mece." De Finibus, 122. b: " Aristoteles, ceeterique 
Platonis Alumni." 

Active. Pro Educatore. Pliny, lib. 3. de Italia: "Terra om- 
nium terrarum Alumna, eadem et parensnumine Deum electa." 
Augustinus, lib. 70 : " Civit. Jovem Alumnum cognominaverunt, 
quod omnia aleret." 

The design which we drive on in this observation, and the use 
which we desire should be made thereof, is this ; viz. that such 
who are born in a place may be sensible of their engagement 
thereunto : that, if God give them ability and opportunity, they 
may express their thankfulness to the same. 

Quisguis Alumnus erat, gralus Alumnus erit. 

" A thankful man will feed 

The place which did him breed." 

And the truth hereof is eminently conspicuous in many per- 
sons, but especially in great prelates before, and rich citizens 
since, the Reformation. 


BERKSHIRE hath Wiltshire on the west, Hampshire on the 
South, Surrey on the east, Oxford and Buckinghamshire 
(parted first with the Isis, then with the flexuous river of 
Thames) on the north thereof. It may be fancied in a form 
like a lute lying along, whose belly is towards the west, whilst 
the narrow neck or long handle is extended toward the east. 
From Coleshull to Windsor, it may be allowed in length forty 
miles. But it amounteth to little more than half so much in 
the broadest part thereof. It partaketh as plentiful as any 
county in England of the common commodities, grass, grain, 
fish, fowl, wool, and wood, &c. ; and we will particularly 
instance on one or two of them. 


It was given in instruction to the spies sent to search the land 
of Canaan, that, amongst other inquiries, they should take par- 
ticular notice, "whether there be wood therein or not ?*" An 
important question, the rather because at that time the Israelites 
were in Arabia the Desert, where they saw not a tree in many 
months 5 travel, (insomuch that it is recorded for a wonder, 
that in Elim were e( seventy Palm trees "f) an <l n w knew the 
worth of wood by wanting it. 

But Berkshire affordeth abundance of trees of all kinds, 
though her oaks in Windsor forest for the present come only 
under our commendation. 

First, for their firmness, whereof our ships are made. The 
oak in other kingdoms may be called cowardly, as riving and 
splitting round about the passage of the bullet, fearing as it 
were the force thereof; whilst our English, as heart of oak 
indeed, though entered with bullet, remain eth firm round 
about it. 

Secondly, for the convenience of portage. The wealth of a 
covetous man (wanting an heart to make use thereof) may not 
unfitly be compared to the oaks and fir-trees (good and plenti- 

* Num. xiii. 20. f Exod. xv. 27. 


ful indeed) in the highlands in Scotland, but growing on such 
inaccesible mountains, no strength or art can render them use- 
ful, Nature in this kind having given them full coffers, but no 
key to unlock them. 

Whereas, so indulgent is Divine Providence to England, that 
our four principal forests lie either on the sea, or navigable 
rivers ; viz. New Forest on the sea, Shire Wood on the Trent, 
Dean on the Severn, and this Windsor Forest on the Thames ; 
and I could wish more care were taken for preserving the tim- 
ber therein. 


The very name of this shire justly entitles us here to handle 
this commodity (though common to other counties), because 
Barkshire (as some will have it) was so called from a stripped 
or bark-bared oak y * to which signal place the people repaired in 
time of trouble to make their general defence. It is essential 
for making good leather, though lately one hath propounded a 
way to tann it solid and saleable without the help thereof, on 
condition (and good reason too) he may be allowed reasonable 
profit for so rare an invention. But many think that " he that 
waits for dead men's shoes/' and he that stays for leather shoes 
" made without bark/' may both of them " go a long time bare- 


This is a pleasant and wholesome fish, as whose feeding is pure 
and cleanly, in the swiftest streams, and on the hardest gravel. 
Good and great of this kind are found in the river of Kennet 
nigh Hungerford, though not so big as that which Gesner 
affirms taken in the Leman lake, being three cubits in length. 
They are in their perfection in the month of May, and yearly 
decline with the buck. Being come to his full growth, he 
decays in goodness, not greatness, and thrives in his head till 
his death. Note by the way, that an hog-back and little head 
is a sign that any fish is in season. 

Other commodities of this, return in other counties, where 
they may be mentioned with more convenience. 


It is plied therein ; and because we meet with the best of 
our manufactures in the first of our shires, a word of the anti- 
quity thereof. 

1. Cloth sure is of the same date with civility in this land. 
Indeed the ancient Britons are reported to go naked, clothed 

* Camden , Britannia, in this county. 


only with colours painted, custom making them insensible of 
cold,, with the beggar, who being demanded how he could go 
naked, returned, " All my body is face." But no sooner had 
the Romans reduced this island, but cloth, though coarse, such 
as would hide and heat, was here generally made and used. 

2. Fine Cloth (though narrow) for persons of worth at home 
to wear, and for foreign exportation, began in England about 
the beginning of the reign of king Edward the Third ; before 
which time our statutes take no cognizance of clothing, as 
inconsiderable (wool being transported in specie), and needing 
no rules to regulate it, save what prudence dictated to private 
husbands with their own families. 

3. Broad Cloth (wherein the wealth of our nation is folded 
up) made with broad looms, two men attending each of them, 
began here in the reign of king Herjry the Eighth. And I have 
been informed that Jack of Newberry was the first that intro- 
duced it into this county. Well may the poets feign Minerva 
the goddess of wit and the foundress of weaving, so great is the 
ingenuity thereof. 


Windsor Castle was a royal seat ever since the Conquest, but 
brought to the modern beauty chiefly at the cost of king Edward 
the Third. It is a castle for strength, a palace for state ; and 
hath in it a college for learning, a chapel for devotion, and an 
almshouse (of decayed gentlemen) for charity. In this palace 
most remarkable, the hall for greatness, Winchester tower for 
height, and the terrace on the north side for pleasure, where a 
dull eye may travel twenty miles in a moment. Nor boasteth 
so much, that it consisteth of two great courts, as that it con- 
tained two great kings (John of France, and David of Scotland,) 
prisoners therein together ; as also that it was the seat of the 
honourable order of the Garter. 

Many neat houses and pleasant seats there be in this county, 
both on the Kennet and Thames, which seem dutifully to attend 
at distance on Windsor Castle ; as Aldermaston, Inglefield, &c. 
most sweet in their situations. 


I meet with but one in this county, but either so narrow that 
they stretch not beyond the bonds thereof, or else so broad, 
that all other counties equally share in the cause and usage of 
them. Wherefore seeing this is the first English shire in the 
alphabetical order, to avoid a vacuity, we will here insert such 
proverbs, wherein England or Englishmen are by express men- 
tion concerned. 



But first we will dispatch that sole proverb of this county 

" The Vicar of Bray will be Vicar of Bray still."] 

Bray, a village well known in this county, so called from the 
Bibroces, a kind of ancient Britons inhabiting thereabouts. The 
vivacious vicar hereof living under king Henry the Eighth, king 
Edward the Sixth, queen Mary, and queen Elizabeth, was first a 
Papist, then a Protestant, then a Papist, then a Protestant again. 
He had seen some martyrs burnt (two miles off) at Windsor, 
and found this fire too hot for his tender temper. This vicar 
being taxed by one for being a turncoat and an inconstant 
changeling, " Not so," said he ; " for I always kept my prin- 
ciple, which is this, to live and die the vicar of Bray/ 5 Such 
many now-a-days, who though they cannot turn the wind will 
turn their mills, and set them so, that wheresoever it bloweth 
their grist shall certainly be grinded. 

Proceed we now to the proverbs general of England : 

" When our lady falls in our lord's lap 
Then let England beware a 


" Then let the clergyman look to his cap."] 

I behold this proverbial prophecy, or this prophetical menace, 
to be not above six score years old, and of Popish extraction 
since the Reformation. It whispereth more than it dares speak 
out, and points at more than it dares whisper ; and fain would 
intimate to credulous persons as if the blessed Virgin, offended 
with the English for abolishing her adoration, watcheth an op- 
portunity of revenge on this nation. And when her day (being 
the five and twentieth of March, and first of the Gregorian year) 
chanceth to fall on the day of Christ's resurrection, then, being 
as it were fortified by her Son's assistance, some signal judg- 
ment is intended to our state, and churchmen especially. Such 
coincidence hath happened just fifteen times since the Conquest, 
as Elias Ashmole, Esquire, my worthy friend and learned mathe- 
matician, hath exactly computed it ; and we will examine, by our 
chronicles, whether on such years any signal fatalities befel 

G. N. 

A. D. 

Anno RegnL 

W. Rufus 8. 

D. L. 


1106 Henry I. 6. 

1117 Henry I. 17. G 

1190 Richard I. 2. 




Signal Disasters. 

King Rufus made a fruitless 
invasion of Wales. 

King Henry subdueth Nor- 
mandy, and duke Robert 
his brother. 

He forbiddeth the Pope's 
legate to enter England. 

King Richard conquereth 
Cyprus in his way to Pa- 

VOL. I. 




Anno Regni. D. L. G. N. Signal Disasters. 

K. John 2. G 5 The French invade Nor- 

G 16 King John resigneth his 

kingdom to the Pope. 
13 Nothing remarkable but 

peace and plenty. 
5 War begun with Scotland, 

which ended in victory. 
The Scots do much harm to 

us at Peryth Fair. 
G 16 Lancastrians worsted by the 

Yorkists in fight. 

G 5 King Henry entered Scot- 

land, and burnt Edin- 

Hitherto this proverb hath had but intermitting truth at 
the most, seeing no constancy in sad casualties. But the sting, 
will some say, is in the tail thereof ; and I behold this proverb 
born in this following year. 


1212 K. John 13. 

1285 Edward I. 13. G 

1296 Edward I. 24. AG 5 

1380 Richard II. 4. AG 13 

1459 Henry VI. 38. 

1543 Henry.VIII. 34 

1554 Q. Mary 2. 

1627 Charles 3. 
1638 Charles 14, 

Queen Mary setteth up Po- 
pery, and martyreth Pro- 
G 13 The unprosperous voyage to 

the Isle of Rees. 
G 5 The first cloud of trouble in 


G 16 The first complete year of 
the English common- 
wealth (or tyranny ra- 
ther) which since, bless- 
ed be God, is returned 
to a monarchy. 

The concurrence of these two days doth not return till the 
year 1722 ; and let the next generation look to the effects thereof. 
I have done my part in shewing, remitting to the reader the cen- 
suring of these occurrences. Sure I am so sinful a nation de- 
serves that every year should be fatal unto it. But it matters 
not though " our Lady falls in our Lord's lap," whilst " our 
Lord" sits at " his Father's " right hand, if to him we make our 
addresses by serious repentance. 

" When HEMPE is spun, 
England is done.''] 

Though this proverb hath a different stamp, yet I look on it 
as coined by the same mint-master with the former, and even of 
the same age. It is faced with a literal, but would be lined 
with a mystical, sense. " When Hempe is spun ;" that is, when 
all that necessary commodity is employed, that there is no more 
left for sails and cordage, England (whose strength consists in 
shipping) would be reduced to a doleful condition. But know 


under HEMPE are couched the initial letters of Henry the Eighth, 
Edward the Sixth, Mary, Philip, and Elizabeth, as if with the 
life of the last the happiness of England should expire, which 
time hath confuted. Yet, to keep this proverb in countenance, 
it may pretend to some truth, because then England, with the 
addition of Scotland, lost its name in Great Britain by royal pro- 

" When the black fleet of Norway is come and gone, 
England build houses of lime and stone, 
For after wars you shall have none.''] 

There is a larger edition hereof, though this be large enough 
for us, and more than we can well understand. Some make it 
fulfilled in the year eighty-eight, when the Spanish fleet was 
beaten, the surname of whose king, as a learned author * doth 
observe, was Norway. Others conceive it called the black fleet 
of Norway, because it was never black (not dismal to others, 
but woful to its own apprehension) till beaten by the English, 
and forced into those coasts : according to the English historian : 

" They betook themselves to flight, leaving Scotland on the 
west, and bending towards Norway ill-advised (but that necessity 
urged, and God had infatuated their councils) to put their shaken 
and battered bottoms into those black and dangerous seas."t 

I observe this the rather, because I believe Mr. Speed, in 
this his writing, was so far from having a reflection on, that I 
question whether ever he had heard of, this prophecy. 

It is true that afterwards England built houses of lime and 
stone ; and our most handsome and artificial buildings (though 
formerly far greater and stronger) bear their date from the de- 
feating of the Spanish fleet. As for the remainder, ee After wars 
you shall have none ;" we find it false as to our civil wars, by 
our woful experience. 

And whether it be true or false as to foreign invasions here- 
after we care not at all ; as beholding this prediction either made 
by the wild fancy of one foolish man : and then why should the 
many wise men attend thereunto ? Or else by him who always 
either speaks what is false or what is true with an intent to de- 
ceive ; so that we will not be elated with good, or dejected with 
bad, success of his foretelling. 

" England is the ringing island.' 1 ] 

Thus it is commonly called by foreigners, as having greater, 
more, and more tunable bells than any one country in Christen- 
dom, Italy itself not excepted ; though Nola be there, and bells 
so called thence, because first founded therein. Yea, it seems 
qur land is much affected with the love of them, and loath to 
have them carried hence into foreign parts, whereof take this 
eminent instance. When Arthur Bulkley, the covetous bishop 

* The Lord Bacon, in his Essays, p. 215. 
t J. Speed, in his History of Great Britain, in the year 1588. 

i 2 


of Bangor,* in the reign of king Henry the Eighth, had sacri- 
legiously sold the five fair bells of his cathedral, to be transport- 
ed beyond the seas, and went down himself to see them shipped, 
they suddenly sank down with the vessel in the haven, and the 
bishop fell instantly blind, and so continued to the day of his 
death. Nought else have I to observe of our English bells, save 
that in the memory of man they were never known so long free 
from the sad sound of funerals of general infection ; God make 
us sensible of and thankful for the same ! 

" When the sand feeds the clay, England cries Well-a-day :f 
But when the clay feeds the sand, it is merry with England."] 

As Nottinghamshire is divided into two parts,J the sand and 
the clay, all England falls under the same dicotomy ; yet so as the 
sand hardly amounteth to the fifth part thereof. Now a wet year, 
which drowneth and chilleth the clay, makes the sandy ground 
most fruitful with corn, and the general granary of the land, 
which then is dearer in other counties ; and it is harder for one 
to feed four, than four to feed one. It is furthermore observed, 
that a drought never causeth a dearth in England, because (though 
parching up the sandy ground) the clay, being the far greatest 
moiety of the land, having more natural moisture therein, afford- 
eth a competent increase. 

England were but a fling, 

Save for the crooked stick and the gray-goose wing."] 

" But a fling," that is, a slight, light thing, not to be valued, 
but rather to be cast away, as being but half an island. It is of 
no great extent. Philip the Second, king of Spain, in the 
reign of queen Elizabeth called our English ambassadors unto 
him (whilst as yet there was peace betwixt the two crowns) ; 
and, taking a small map of the world, laid his little finger upon 
England (wonder not if he desired to finger so good a country) ; 
and then demanded of our English ambassador, ef where Eng- 
land was?" Indeed it is in greatness inconsiderable to the 
Spanish dominions. 

" But for the crooked stick," &c. That is, use of archery. 
Never were the arrows of the Parthians more formidable to the 
Romans than ours to the French horsemen. Yea, remarkable is 
Divine Providence to England, that since arrows are grown out 
of use, though the weapons of war be altered, the Englishman's 
hand is still in use as much as ever before ; for no country 
affords better materials of iron, saltpetre, and lead ; or better 
workmen to make them into guns, powder, and bullets; or 
better marksmen to make use of them being so made : so that 
England is now as good with a straight iron, as ever it was with 
a crooked stick. 

" England is the paradise of women, hell of horses, purgatory of servants." 

For the first, billa vera ; women, whether maids, wives, or 

* Godwin, in his Bishops of Bangor. f An old interjection of lamentation. 

J Lamden, Britannia, in Nottinghamshire. 


widows, finding here the fairest respect and kindest usage. 
Our common-law is a more courteous carver for them than the 
civil law beyond the seas, allowing widows the thirds of their 
husbands 5 estates, with other privileges. The TrpoT-o/oXio-tcu, or 
highest seats, are granted them at all feasts ; and the wall (in 
crowding, most danger to the weakest ; in walking, most dig- 
nity to the worthiest,) resigned unto them. The indentures of 
maid-servants are cancelled by their marriage, though the term 
be not expired ; which to young men in the same condition is 
denied. In a word, betwixt law and (law's co-rival) custom, 
they freely enjoy many favours ; and we men, so far from en- 
vying them, wish them all happiness therewith. 

For the next, " England's being a hell for horses ;" Igno- 
ramus; as not sufficiently satisfied in the evidence alleged. 
Indeed the Spaniard, who keeps his gennets rather for show 
than use, makes wantons of them. However, if England be 
faulty herein in their over-violent riding, racing, hunting, it is 
high time the fault were amended ; the rather, because " the 
good man regardeth the life of his beast/'* 

For the last, " Purgatory for servants ;" we are so far from 
finding the bill, we cast it forth as full of falsehood. We have 
but two sorts, apprentices and covenant servants. The parents 
of the former give large sums of money to have their children 
bound for seven years, to learn some art or mystery ; which 
argueth their good usage as to the generality in our nation : 
otherwise it were madness for men to give so much money to 
buy their children's misery. As for our covenant servants, they 
make their own covenants ; and if they be bad, they may thank 
themselves. Sure I am, their masters, if breaking them, and 
abusing their servants with too little meat or sleep, too much 
work or correction (which is true also of apprentices) are liable 
by law to make them reparation. 

Indeed, I have heard how, in the age of our fathers, servants 
were in far greater subjection than now-a-days, especially since 
our civil wars hath lately dislocated all relations ; so that now 
servants will do whatsoever their masters enjoin them, so be it 
they think fitting themselves. For my own part, I am neither 
for the tyranny of the one, nor rebellion of the other, but the 
mutual duty of both. 

As for Verna, slaves or vassals, so frequent in Spain and 
foreign parts, our land and laws (whatever former tenures have 
been) acknowledge not any for the present. 

To conclude, as purgatory is a thing feigned in itself; so in 
this particular it is false in application to England. 

" A famine in England begins first at the horse-manger."] 

Indeed it seldom begins at the horse-rack ; for, though hay 
may be excessive dear, caused by a dry summer, yet winter 
grain (never impaired with a drought) is then to be had at rea- 

* Prov, x. 12. 


sonable rates. Whereas, if peas or oats, our horse-grain (and 
the latter man's grain also generally in the north for poor people) 
be scarce, it will not be long ere wheat, rye, &c. mount in our 
markets. Indeed, if 2ny grain be very dear, no grain will be 
very cheap soon after. 

The king of England is the king of devils."] 

The German emperor is termed the " king of kings, " having 
so many free princes under him. The king of Spain, " king of 
men," because they willingly yield their sovereign rational 
obedience. The king of France, "king of asses," patiently 
bearing unconscionable burdens. But why the king of England 
" king of devils," I either cannot, or do not, or will not under- 
stand. Sure I am, St. Gregory gave us better language when 
he said, " Angli velut Angeli" for our fair complexions ; and it 
is sad we should be devils by our black conditions. 

" The English are the Frenchmen's apes.'"] ^ 

This anciently hath been, and still is, charged on the English, 
and that with too much truth, for ought I can find to the con- 


Et did potuisse, et non potuisse refelli. 

" It is to us a pain 

This should be said, and not gain said again." 

We ape the French chiefly in two particulars : 

First, in their language ( ( ( which if Jack could speak, he would 

be a gentleman,") which some get by travel, others gain at 

home with Dame Eglinton in Chaucer : * 

" Entewned in her voice full seemly, 
And French she spake full feteously 
After the scole of Stratford at Bovve, 
For French of Paris was to her unknow." 

Secondly, in their habits, accounting all our fineness in con- 
formity to the French fashion, though following it at greater 
distance than the field-pease in the country the rath-ripe pease 
in the garden. Disgraceful in my opinion, that, seeing the 
English victorious arms had twice charged through the bowels 
of France, we should learn tfur fashions from them to whom we 
taught obedience. 

" The English glutton."] 

Gluttony is a sin anciently charged on this nation, which we 
are more willing to excuse than confess, more willing to confess 
than amend. Some pretend the coldness of climate in excuse of 
our sharp appetites ; and plead the plenty of the land (England 
being in effect all a great cook's-shop, and no reason any should 
starve therein) for our prodigious feasts. They allege also that 
foreigners, even the Spaniards themselves, coming over hither, 
acquit themselves as good trencher-men as any ; so that it seems 
want, not temperance, makes them so abstemious at home. 

* In his Prologue of the Prioress. 


All amounts not to any just defence, excess being an ill- 
expression of our thankfulness to God for his goodness. Nor 
need we with the Egyptians to serve up at the last course " a 
dead man's head " to mind us of our mortality, seeing a feast 
well considered is but a charnel-house of fowl, fish, and flesh ; 
and those few shell-fish that are not killed to our hands are 
killed by our teeth. It is vain, therefore, to expect that dead 
food should always preserve life in the feeders thereupon. 

" Long beards heartless, painted hoods witless ; 
Gay coats graceless, make England thriftless."*] 

Though this hath more of libel than proverb therein, and is 
stark false in itself, yet it will truly acquaint us with the habits 
of the English in that age. 

" Long beards heartless" Our English did use nutrire comam, 
both on their head and beards, conceiving it made them more 
amiable to their friends, and terrible to their foes. 

ff Painted hoods witless." Their hoods were stained with a 
kind of colour, in a middle way betwixt dying and painting 
(whence Painters-stainers have their name), a mystery vehe- 
mently suspected to be lost in our age. Hoods served that age 
for caps. 

" Gay coats graceless." Gallantry began then to be fashion- 
able in England ; and perchance those who here taxed them 
therewith would have been as gay themselves, had their land 
been as rich and able to maintain them. 

This sing-song was made on the English by the Scots, after 
they were flushed with victory over us in the reign of king 
Edward the Second. Never was the battle at Cannae so fatal to 
the Romans as that at Sterling to the nobility of England ; and 
the Scots, puffed up with their victory, fixed those opprobrious 
epithets of heartless, witless, graceless, upon us. For the first, 
we appeal to themselves, whether Englishmen have not good 
hearts, and, with their long beards, long swords. For the 
second, we appeal to the world, whether the wit of our nation 
hath not appeared as considerable as theirs in their writings and 
doings. For the third, we appeal to God, the only searcher of 
hearts, and trier of true grace. As for the fourth, thriftless, I 
omit it, because it sinks of itself, as a superstructure on a foun- 
"dered and failing foundation. 

All that I will add is this, that the grave, sage, and reduced 
Scottish-men in this age, are not bound to take notice of such 
expressions made by their ancestors ; seeing, when nations are. 
at hostile defiance, they will mutually endeavour each other's 

" He that England will win, 
Must with Ireland first begin."] 

This proverb importeth that great* designs must be managed 
gradatim, not only by degrees, but due method. England, it 

* Fox, Stow, Speed, all our English historians in the first year of king Edward 
the Third. 


seems, is too great a morsel for a foreign foe to be chopped up 
at once ; and therefore it must orderly be attempted, and Ireland 
be first assaulted. Some have conceived, but it is but a conceit 
(all things being in the bosom of Divine Providence), that, had 
the Spanish Armada in eighty-eight fallen upon Ireland, when 
the well-affected therein were few and ill-provided, they would 
have given a better account of their service to him who sent 
them. To rectify which error, the king of Spain sent afterward 
John de Aquila into Ireland, but with what success is sufficiently 
known. And if any foreign enemy hath a desire to try the 
truth of this proverb at his own peril, both England and Ireland 
lie for climate in the same posture they were before. 

" In England a bushel of March dust is worth a king's ransom."] 

Not so in southern sandy counties, where a dry March is as 
destructive as here it is beneficial. How much a king's ransom 
amounteth unto, England knows by dear experience, when pay- 
ing one hundred thousand pounds to redeem Richard the First, 
which was shared between the German emperor and Leopoldus 
duke of Austria. Indeed a general good redounds to our land 
by a dry March ; for if our clay-grounds be over-drowned in 
that month, they recover not their distemper that year. 

However, this proverb presumeth seasonable showers in 
April following ; or otherwise March dust will be turned into 
May ashes, to the burning up of grass and grain ; so easily can 
God blast the most probable fruitfulness. 

" England a good land, and a bad people."] 

This is a French proverb ; and we are glad that they, being 
so much admirers and magnifiers of their own, will allow any 
goodness to another country. 

This maketh the wonder the less, that they have so much 
endeavoured to get a share in this good country, by their former 
frequent invasions thereof; though they could never, since the 
Conquest, peaceably possess a hundred yards thereof for twenty 
hours, whilst we for a long time have enjoyed large territories 
in France. 

But this proverb hath a design to raise up the land, to throw 
down the people ; gracing it to disgrace them. We Englishmen 
are, or should be, ready humbly to confess our faults before 
God, and no less truly than sadly to say of ourselves, " Ah, 
sinful nation ! " However, before men, we will not acknowledge 
a visible badness above other nations. And the plain truth is, 
both France and England have need to mend, seeing God 
hath formerly justly made them by sharp wars alternately to 
whip one another. 

" The High-Dutch pilgrims, when they beg, do sing ; the Frenchmen whine 
and cry ; the Spaniards cwse, swear, and blaspheme ; the Irish and Eng- 
lish steal."] 

This is a Spanish proverb ; and I suspect too much truth is 
suggested therein; the rather because the Spaniards therein 


spare not themselves, but impartially report their own black 
character. If any ask why the Italians are not here mentioned, 
seeing surely their pilgrims have also their peculiar humours ; 
know that Rome and Loretta, the staples of pilgrimages, being 
both in Italy, the Italians very seldom (being frugal in their 
superstition) go out of their own country. 

Whereas stealing is charged on our English, it is confessed 
that our poor people are observed light-fingered ; and therefore 
our laws are so heavy, making low felony highly penal, to re- 
strain that vice most, to which our peasantry is most addicted. 

I wish my country more true piety than to take such tedious 
and useless journeys ; but, if they will go, I wish them more 
honesty than to steal ; and the people by whom they pass, more 
charity than to tempt them to stealth, by denying them neces- 
saries in their journey. 


JOHN, eldest son of king Edward the First and queen Elea- 
nor, was born at Windsor before his father's voyage into Syria. 
His short life will not bear a long character, dying in his in- 
fancy,* 1273 (the last year of the reign of king Henry the 
Third) ; and was buried August the 8th, in Westminster, under 
a marble tomb, in-laid with his picture in an arch over it. 

ELEANOR, eldest daughter to king Edward the First and 
queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor, anno Dom. 1266.f She 
was afterwards married by a proxy, a naked sword being in bed 
interposed betwixt him and her body, to Alphonso king of Arra- 
gon, with all ceremonies of state. And indeed they proved but 
ceremonies, the substance soon miscarrying, the said king Al- 
phonso dying anno Dom. 1292, before the consummation of the 
marriage. But, soon after, this lady found that a living earl was 
better than a dead king, when married to Henry the third earl 
of Berry in France, from whom the dukes of Anjou and kings 
of Sicily are descended. This lady deceased in the seven and 
twentieth of her father's reign, anno Dom. 1298. 

MARGARET, third daughter of king Edward the First and 
queen Eleanor, was born at Windsor, in the third year of her 
father's reign, 1275. J When fifteen years old she was married 
at Westminster, July 9th, 1290, to John the second duke of 
Brabant, by whom she had issue John the third duke of Bra- 
bant, from whom the dukes of Burgundy are descended. 

MARY, sixth daughter of king Edward the First and queen 
Eleanor, was born at Windsor, April the 12th, 12?9. Being but 

* Speed, History, page 563. f Ibid. p. 564. 

J Speed's Chronicle, p. 564. 


ten years of age, she was made a nun at Amesbury in Wiltshire 
without her own, and at the first against her parents' consent, 
merely to gratify queen Eleanor her grandmother.* Let us 
pity her, who probably did not pity herself, as not knowing a 
veil from a kerchief ; not understanding the requisites to, nor 
her own fitness for, that profession ; having afterwards time too 
much to bemoan, but none to amend, her condition. 

As for the other children of this king, which he had by Elea- 
nor his queen, probably born in this castle, viz. HENRY, AL- 
PHONSE, BLANCHE, dying in their infancy immediately after 
their baptism, it is enough to name them, and to bestow this 
joint epitaph upon them. 

" Cleansed at font we drew untainted breath, 
Not yet made bad by life, made good by death." 

The two former were buried with their brother John (of whom 
before) at Westminster in the same tomb : but where Blanche 
was interred is altogether unknown. 

EDWARD the Third, son to Edward the Second and queen 
Isabel, was born at Windsor, October 13, 1312, (and proved 
afterwards a pious and fortunate prince). I behold him as 
merely passive in the deposing of his father, practised on in his 
minority by his mother and Mortimer. His French victories 
speak both of his wisdom and valour ; and though the conquests 
by king Henry the Fifth were thicker (achieved in a shorter 
time), his were broader (in France and Scotland by sea and 
land), though both of length alike, as lost by their immediate 

He was the first English king which coined gold,t which with 
me amounts to a wonder, that before his time all yellow pay- 
ments in the land should be made in foreign coin. He first 
stamped the rose-nobles, having on the one side, 


And on the reverse, his own image with sword and shield, sit- 
ting in a ship waving on the sea. Hereupon an English rhymer, 
in the reign of king Henry the Sixth, 

" For four things our Noble sheweth to me 
King, Ship, and Sword, and Power of the See. J 

He had a numerous and happy issue by Philippa his queen ; 
after whose death, being almost seventy years old, he cast his 
affection on Alice Pierce his paramour, much to his disgrace ; 
it being true what Epictetus returned to Adrian the emperor, 
asking of him what love was, ee In puero, pudor ; in virgine, ru- 
bor ; in foemina, furor ; in juvene, ardor ; in sene, risus." (" In a 
boy, bashfulness ; in a maid, blushing ; in a woman, fury ; in a 
young man, fire ; in an old man, folly/ 3 ) However take this king 

* Speed's Chronicle. f Camden's Remains, under the title of " Money." 

J Manuscript in Bibl. Cotton. 


altogether, at home,, abroad, at church, in state, and he had few 
equals, none superiors. He died anno Dom. 1378. 

WILLIAM, sixth son of king Edward the Third and queen 
Philippa, was born at Windsor.* Indeed his second son, born 
at Hatfield, was of the same name, who died in his infancy, and 
his mother had a fond affection for another William, because 
her father's, brother's, and a conquering name, till his short life 
also, dying in his cradle, weaned her from renewing her desire. 
As for king Edward's female children, Isabel, Joan, Blanch, 
Mary, and Margaret, there is much probability of their French, 
and no assurance of their English nativity. 

HENRY the Sixth, son to Henry the Fifth, was born in Wind- 
sor Castle, against the will of his father, by the wilfulness of his 
mother. He was fitter for a cowl than a crown ; of so easy a 
nature, that he might well have exchanged a pound of patience 
for an ounce of valour ; being so innocent to others, that he was 
hurtful to himself. He was both over subjected and over- wived : 
having married Margaret the daughter of Reinier king of Jeru- 
salem, Sicily, and Arragon, a prince only puissant in titles, 
otherwise little able to assist his son-in-law. Through home- 
bred dissensions, he not only lost the foreign acquisitions of his 
father in France, but also his own inheritance in England to the 
house of York. His death, or murder rather, happened in 1471. 

This Henry was twice crowned, twice deposed, and twice bu- 
ried (first at Chertsey, then at Windsor), and once half sainted. 
Our Henry the Seventh cheapened the price of his canonization 
(one may see for his love, and buy for his money, in the court of 
Rome), but would not come up to the sum demanded. How- 
ever, this Henry was a saint (though not with the Pope) with 
the people, repairing to this monument from the farthest part of 
the land, and fancying that they received much benefit thereby. 
' He was the last prince whom I find expressly born at Windsor. 
It seems that afterwards our English queens grew out of conceit 
with that place, as unfortunate for royal nativities. 


MARGARET and ALICE RICH were born at Abbington in this 
county, and were successively prioresses of Catesby in North- 
amptonshire.f They were sisters to St. Edmund, whose life 
ensueth, and are placed before him by the courtesy of England, 
which alloweth the weaker sex the upper hand. So great the 
reputation of their holiness, that the former dying anno 1257, 
the latter in 1270, both were honouredf for saints, and 

* Speed's Hist. p. 602. 

T The English Martyrology, in the 15th and 24th of August. 

I Matthew Paris, in Hist. Majori. ad ann. Dora. 1217, et demceps. 


many miracles reported by crafty, were believed by credulous, 
people, done at their shrine by their reliques. 

St. EDMUND, son to Edward Rich and Mabel his wife, was 
born at Abbington in Berkshire,* and bred in Oxford. Some 
will have Edmund's-hall in that university built by his means, 
but others (more probably) named in his memory. He became 
canon of Salisbury ; and from thence, by the joint consent of 
pope, king, and monks (three cords seldom twisted in the same 
cable), advanced archbishop of Canterbury, where he sate al- 
most ten years, till he willingly deserted it ; partly because of- 
fended at the power of the pope's legate, making him no more 
than a mere cipher, signifying only in conjunction (when con- 
curring with his pleasure) ; partly because, vexed at his polling 
and peeling of the English people, so grievous, he could not en- 
dure, so general, he could not avoid to behold it. For these 
reasons he left the land, went (or, shall I say, fled ?) into France, 
where he sighed out the remainder of his life, most at Ponti- 
niac, but some at Soissons, where he died anno 1240. 

Pope Innocent the Fourth canonized him six years after his 
death, whereat many much wondered, that he should so much 
honour one, a professed foe to papal extortions. Some con- 
ceived he did it se defendendo, and for a ne noceat, that he might 
not be tormented with his ghost.f But what hurt were it, if all 
the enemies of his Holiness were sainted, on condition they took 
death in their way thereunto ? Sure it is that Lewis king of 
France a year after translated his corpse, and, three years after 
that, bestowed a most sumptuous shrine of gold, silver, and 
crystal upon it; and the 16th of November is the festival ap- 
pointed for his memorial. 


It appeareth, by the confession of Thomas Man (martyred in 
the beginning of king Henry the Eighth) that there was at New- 
berry, in this county, as glorious and sweet society of faithful 
favourers, who had continued the space of fifteen years together, 
till at last, by a certain lewd person whom they trusted and made 
of their council, they were betrayed ; and then many of them, to 
the number of six or seven score, were abjured, and three or 
four of them burnt.} Now although we know not how to call 
these martyrs who so suffered, " their names/' no doubt, " are 
written in the Book of Life." 

We see how the day of the Gospel dawned as soon in this 
county as in any place in England. Surely seniority in 
this kind ought to be respected, which made Paul a puisne in 

* Antiq. Brit. p. 165. 

t "Veritus, ne manes ipsius mortui Romanam sedem ob tot acceptas injurias 
vindicarent." M. Parker, Antiq. Brit. p. 173. 
J Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 81 7. 


piety to " Andronicus " and " Junia," his kinsman, to enter this 
caveat for their spiritual precedency, "who were in Christ before 
me."* On which account let other places give the honour to 
the town of Newberry, because it started the first (and I hope 
not tire for the earliness thereof) in the race of the Reformed re- 
ligion. Yea, Doctor William Twiss, the painful preacher in that 
parish, was wont to use this as a motive to his flock, to quicken 
their pace, and strengthen their perseverance in piety, because 
that town appears the first-fruits of the Gospel in England. 
And Windsor, the next in the same county, had the honour of 
martyrs 5 ashes therein, as by the ensuing list will appear. 

There was in Windsor a company of right godly persons, who 
comfortably enjoyed themselves, until their enemies designed 
their extirpation, though it cost them much to accomplish it, one 
of them confessing that for his share he expended an hundred 
marks, besides the killing of three geldings. These, suspecting 
that the judges itinerant in their circuit would be too favourable 
unto them, procured a special session, got four arraigned and 
condemned by the commissioners, whereof the three following 
were put to death on the statute of the Six Articles. 

1. Anthony Persons, a priest and profitable preacher, so that 
the great clerks of Windsor thought their idleness upbraided by 
his industry. Being fastened to the stake, he laid a good deal 
of straw on the top of his head, saying, " This is God's hat ; I 
am now armed like a soldier of Christ,"f 

2. Robert Test wood, a singing-man in the choir of Windsor. 
There happened a contest betwixt him and another of that so- 
ciety, singing an anthem together to the Virgin Mary : Robert 
Philips on the one side of the choir, " O Redemtrix et Salvatrix 1" 
Robert Testwood on the other side of the choir, ee Non Redemtrix, 
nee Salvatrix." 

I know not which sung the deepest base, or got the better for 
the present. Sure I am that since by God's goodness the Nons 
dave drowned the Ohs in England. Testwood was also accused 
for dissuading people from pilgrimages, and for striking off the 
nose of the image of our Lady. 

3. Henry Fillmer, churchwarden of Windsor, who had arti- 
cled against their superstitious vicar for heretical doctrine. 

These three were burnt together at Windsor, anno 1544 ; 
and when account was given of their patient death to king 
Henry the Eighth, sitting on horseback, the king turning the 
horse's head, said, " Alas, poor innocents ! " a better speech 
from a private person than a prince, bound by his place not 
only to pity but protect oppressed innocence. However, by 
this occasion other persecuted people were pardoned and pre- 
served, of whom hereafter, under the ensuing title of Confessors. 

This storm of persecution thus happily blown over, Berkshire 

* Rom. xvi. 7. f Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 1211, &c. 


enjoyed peace and tranquillity for full twelve years together, 
viz. from the year of our Lord 1544 till 1556 ; when Dr. Jeffrey, 
the cruel chancellor of Salisbury, renewed the troubles at New- 
berry, and caused the death of 

JULIUS PALMER, (see his character, being born in Coven- 
try, in Warwickshire) : JOHN GWIN : THOMAS ASKINE. These 
three, July 16, 1556, were burnt in a place nigh Newberry, 
called the Sandpits, enduring the pain of the fire with such in- 
credible constancy, that it confounded their foes, and confirmed 
their friends in the truth.* 


JOHN MARBECK was an organist in the choir of Windsor? 
and very skilful therein ; a man of admirable industry aud inge- 
nuity, who not perfectly understanding the Latin tongue, did 
out of the Latin, with the help of the English Bible, make an 
English Concordance, which bishop Gardiner himself could not 
but commend as a piece of singular industry : professing that 
there were no fewer than twelve learned men to make the 
first Latin Concordance. And king Henry the Eighth hearing 
thereof, said that "he was better employed than those priests 
which accused him." Let, therefore, our modern Concordances 
of Cotton, Newman, Bernard, &c., as children and grand- chil- 
dren, do their duty to Marbeck's Concordance, as their parent 
at first endeavoured in our language. 

This Marbeck was a very zealous Protestant, and of so sweet 
and amiable nature, that all good men did love, and few bad 
men did hate, him. Yet was he condemned, anno 1544, on the 
statute of the Six Articles, to be burnt at Windsor, had not his 
pardon been procured, divers assigning divers causes thereof: 
1. That bishop Gardiner bare him a special affection for his skill 
in the mystery of music. 2. That such who condemned him 
procured his pardon out of remorse of conscience, because so 
slender the evidence against him; it being questionable whether 
his Concordance was made after the statute of the Six Articles 
or before it ; and if before, he was freed by the king's general 
pardon. 3. That it was done out of design to reserve him for 
a discovery of the rest of his party. If so, their plot failed them : 
for being as true as steel (whereof his fetters were made which 
he wore in prison for a good time), he could not be frighted 
or flattered to make any detection. 

Here a mistake was committed by Mr. Fox in his first edition, 
whereon the Papists much insult, making this Marbeck burnt 
at Windsor for his religion, with Anthony Persons, Robert Test- 
wood, and Henry Fillmer. No doubt Mr. Fox rejoiced at his 
own mistake, thus far forth ; both for Marbeck^ s sake who es- 

* Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 1934. 


caped with his life, and his enemies, who thereby drew the less 
guilt of blood on their own consciences. But hear what he 
pleads for his mistake : 

1. Marbeck was dead in law, as condemned; whereon his 
error was probably grounded. 2. He confessing that one of 
the four condemned was pardoned his life, misnaming him, Fill- 
mer instead of Marbeck. 3. Let Papists first purge their lying 
legend from manifest and intentional untruths, before they cen- 
sure others for casual slips and unmeant mistakes. 4. Recog- 
nizing his book in the next edition, he with blushing amended 
his error. And is not this penance enough, according to the 
principles of his accusers, confession, contrition, and satisfac- 

All this will not content some morose cavillers, whom I have 
heard jeeringly say, " that many who were burnt in Fox in the 
reign of queen Mary, drank sack in the days of queen Elizabeth. 
But enough is said to any ingenuous person. And it is impos- 
sible for any author of a voluminous book, consisting of several 
persons and circumstances (Reader, in pleading for Master Fox, 
I plead for myself) to have such ubiquitary intelligence, as to 
apply the same infallibly to every particular. When this Mar- 
beck died, is to me unknown ; he was alive at the second En- 
glish edition of the Book of Martyrs, 1583 : thirty and nine 
years after the time of his condemnation. 

ROBERT BENET was a lawyer, living in Windsor, and a zea- 
lous professor of the true religion. He drank as deep as any 
of the cup of affliction, and no doubt had been condemned with 
Testwood, Persons, and the rest, had he not at the same time 
been sick of the plague sore, in the prison of the Bishop of 
London, which proved the means of preservation.* Thus, ff it 
is better to fall into the hands of God, than into the hands of 
men." And thus, as " out of the devourer came food, out of 
the destroyer came life ; " yea the plague sore proved a cordial 
unto him ; for, by the time that he was recovered thereof, a 
pardon was freely granted to him ; as also to Sir Thomas Car- 
dine, Sir Philip Hobby, (both of the king's privy chamber) with 
their ladies, and many more designed to death by crafty bishop 
Gardner, had not his majesty's mercy thus miraculously inter- 


I have read of many, who would have been Cardinals, but 
might not. This county afforded one, who might have been 
one, but would not, viz. William Laud ; the place being no 
less freely proffered to than disdainfully refused by him, with 
words to this effect : " That the church of Rome must be much 

* Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 1220. 


mended, before he would accept any such dignity." An ex- 
pression which in my mind amounted to the emphatical peri- 
phrasis of Never. But we shall meet with him hereafter under 
a more proper topic. 


WILLIAM of READING, a learned Benedictine, employed by 
king Henry the Second in many embassies, and by him pre- 
ferred Archbishop of Bourdeaux, where he died in the reign of 
king Richard the First.* 

[AMP.] JOHN DE BRADFIELD, sive de Lato-campo. Find- 
ing fifteen villages of the name, I fixed his nativity at Bradfield 
in Berks, as (in my measuring) the nearest to Rochester, where 
he was chanter and bishop,t 1274. If mistaken, the matter is 
not much, seeing his surname is controverted, and otherwise 
written, JOHN DE HOE. However, being charactered " vir 
conversationis honestse, decenter literatus, et in omnibus mori- 
geratus," I was desirous to crowd him into our book where I 
might with most probability. 

RICHARD BEAUCHAMP was brother, saith Bishop Godwin, 
to Walter Beauchamp (mistaken for William, as may appear 
by Mr. Camden J) Baron of St. Amand, whose chief habitation 
was at Wydehay in this county. He was bred Doctor in the 
Laws, and became bishop first of Hereford, then of Salisbury. 
He was Chancellor of the Garter, which office descended to his 
successors ; Windsor Castle, the seat of that order, being in 
the diocese of Salisbury. He built a most beautiful chapel (on 
the south side of St. Mary's Chapel) in his own Cathedral, 
wherein he lieth buried. His death happened anno Dom. 1482. 


THOMAS GODWIN was born at Oakingham in this county, 
and first bred in the free school therein. Hence he was sent 
to Magdalen College in Oxford, maintained there for a time by 
the bounty of Doctor Layton, Dean of York, till at last he was 
chosen fellow of the college. This he exchanged on some terms 
for the school-master's place of Berkley in Gloucestershire, where 
he also studied physic, which afterwards proved beneficial unto 
him, when forbidden to teach school, in the reign of queen 
Mary. Yea, Bonner threatened him with fire and faggot, which 
caused him often to obscure himself and remove his habitation. 
He was an eloquent preacher, tall and comely in person ; quali- 
ties which much endeared him to queen Elizabeth, who loved 

* Matth. Westm. in Flor. Hist. 

Bishop Godwin, in his Bishops of Rochester. 

: In his Britannia, in this county. 
Francis Godwin, his son, in his catalogue of the Bishops of Bath and Wells. 


good parts well, but better when in a goodly person. For 18 years 
together he never failed to be one of the select chaplains which 
preached in the Lent before her Majesty. He was first dean 
of Christ Church in Oxford,, then dean of Canterbury, and at 
last bishop of Bath and Wells. 

Being infirm with age, and diseased with the gout, he was 
necessitated, for a nurse, to marry a second wife, a matron of 
years proportionable to himself. But this was by his court ene- 
mies (which no bishop wanted in that age) represented to the 
queen, to his great disgrace. Yea, they traduced him to have 
married a girl of twenty years of age, until the good earl of 
Bedford, casually present at such discourse ; " Madam/' said he 
to her Majesty, " I know not how much the woman is above 
twenty ; but I know a son of hers is but little under forty/ 5 * 

Being afflicted with a quartern fever, he was advised by his 
physicians to retire into this county, to Oakingham, the place 
of his birth, seeing in such cases native air may prove cordial 
to patients, as mothers' milk to (and old men are twice) children. 
Here he died (breathing his first and last in the same place,) 
November 19, 1590 ; and lieth buried under a monument in the 
south side of the chancel. 

THOMAS RAMME was born at Windsor in this county, and 
admitted in King's College in Cambridge, anno Dom. 1588 : 
whence he was made chaplain first to Robert earl of Essex, 
then to Charles Lord Mountjoy, both lord lieutenants in Ire- 
land. After many mediate preferments, he was made bishop 
of Femes and Laghlin in that kingdom, both which he peace- 
ably enjoyed in the year 1628.f 

WILLIAM LAUD was born at Reading in this county, of ho- 
nest parentage, bred in St. John's College in Oxford, whereof 
he became president : successively bishop of St. David's, Bath 
and Wells, London, and at last archbishop of Canterbury. 
One of low stature, but high parts ; piercing eyes, cheerful coun- 
tenance, wherein gravity and pleasantness were well compound- 
ed ; admirable in his naturals, unblameable in his morals, be- 
ing very strict in his conversation. Of him I have written in 
my " Ecclesiastical History : " though I confess it was some- 
what too soon for one with safety and truth to treat of such a 
subject. Indeed I could instance in some kind of coarse veni- 
son, not fit for food when first killed ; and therefore cunning 
cooks bury it for some hours in the earth, till the rankness 
thereof being mortified thereby, it makes most palatable meat. 
So the memory of some persons newly deceased are neither fit 
for a writer's or reader's repast, until some competent time 

* Sir John Harrington, in his additional supply to Bishop Godwin, p. 115, 
f Sir James Ware, de Prsesulibus Lageniae. 

VOL. I. K 


after their interment. However, I am confident that impartial 
posterity, on a serious review of all passages, will allow his name 
to be reposed amongst the heroes of our nation, seeing such as 
behold his expense on St. PauPs as but a cipher, will assign 
his other benefactions a very valuable signification ; viz. his 
erecting and endowing an almshouse in Reading, his increasing 
of Oxford library with books, and St. John's College with beau- 
tiful buildings.* He was beheaded Jan. 10, 1644. 


Sir JOHN MASON, knight, was born at Abingdon (where he 
is remembered among the benefactors to the beautiful alms- 
houses therein), bred in All-souls in Oxford. King Henry the 
Eighth, coming thither, was so highly pleased with an oration 
Mr. Mason made unto him, that he instantly gave order for his 
education beyond the seas, as confident he would prove an able 
minister of state. This was the politic discipline of those days, 
to select the pregnancies of either universities, and breed them 
in foreign parts for public employments. He was privy coun- 
cillor to king Henry the Eighth and king Edward the Sixth. 
One maketh him his secretary of state,t which some suspect too 
high ; another, but master of the requests, J which I believe as 
much beneath him. He continued councillor to queen Mary, 
and queen Elizabeth, to whom he was treasurer of the house- 
hold, and chancellor of the University of Oxford. Mr. Camden 
gives him this true character, " Vir fuit gravis, atque eruditus :" 
which I like much better than that which followeth, so far as 
I can understand it : ee Ecclesiasticorum || beneficiorum incuba- 
tor maximus." Surely he could be no canonical incumbent in 
any benefice, not being in orders, which leaveth him under the 
suspicion of being a great engrosser of long leases in church- 
livings, which then used to be let for many years, a pitiful pen- 
sion being reserved for the poor curate : though possibly in his 
younger time he might have tonsuram primam, or be a deacon, 
which (improved by his great power) might qualify, at least 
countenance, him for the holding of his spiritual promotions. 
He died 1566, and lieth buried in the choir of St. Paul's (over 
against William Herbert, first earl of Pembroke) ; and I re- 
member this distich of his long epitaph : 

Tempore quinque suo regnantes ordine vidit, 
Horum a consiliis quatuor illejuit. 

" He saw five princes, which the sceptre bore ; 
Of them, was privy-councillor to four." 

* Mr. Gutch, in his History of the Colleges in Oxford, mentions Laud's legacy to 
this College of " 500/. to be laid out in lands ; besides what he had before laid out 
in building, and other matters." ED. 

f Sir John Hay ward, in his Edward the Sixth, p. 105. 

J Stow's Annals. Edward VI. p. 612. 

Camden, Elizabeth, anno 1566, subfinem. 

|| These words are absurdly rendered by Abraham Darcy (who understood not 


It appears by his epitaph, that he left no child of his own 
body, but adopted his nephew to be his son and heir. 

Sir THOMAS SMITH,, knight, was born at Abingdon, bred in 
the university of Oxford. God and himself raised him to the 
eminency he attained unto, unbefriended with any extraction. 
He may seem to have had an ingenuous emulation of Sir Tho- 
mas Smith, senior, secretary of state, whom he imitated in many 
good qualities $ and had no doubt equalled him in preferment, 
if not prevented by death. He attained only to be master of 
the Requests, and secretary to king James for his Latin letters ; 
higher places expecting him, when a period was put to his life, 
November 28, 1609. He lieth buried in the church of Fulham, 
in Middlesex, under a monument erected by his lady, Frances, 
daughter to William Lord Chandos, and afterwards countess of 


HENRY UMPTON, knight, was born (as by all indications in 
the Heralds 5 Office doth appear) at Wadley, in this county. He 
was son to Sir Edward Umpton, by Anne (the relic of John 
Dudley, earl of Warwick, and) the eldest daughter of Edward 
Seymour, duke of Somerset. He was employed by queen 
Elizabeth ambassador into France, where he so behaved himself 
right stoutly in her behalf, as may appear by this particular. 

In the month of March, anno 1592, being sensible of some 
injury offered by the duke of Guise to the honour of the queen 
of England, he sent him this ensuing challenge.* 

" Forasmuch as lately, in the lodging of my lord Du Mayne, 
and in public elsewhere, impudently, indiscreetly, and over- 
boldly, you spoke badly of my sovereign, whose sacred person 
here in this country I represent : to maintain both by word and 
weapon her honour (which never was called in question among 
people of honesty and virtue) ; I say you have wickedly lied, in 
speaking so basely of my sovereign ; and you shall do nothing 
else but lie, whensoever you shall dare to tax her honour. 
Moreover that her sacred person (being one of the most com- 
plete and virtuous princesses that lives in this world) ought not 
to be evil-spoken of by the tongue of such a perfidious traitor 
to her law and country as you are. And hereupon I do defy 
you, and challenge your person to mine, with such manner of 
arms as you shall like or choose, be it either on horseback or oh 
foot. Nor would I have you to think any inequality of person 
between us, I being issued of as great a race and noble house 
(every way) as yourself. So, assigning me an indifferent place, 
I will there maintain my words, and the lie which I gave you, 

Latin, and translated Camden out of the French translation), " He was diligent 
and careful to the preservation of benefits." 

* Exemplified in Mills's " Catalogue of Honour," in the edition of royal paper, 
in the list of the Earls of Warwick. 

K 2 


and which you should not endure if you have any courage at all 
in you. If you consent not to meet me hereupon, I will hold 
you, and cause you to be generally held, for the arrantest coward 
and most slanderous slave that lives in all France. I expect 
your answer." 

I find not what answer was returned. This Sir Henry, dying 
in the French king's camp before Lofear, had his corpse brought 
over to London, and carried in a coach to Wadley, thence to 
Faringdon, where he was buried in the church on Tuesday the 
8th of July, 1596. He had allowed him a baron's hearse, be- 
cause dying ambassador leigier.* 


[S.N.] HUGH of READING quitted his expectancies of a 
fair estate, and, sequestering himself from worldly delights, em- 
braced a monastical life, till at last he became abbot of Reading. 
Such who suspect his sufficiency will soon be satisfied, when 
they read the high commendation which Petrus Blesensis, arch- 
deacon of Bath (one of the greatest scholars of that age) 
bestoweth upon him. He wrote a book (of " No Trivial Ques- 
tions") fetched out of the Scripture itself; the reason why 
J. Balef (generally a back-friend to monks) hath so good a cha- 
racter for him, who flourished anno Dom. 1180. 

ROGER of WINDSOR^ was undoubtedly born in this town ; 
otherwise he would have been called Roger of St. Alban's, be- 
ing chanter in that convent. Now in that age monks were 
reputed men of best learning and most leisure ; the cause why 
our English kings always chose one of their order (who passed 
by the name of Historicus Regius, the king's historian) to write 
the remarkable passages of his time. Our Roger was by king 
Henry the Third selected for that service, and performed it to 
his own great credit and the contentment of others. He flou- 
rished in the year of our Lord 1235. 

ROBERT RICH, son to Edward and Mabell his wife, brother 
of St. Edmund, archbishop of Canterbury, was born at Abing- 
don in this county. He 'followed his brother at very great 
distance both in parts and learning (though accompanying 
him in his travels beyond the seas), and wrote a book of the 
Life, Death, and Miracles of his brother, being much to blame 
if he did not do all right to so near a relation. He died about 
the year of our Lord 1250. 

RICHARD of WALLINGFORD was born in that market-town, 

* Funerals by Lee, Clarencieux, marked fol. 45. 
De Script. Brit. Cent. 3. num. 20. 

J I vehemently suspect this man, merely made by the mistake of Pitseus (anno 
1235), for Roger Wendover. 


pleasantly seated on the river Thames, wherein his father was a 
blacksmith. He went afterwards to Oxford, -and was bred in 
Merton College ; then a monk ; and at last abbot of St. Alban's, 
where he became a most expert mathematician, especially for 
the mechanical part thereof, and (retaining somewhat of his 
father's trade) was dexterous at making pretty engines and in- 

His masterpiece was a most artificial clock, made (saith my 
author*) magno labore y majore sumptu, arte vero maxima., (with 
much pain, more cost, and most art.) It remained in that mo- 
nastery in the time of John Bale (whom by his words I collect an 
eye-witness thereof) ; affirming that Europe had not the like ; 
so that it seemed as good as the famous clock at Strasburg in 
Germany ; and in this respect better, because ancienter. It was 
a calendar as well as a clock, shewing the fixed stars and pla- 
nets; the ebbing and flowing of the sea, minutes of the hours 
and what not? 

I have heard that when monopolies began to grow common 
in the court of France, the king's jester moved to have this 
monopoly for himself, viz. a gardesque of every one who carried 
a watch about him, and cared not how he employed his time. 
Surely the monks of Saint Alban's were concerned to be careful 
how they spent their hours, seeing no convent in England had 
the like curiosity ; this their clock gathering up the least crumb 
of time, presenting the minutary fractions thereof ; on which 
account, I conceive Richard the maker thereof well prepared for 
the time of his dissolution, when he died of the leprosy, anno 
Dom. 1326. 


[AMP.] HENRY BULLOCK was most probably born in this 
county, where his ancient name appears in a worshipful estate. 
He w r as bred fellow and doctor of divinity in Queen's College in 
Cambridge, a good linguist, and general scholar, familiar with 
Erasmus (an evidence of his learning, it being as hard to halt 
before a cripple, as to deceive his judgment) calling him Bo- 
villum in his epistles unto him. 

By the way, our English writers, when rendering a surname in 
Latin, which hath an appellative signification, content them to 
retain the body of the name, and only disguise the termination ; 
as Cross, Peacok, Crossus, Peacocus, &c. But the Germans, 
in such a case, do use to mould the meaning of the name, either 
into Latin ; as J. Fierce they translate J. Ferus ; Bullock, Bo- 
villus; or into Greek, as Swarts they render Melancthon; 
Peecklin, Capnio. 

'Tis confessed our Bullock, compelled by Cardinal Wolsey, 
wrote against Luther ;f but otherwise his affections were biassed 
to the Protestant party. The date of his death is unknown. 

* Bale, de Script. Brit. Cent. 5. num. 19. f Idem. 9. num. 7. 


WILLIAM Twis was born at Spene in this county, which 
was an ancient Roman city, mentioned by Antonine in his 
Itinerary by the name of Spina.* This mindeth me of a passage 
in Clemens Alexandrinus,t speaking of sanctified afflictions ; 
" Nos quidem e spinis uvas colligimus." And here, in another 
sense, God's church gathered grapes ; this good man out of this 
thorny place. Hence he was sent by Winchester School to 
New College in Oxford, and there became a general scholar. 
His plain preaching was good, solid disputing better, pious living 
best of all. He afterwards became preacher in the place of his 
nativity (Spinham lands is part of Newberry) ; and though ge- 
nerally our Saviour's observation is verified, " A prophet is not 
without honour save in his own country " (chiefly because " mi- 
nutiae omnes pueritite ejus ibi sunt cognitse,") yet here he met 
with deserved respect. Here he laid a good foundation ; and 
the more the pity, if since some of his fanciful auditors have 
built hay and stubble thereupon. And no wonder if this good 
doctor toward his death was slighted by secretaries, it being 
usual for new-lights to neglect those who have borne the heat of 
the day. His Latin works give great evidence of his abilities 
in controversial matters. He was chosen prolocutor in the 
late assembly of divines, wherein his moderation was very much 
commended; and dying in Holborn, he was buried at West- 
minster,, anno Dom, 164 . 

WILLIAM LYFORD was born at Peysmer in this county, and 
bred in Magdalen College, in Oxford, where he proceeded bache- 
lor of divinity 1631. He was also a fellow of that foundation, 
on the same token that his conscience post factum was much 
troubled about his resigning his place for money to his succes- 
sor, but (as his friends have informed me) he before his death 
took order for the restitution thereof. 

The modesty of his mind was legible in the comeliness of his 
countenance, arid the meekness of his spirit visible in his courteous 
carriage. He was afterwards fixed at Shcrborne, in Dorset- 
shire, where his large vineyard required such an able and pain- 
ful vine dresser. Here he laid a good foundation (before the 
beginning of our civil wars) with his learned preaching and 
catechising; and indeed, though sermons give most sail to 
men's souls, catechising layeth the best ballast in them, keeping 
them steady from " being carried away with every wind of doc- 
trine," Yet he drank a deep draught of the bitter cup with the 
rest of his brethren, and had his share of obloquy from such 
factious persons as could not abide the wholesome words of 
sound doctrine. But their candle (without their repentance) 
shall be put out in darkness, whilst his memory shall shine in 

Britannia, in Berkshire. 
f Lib. 2. Padagogi ; tiptff ^ ,' 


his learned works he hath left behind him. He died about the 
year of our Lord 1652. 


THOMAS HYDE was born at Newberry, in this county, and 
bred a Master of Arts in New College in Oxford :* he was after- 
wards canon of Winchester, and chief master of the school 
therein. He, with John Martial, the second master, about the 
beginning of the reign of queen Elizabeth, left both their school 
and their land, living long beyond the seas. This Hyde is 
charactered by one of his own persuasion " to be a man of 
upright life, of great gravity and severity ."f He wrote a book 
of consolation to his fellow-exile ; and died anno Dom. 159/. 


ALFRED, the fourth son to king Athelwolf, was born at 
Wantage, a market-town in this county ;J an excellent scholar, 
though he was past twelve years of age before he knew one 
letter in the book. And did not he run fast, who starting so 
late came soon to the mark ? He was a curious poet, excellent 
musician, a valiant and successful soldier, who fought seven 
battles against the Danes in one year, and at last made them 
his subjects by conquest, and God's servants by Christianity. 
He gave the first institution, or (as others will have it) the best 
instauration, to the university of Oxford. A prince who can- 
not be painted to the life without his loss, no words reaching 
his worth. 

He divided, 1. Every natural day (as to himself ) into three 
parts ; eight hours for his devotion, eight hours for his employ- 
ment, eight hours for his sleep and refection. 2. His revenues 
into three parts ; one for his expences in war, a second for the 
maintenance of his court, and a third to be spent on pious 
uses. 3. His land into thirty-two shires, which number since 
is altered and increased. 4. His subjects into hundreds and 
tithings, consisting of ten persons, mutually pledges for their 
good behaviour ; such being accounted suspicious for their life 
and loyalty that could not give such security. 

He left learning, where he found ignorance ; justice, where 
he found oppression ; peace, where he found distraction. And, 
having reigned about four and thirty years, he died, and was 
buried at Winchester, anno 901. He loved religion more than 
superstition, favoured learned men more than lazy monks ; 
which, perchance, was the cause that his memory is not loaden 
with miracles, and he not solemnly sainted with other Saxon 
kings who far less deserved it. 

* Register of New College, anno 1543. f Pits - de Script. Brit, anno 1597. 

J Camden, Britannia, in Berkshire. 

Mr. Selden, in his notes on Polyolbyon, page 192. 



PETER CHAPMAN was born at Cokeham, in this county, bred 
an ironmonger in London, and at his death bequeathed five 
pounds a year to two scholars in Oxford ; as much to two in 
Cambridge ; and five pounds a year to the poor in the town of 
his nativity ; besides threescore pounds to the prisons in Lon- 
don, and other benefactions.* The certain date of his death 
is to me unknown. 

JOHN KENDRICK was born at Reading in this county, and 
bred a draper in the city of London. His state com- 
pared to the mustard-seed, very little at the beginning, but 
f rowing so great, that the birds made nests therein ;t or rather 
e therein made nests for many birds, which otherwise, being 
either unfledged or maimed, must have been exposed to wind 
and weather. 

The worthiest of David's Worthies were digested* into ter- 
nlonSy and they again subdivided into two ranks. J If this dou- 
ble dichotomy were used to methodize our Protestant benefactors 
since the Reformation, sure I am that Mr. Kendrick will be (if 
not the last of the first) the first of the second three. His cha- 
rity began at his kindred ; proceeded to his friends and servants 
(to whom he left large legacies) ; concluded with the poor, on 
whom he bestowed above twenty thousand pounds : Reading 
and Newberry sharing the deepest therein. And if any 
envious and distrustful miser (measuring other men's hearts by 
the narrowness of his own) suspecteth the truth hereof, and if he 
dare hazard the smarting of his bleared eyes to behold so bright 
a sun of bounty, let him consult his will publicly in print. He 
departed this life on the 30th day of September, 1624 ; and 
lies buried in St. Christopher's, London ; to the curate of which 
parish he gave twenty pounds per annum for ever. 

[S. N.] RICHARD WIGHTWICK, bachelor of divinity, was rec- 
tor of East Ilsley in this county. What the yearly value of his 
living was I know not, and have cause to believe it not very 
great. However, one would conjecture his benefice a bishopric, 
by his bounty to Pembroke College in Oxford, to which he gave 
one hundred pounds per annum, to the maintenance of three 
fellows and four scholars. When he departed this life, is to me 


THOMAS COLE, commonly called the rich clothier of Reading. 
Tradition and an authorless pamphlet make him a man of vast 

* Stow's Survey of London, page 98. f Matth. xiii. 32. 

J 2 Sam. xxiii. 19. Stow's Survey of London, p. 193. 


wealth, maintaining an hundred and forty menial servants in his 
house, besides three hundred poor people whom he set on 
work ; insomuch that his wains with cloth filled the highway 
betwixt Reading and London, to the stopping of king Henry 
the First in his progress ; who notwithstanding (for the encou- 
raging of his subjects 5 industry) gratified the said Cole, and all 
of his profession, with the set measure of a yard, the said king 
making his own arm the standard thereof, whereby drapery was 
reduced in the meting thereof to a greater certainty. 

The truth is this; monks began to lard the lives of their 
saints with lies, whence they proceeded in like manner to 
flourish out the facts of famous knights (king Arthur, Guy of 
Warwick, &c.) ; in imitation whereof some meaner wits in the 
same sort made description of mechanics, powdering their lives 
with improbable passages, to the great prejudice of truth ; seeing 
the making of broad-cloth in England could not be so ancient, 
and it was the arm (not of king Henry) but king Edward the 
First, which is notoriously known to have been the adequation 
of a yard. 

However, because omnis fabula fundatur in Historia, let this 
Cole be accounted eminent in this kind ; though I vehemently 
suspect very little of truth would remain in the midst of this 
story, if the gross falsehoods were pared from both sides thereof. 

JOHN WINSCOMBE, called commonly Jack of Newberry, 
was the most considerable clothier (without fancy and fiction) 
England ever beheld. His looms were his lands, whereof he 
kept one hundred in his house, each managed by a man and 
a boy. In the expedition to Flodden-field, against James king 
of Scotland, he marched with an hundred of his own men (as 
well armed and better clothed than any), to shew that the pain- 
ful to use their hands in peace, could be valiant, and employ 
their arms in war. He feasted king Henry the Eighth and his 
first queen Katharine at his own house, extant at Newberry at 
this day, but divided into many tenements. Well may his 
house now make sixteen clothiers 5 houses, whose wealth would 
amount to six hundred of their estates. He built the church of 
Newberry from the pulpit westward to the tower inclusively ; 
and died about the year 1520; some of his name and kindred 
of great wealth still remaining in this county. 


1. John Parveis, son of John Parveis, of Erlgeston, fish- 
monger, 1432. 

2. Nicholas Wyfold, son of Thomas Wyfold, of Hertley, 
grocer, 1450. 

3. William Webbe, son of John Webbe, of Reading, salter, 



4. Thomas Bennet, son of Thomas Bennet, of Wallingford, 
mercer, 1603. 


THE SIXTH, 1433. 

LoveL, Chivaler, Corn- 

Robert bishop of Sarum, and William 

missioners to take the oaths. 
Robert Shotsbroke, and William Fyndern, 


knights for the 

Johan. Prendegest, Prseceptor 
Hospitalis St. Johan. Jerus. 
in Anglia, de Grenham. 

Johannis Golefre, armigeri. 

Williemi Warbelton, arm. 

Willielmi Danvers, arm. 

Johannis Shotesbrooke, arm. 

Thomse Foxle, arm. 

Philippi Inglefeld, arm. 

Thomse Rothewell, arm. 

Willielmi Perkyns, arm. 

Thomse Drewe, arm. 

Richardi Ristwold, arm. 

Richardi Makeney, arm. 

Johannis Rogers, arm. 

Willielmi Stanerton, arm. 

Willielmi Floyer, arm. 

Thomse Bullok, arm. 

Richardi Bullok, arm. 

Johannis Estbury, arm. 

Johannis Kentwode, arm. 

Richardi Hulcote, arm. 

Johannis Gargrave, arm. 

Johannis Chaumpe^ arm. 

Willielmi Baron, arm. 

Willielmi Fitzwaryn, arm. 

Johannis Stowe. 

Willielmi Hales. 

Johannis Hyde. 

Johan. Stokys de Brympton. 

Willielmi Fachell. 

Roberti Vobe. 

Thomae Pynchepole. 

Johannis Yorke. 

Johannis Ildesle. 

Thomse Ildesle. 

Johannis Colle. 

Richardi Wydeford. 

Richardi Abberburv. 

Thomse Lanyngton. 

Thomse Denton. 

Nicholai Whaddon. 

Petri Delamare. 

Johannis Martyn. 

Thomse Frankeleyn. 

Willielmi Felyce. 

Richardi Haniwell. 

Roberti Wodecok. 

Johannis Warvyle. 

Johannis Rokys. 

Johannis Seward. 

Willielmi Walrond. 

Johannis Medeford. 

Rogeri Merlawe. 

Willielmi Latton. 

Richardi Shayle. 

Thomse Coterell. " 

Johannis George. 

Johannis Sewalle. 

Johannis Sturmy. 

Thomee Hammes. 

Johannis Wering. 

Roberti Beche. 

Johannis Coventre. 

Johannis Lokwode. 

Johannis Fitzwarwin. 

Henri ci Samon. 

Thomse Plesance. 

Edwardi Gybbes. 

Will. Coke de Kingeston Lyle, 

Johannis Firry. 

Nicholai Hunt. 

Hugonis Mayne. 

Willielmi Newman senioris. 

Davidis Gower. 

Johannis Dienys. 

Richardi Dancastre. 

Willielmi Drew de Hungford. 



Johannis Parker de Doington. 

Willielmi Standard. 

Richard! Collis. 

Nicholai Long. 

Robert! Chevayn. 

Richard! Walker. 

Walter! Canonn, de Crokeham 


Robert! Rove de Abendon. 
Johannis Richby de Reding. 
Johannis Stokes de Abendon. 
Johannis Whitwey. 
Willielmi Umfray. 
Simonis Kent. 
Johannis Hatter. 
W T illielmi Brusele. 
Richard! Irmonger. 
Richard! Vayre. 
Gilbert! Holeway. 
Johannis London. 
Willielmi Pleystow. 
Johannis Bancbury. 
Thomae Liford. 
Henrici Ildesle. 
Johannis Chebeyn. 
Johannis Mortymer. 
Johannis Spynache. 
Johannis Moyn de Faryndon. 
Johannis Ely. 
Johannis Goddard. 
Willielmi Ditton. 
Walter! Sutton. 
Nicholai Barbour. 
Willielmi Jacob. 
Johannis Benet de Newberry. 
Johannis Magot. 
Willielmi Croke de Newberry. 
Willielmi Clement. 
Johannis Moyn de Moryton. 
Robert! Freman. 
Johannis Lewes. 
Thomae Steward. 
Willielmi Sydmanton. 
Richard! Waltham. 
Johannis Babeham. 
Johannis Clere. 
Johannis Botele de Newberry. 
Richard! Meryvale. 
Willielmi Walevs. 

Johannis Beneton. 
Willielmi Croke de Welford. 
Willielmi Charectour. 
Willielmi Hertrugge. 
Johannis Kybe. 
Willielmi Wylton. 
Richard! Coterell. 
Lauren tii Alisandre. 
Thomae Bevar. 
Vincentii Bertilmewe. 
Johannis Pynkeney. 
Thomae Attevyne. 
Johannis Crouchfeld. 
Johannis Smewyn. 
Johannis Sifrewast. 

Johannis Batell. 

Johannis Bythewode. 

Thomae Bowell. 

Thomae Hony. 

Walteri Waryn. 

Johannis Yernemouth. 

Henrici Russell. 

Roberti Ivenden. 

Henrici Berkesdale. 

Johannis Absolon. 

Johannis Berkesdale. 

Johannis Clerk de Inkpenny. 

Richard! Bertlot. 

Gilbert! Cohenhull. 

Gilbert! Vyell. 

Gilbert! Attewyke. 

Richard! Attepitte. 

Thomae Padbury. 

Hugonis Rose. 

Johannis Woderove. 

Thomae Pert. 

Johannis Merston. 

Richard! Grove. 

Rogeri Burymill. 

Thomae Grece., 

Richard! Pekke. 

Richard! Mullyng. 

Johan. Parker de Wokingham. 

Johannis Whitede. 

Johan. Sherman de Wyndesor. 

Willielmi Wodyngton. 

Rogeri Felter. 

Willielmi Felcle. 

Johannis Billesby. 


Johannis Gunter. Richard! Rissul. 

Johannis Glover. Johannis Yatynderi. 

Richardi Atteforde. Johannis Kete. 

Johannis Stacy. Johannis Pernecote. 

Johannis Baron de Wytenhara. Rogeri Gunter. 

Johannis Horwode. Thomee Swyer. 

Willielmi More. Richardi Bocher de Thacham. 

Willielmi At-mille. Johannis Elys de Thacham. 

Henrici de la River. Thomee Mepy. 

Johannis Poting. Richardi Phelipp. 

Henrici Brown. Johannis Thoursey, and 

Johannis Brown. Johannis Bassemore. 

Gardeners complain that some kind of flowers and fruits will 
not grow prosperously and thrive kindly in the suburbs of Lon- 
don. This they impute to the smoke of the City, offensive there- 
unto. Sure I am that ancient gentry in this county, sown thick 
in former, come up thin in our, age. 

Anliqua e multis nomina pauca manent. 

" Of names which were in days of yore, 
Few remain here of a great store." 

I behold the vicinity of London as the cause thereof: for though 
Berkshire be conveniently distanced thence (the nearest place 
sixteen, the farthest sixty miles from the same), yet the goodness 
of the ways thither, and sweetness of the seats there (not to speak 
of the river Thames, which uniteth both in commerce) setteth 
Berkshire really nearer than it is locally to London ; the cause, 
I believe, that so few families remain of the forenamed cata- 

The paucity of them maketh such as are extant the more re- 
markable ; amongst whom William Fachel, or Vachel (the 29th 
in number), was right ancient, having an estate in and about 
Reading, as by the ensuing deed will appear : 

" Sciant presentes et futuri, quod ego Joannes Vachel dedi, 
concessi, et hac presenti charta mea confirmavi Rogero le Dub- 
bare, pro servicio suo, et pro quadam summa pecunie quam 
mini dedit primo in manibus, totum et integrum illud tenemen- 
tum/cum pertinentiis suis, quod habui in veteri vico Rading, inter 
tenementum quod quondam fuit Thome Goum in parte Boreali, 
et tenementum quod quondam fuit Jordani le Dubbar in parte 
Australi, habend. et tenend. dicto Rogero, et heredibus suis vel 
assignatis, libere, quiete, integre, in bona pace, in perpetuum, 
de capitalibus dominis illius feodi, per servicium inde debitum 
et consuetum; reddendo inde annuatim mihi, et heredibus vel 
assignatis meis, duos solidos et sex denarios, ad festum Sancti 
Michaelis, pro omni servicio seculari, exactione, et demanda. 
Et ergo predictus Johannes, et heredes mei, vel mei assignati, 
totum predictum tenementum, cum omnibus suis pertinentiis, 
dicto Rogero, et heredibus vel assignatis suis, warrantizabimus, 
et contra omnes gentes defendemus in perpetuum, per servitium 



predictum. In cujus rei testimonium, present! charte sigillum 
meum apposui. Hiis testibus ; Radulpho de la Batili, Thoma 
de Lecester, Nicholao Bastat, Waltero Gerard, Roberto le Taylur, 
Johanne le Foghel, Bardolpho le Foghellar, Gilberto de Heg- 
feiM, et aliis. Dat. apud Rading, duodecimo die Februarii, anno 
regni regis Edwardi filii regis Henrici vicesimo nono." 

The descendants of this name are still extant in this county, 
at Coley, in a worshipful condition. 


Anciently this county had sometimes the same, sometimes a 
distinct sheriff from Oxfordshire, as by the ensuing catalogue 
will appear, so well as we can distinguish them. 



Of Berkshire. Of both. 

Of Oxfordshire. 



1 Willielm. de Pontearch 

1 Restoldus. 

2 Richardus de Charvill. 

2 Henr. de Oille. 

3 Gilbertus de Pinchigen. 

3 Henricus de Oille. 



5 Gulielmus Pinchigen. 

5 Henricus de Oile. 



7 Richard. Lucv. 

7 Manassar Arsic. 

8 Adam, le Cadmus. 

8 Idem. 

9 Adam, de Catmer. 

9 Idem. 

10 Idem. 

10 Thomas Basset. 

11 Adam, de 


12 Idem. 

13 Idem. 

14 Idem. 

15 Idem. 

16 Hugo de Bockland. 

IG Adam. Banaster. 

17 Idem. 

I/ Idem. 

18 Idem. 

18 Idem. 

19 Idem. & H. de Bockland. 

19 Idem. 

20 Hugo de Bockland. 

20 Alard. Banaster. 

21 Idem. 

21 Idem. 

22 Idem. 

22 Rob. de Turvill. 

23 Hugo. 

23 Idem. 

24 Idem. 

24 Idem. 

25 Hugo de S to Germane. 

25 Idem. 

26 Idem. 

26 Galf. Hose. 

27 Idem. 

27 Galf. Hosatts. 

28 Idem. 

28 Idem. 

29 Idem. 

29 Rob. Witefield. 

30 Idem. 

30 Idem. 


Of Berkshire. Of both. Of Oxfordshire. 


31 Hugo de S to Germano. 31 Alan, de Furnell. 

32 32 Idem. 

33 Rogerus films Renfr. 33 Idem. 


1 Rob. fil. Renfr. 1 Rob. de la Mara. 

2 Robertus de la Mara. 

3 Willielmus Briewere. 

4 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

6 Idem. 

7 Willielmus filius Rad. 7 Henricus de Oille. 

8 Philippus filius Rob. 8 Henr. de Oille,, and 
Alan, de Marton. Pag. de Chaderington. 

9 Philip, filius Rob. 9 Hugo de Nevill. 
Alan, de Manton. Galf. de Savage. 

10 Stephan. de Turnham. 10 Hugo, de Nevill. 

Johannes de Ferles. Galfr. de Salvage. 


1 Stephan. de Turnham. 1 Hugo de Nevill. 
Johannes de Ferles. Galfr. Slavagius, 

2 Gilbert. Basset. 2 Rob. de Cantelu. 
Richard. Caverton. Fulk. de Contelu. 

Nich. de Kent. 

3 Will. Briewere. 3 Will. Briewere,, and 

Rich, de Parco. 

5 Hubert, de Burgo. 5 Jo. de Wickeneholt, jun. 

6 6 Thorn. Banaster. 

7 Rich, de Tus. 

8 Tho. Basset. 

9 Rob. de Amnari. 

10 Richardus de Tus. 10 Tho. Basset. 

11 Robert de Magre. 11 Idem. 

12 Joan, de Wikenholton. 12 Idem, and Rob. de Magre. 

13 Idem. 13 Idem. 

14 Johan. de Wikenholton. 

15 Johan. de Wikenholton. 15 Tho. Basset. 

Rob. e Magre. 

16 Idem. 16 Tho. Basset. 

Rich. Letus. 
17 Johan. de Wikenholton. 


1 1 

2 Richardus filius Reg. 2 Fulco de Breantee. 
Hen. de Saio. Rad. de Bray. 

3 Idem. 3 Idem. 


Of Berkshire, Of both. Of Oxfordshire. 


4 Henry de Saio. 4 Rad. de Bray. 

5 Idem, cum filiis Radulph. de Bray. 

6 Hen. de Saio. 6 Rad. de Bray. 

7 Idem. 7 Falkesius de Breantee. 

Ric. de Brakele. 

8 Fakesius de Breantee. 8 Ric. de Ripariis. 

9 Hen. de Saio. 9 Ric. de Brakele. 

10 Henricus de Saio. 

11 Hugo de Batonia. 11 Galfr. de Craucombe. 

Rob. de Haya. 

12 Hugo de Bada. 

12 Phillippus de Albrit 

13 Rob. de Haya. 

13 Galfr. de Craucomb 

14 Hen. de Saio. 

14 Idem. 

Rob. de Haya. 

15 Idem. 

15 Idem. 

16 Idem. 

16 Idem. 

17 Johan. 

de Hulcot. 

18 Rob. de Maplederham. 

19 Engelard de Cicomaco, 

19 Johan. Brims. 

Nich. de Hedington. 

20 Idem. 

20 Idem. 

21 Rob. Bren. 

21 Johan. de Tiwe. 

22 Simon de Lauchmore. 

22 Idem. 

23 Idem. 

23 Idem. 

24 Sim. de Lauchmore. 

24 Johan. de Plesseto. 

Will. Hay. 

25 Idem. 

25 Will. Hay. 

26 Idem. 

26 Idem. 

27 Idem. 

27 Idem. 

28 Alanus de Farnham. 

28 Will. Hay. 

29 Idem. 

29 Idem. " 



30 Aland, de Farnham. 50 John de St Walenco. 

31 Idem. ^1 Idem. 

32 Widom.' nlius Robert!. 52 Nich - de Wiffrewash. 

33 Idem. 53 Tho. de S* Wigore. 

34 Idem. 54 I dem - T 

35 Nich. de Henred, for nine 55 Will, de Insula. 

years together. R g- E P 1S - Cov - and Llch ' 

44 Walter, de la Knivere. 56 Idem - 

45 Idem. EDWARD i. 

46 Idem. 1 Gilb. Kirkby. 

47 Fulco de Kucot. 2 Idem. 

48 Idem. 3 Idem. 

49 John de S to Walerico. 4 Hen. de Shoctebroke. 




5 Hen. de Shoctebroke. 

6 Jacob, de Patebery. 

7 Hen. de Shoctebroke. 
Alanus films Rol. 

8 Idem. 

9 Jac. Croke. 

Joh. de Ciidemers. 

10 Johan. de Cridemers. 

11 Idem. 

12 Idem. 

13 Johan. de Tudemers. 
Radul. de Beauyes. 

14 Radul. de Beauyes. 

15 Thorn, de Duners. 

16 Idem. 

17 Idem. 

18 Willielmus de Gresmull. 

19 Richar. de Wilniescote. 

20 Will, de Bremchele, for 

four years together. 
24 Hen. de Thistelden, for 

five years together. 
29 Nich. de Spershete, for 

seven years together. 


1 Tho. Danvers. 

2 Rich, de Ameray. 

3 Idem. 

4 Tho. Danvers. 

5 Idem. 

6 Idem. & Phil, de la Beach. 

7 Phil, de la Beach, 

8 Richar. de Windsor. 

9 Richar. de Poltiampton. 

10 Idem. 

1 1 Otvelus Pursell, & Richar. 

de la Bere. 

12 Richar. de la Bere, & Joh. 

de Brumpton. 

13 Johan. de Brumpton. 

14 Idem. 

15 Drogo Barentine, for five 

years together. 



1 Johan. de Brumpton. 

2 Idem. 

3 Johan. de Bockland. 

4 Philip, de la Beach. 

5 Rich, de Colshul. 

6 Idem. 

7 Johan. de Brumpton. 

8 Willielm. de Spershalt. 

9 Johan. de Alveton. 

10 Willielm. de Speshalt. 

11 Johan. de Alveton, for four 

years together. 

15 Edward, de Morlins. 

16 Robert. Fitz-Ellis. 

17 Johan. de Alveton, for five 

years together. 

22 Johannes Laundeles, for six 
years together. 

28 Johan. de Alveton. 
Richar. de Nowers. 

29 Johan. de Willamscot. 

30 Johan. Laundeles. 

31 Idem. 

32 Idem. 

33 Robert, de Moreton, 

34 Idem. 

35 Roger, de Elmerugg. 

36 Idem. 

37 Roger, de Cottesford. 

38 Idem. 

39 Idem. 

40 Roger, de Elmerugg,for three 

years together. 

43 Roger, de Cottesford. 

44 Tho. de la Mare. 

45 Idem. 

46 Gilbert. Wace. 

47 Roger de Elmerugg. 

48 Johan. James. 

49 Gilbert. Wace. 

50 Regind. de Maliris. 

51 Johan. de Roth well. 

Reader, let me freely confess myself to thee, had I met with 
equal difficulty in the sheriffs of other counties as in this the 
first shire, it had utterly disheartened me from proceeding. 


The sheriffs of Berkshire and Oxfordshire are so indented, or 
(pardon the metaphor) so entangled with elflocks, I cannot comb 
them out. 

I will not say that I have done always right in dividing the 
sheriffs respectively; but have endeavoured my utmost; and 
may be the better believed, who in such" a subject could meet 
with nothing to bribe or bias my judgment to partiality. 

Be it premised, that though the list of sheriffs be the most 
comprehensive catalogue of the English gentry, yet it is not 
exactly adequate thereunto : for I find in this county the family 
of the Pusays so ancient, that they were lords of Pusay (a vil- 
lage nigh Faringdon) long before the Conquest, in the time of 
king Canutus, holding their lands by the tenure of cornage (as 
I take it) ; viz. by winding the horn which the king aforesaid 
gave their family, and which their posterity, still extant, at this 
day do produce.* Yet none of their name (though persons of 
regard in their respective generations) appear ever sheriffs of 
this county. 

I am glad of so pregnant an instance, and more glad that it 
so seasonably presenteth itself in the front of our work, to con- 
fute their false logic, who will be ready to conclude negatively, 
for this our catalogue of sheriffs excluding them the lines of 
ancient gentry whose ancestors never served in this office. On 
the other side, no ingenuous gentleman can be offended with 
me if he find not his name registered in this roll, seeing it can- 
not be in me any omission whilst I follow my commission, 
faithfully transcribing what I find in the Records. 


3. WILLIELMUS BRIEWERE. He was so called (saith my 
author t) because his father was born upon an heath; though by 
the similitude of the name, one would have suspected him born 
among briers. But see what a poor man's child may come to. 
He was such a minion to this king Richard the First, that he 
created him Baron of Odcomb, in Somersetshire. Yea, when 
one Fulk Paynell was fallen into the king's displeasure, he gave 
this William Briewere the town of Bridgewater, to procure his 
reingratiating. His large inheritance (his son dying without 
issue) was divided amongst his daughters, married into the 
honourable families of Breos, Wake, Mohun, Lafert, and Percy. 

without precedent, that ever two persons held the shrievalty of 
one county jointly, or in co-partnership, London and Middlesex 
alone excepted, whereof hereafter. However, if two sheriffs 
appear in one year, as at this time and frequently hereafter, 

* Camden's Britannia, in this county. f Ibid, in Somersetshire. 

VOL. I. L 


such duplication cometh to pass by one of these accidents : 
1. Amotion of the first, put out or his place for misdemeanor 
(whereof very rare precedents), and another placed in his room. 
2. Promotion. When the first is advanced to be a baron in 
the year of his shrievalty, and another substituted in his office. 
3. Mort. The former dying in his shrievalty, not privileged 
from such arrests to pay his debt to Nature. 

In these cases two, and sometimes three, are found in the 
same year, who successively discharged the office. But, if no 
such mutation happened, and yet two sheriffs be found in one 
year, then the second must be understood Sub-vice-comes (whom 
we commonly also call Mr. Sheriff, in courtesy), his deputy 
acting the affairs of the county under his authority. However, 
if he who is named in this our catalogue in the second place- 
appear the far more eminent person, there the intelligent reader 
will justly suspect a transposition, and that by some mistake 
the deputy is made to precede him whom he only represented. 

Be it here observed, that the place of under-sheriffs in this 
age was very honourable, not hackneyed out for profit. And 
although some uncharitable people (unjustly I hope) have now- 
a-days fixed an ill character on those who twice together dis- 
charged the place, yet anciently the office befitted the best 
persons; little difference betwixt the high-sheriff and under- 
sheriff, save that he was under him, being otherwise a man of 
great credit and estate. 


2. FULCO de BREANTEE, Oxf. This Fulco, or Falkerius, 
or Falkesius de Breantee, or Breantel, or Brent, (so many seve- 
ral ways is he written), was, for the first six years of this king, 
high-sheriff of Oxford, Cambridge, Huntingdon, Bedford, Buck- 
ingham, and Northampton shires (counties continued together) ; 
as by perusing the catalogues will appear. What this Vir tot 
locorum, fe man of so many places," was, will be cleared in Mid- 
dlesex,* the place of his nativity. 

56. ROG. EPIS. COVENT. et LICH. That bishops in this 
age were sheriffs of counties in their own dioceses, it was usual 
and obvious. But Berkshire lying in the dioceses of Sarum, 
Oxfordshire, and Lincoln, that the far distant bishop of Coven- 
try and Lichfield should be their sheriff, may seem extraordinary 
and irregular. 

This first put us on the inquiry who this Roger should be ; 
and, on search, we found him surnamed De Molerid, alias Long- 
espe, who was nephew unto king Henry the Third, f though 
how the kindred came in I cannot discover. No wonder then 
if his royal relation promoted him to this place, contrary to the 

* In the title SOLDIERS. f Godwin, on the Bishops of Coventry and Lichfield. 


common course ; the king,, in his own great age, and absence of 
his son prince Edward in Palestine, desiring to place his confi- 
dants in offices of so high trust. 


6. PHIL, de la BEACH. Their seat was at Aldworth in this 
county, where their statues on their tombs are extant at this 
day,* but of stature surely exceeding their due dimension. It 
seems the Grecian officers have not been here, who had it in 
their charge to order tombs, and proportion monuments to the 
persons represented. I confess, corpse do stretch and extend 
after their death ; but these figures extend beyond their corpse ; 
and the people there living extend their fame beyond their 
figures, fancying them giants, and fitting them with propor- 
tionable performances. They were indeed most valiant men ; 
and their male issue was extinct in the next king's reign, whose 
heir general (as appeareth by the herald's visitation) was mar- 
ried to the ancient family of Whitlock. 




Anno Name. Place. 

1 Edmund Stoner. 

Arms : Az. two bars dancettee O. a chief G, 

2 Thomas Barentyn. 

S. two eaglets displayed Arg. armed (X 

3 Gilbertus Wace. 

4 Johannes Jeanes. 

5 Richardus Brines. 

6 Thomas Barentyn . ut prius. 

7 Johan. Hulcotts 

Fusilee O. and G. a border Az. 

8 Robertus Bullocke . Arborfield. 

G. a chevron twixt three bulls' heads Arg. armed O, 

9 Johannes Holgate. 

10 Thomas Barentyn . ut prius. 

11 Gilb. Wace, mil. 

12 Thomas Pool. 

13 Williel. Attwood, 

14 Hugo Wolfes. 

15 Robertus Bullock , ut prius. 

16 Williel, Wilcote. 

17 Thomas Farington. 

S. three unicorns in pale, current, Arg. armed O. 

18 Thomas Barentyn . ut prius. 

19 Edrum. Spersholt. 

* " Effigies justo majores irapositse." Camden's Britannia, m Berkshire. 

L 2 


Anno Name. Place. 

20 Williel. Attwood. 

21 Johannes Golafre. 

22 Idem. 


1 Willielm. Wilcote. 

2 Thomas Chaucer . Ewelme, Oxf. 

Parted per pale Arg. and G. a bend counterchanged. 
Johannes Wilcote. 

3 Robertas James. 

4 Idem. 

5 Thomas Chaucer . ut prius. 

6 Williel. Langford. 

7 Rob. Corbet, mil. 

O. a raven proper. 

8 Johannes Wilcote. 

9 Th. Harecourt, mil. . Stanton, Oxf. 

G. two bars O. 

10 Petrus Besiles . . Lee, Berkshire. 

Arg. three torteauxes. 

11 Rob. Corbet, mil. . ut prius. 

12 Williel. Lisle/ mil. 

O. a fess betwixt two chevrons S. 


1 Thomas Wykham 

Arg. two chevrons S. betwixt three roses G. 

2 Johannes Golofre. 

3 Johannes Wilcote 

4 Robertus Jeames. 

5 Tho. Wilkham, mil. . ut prius. 

6 Robertus Andrews. 

7 Johannes Wilcote. 

8 Willielmus^Lysle . ut prius. 

9 Idem . . ut prius. 


1 Willielmus Lisle . ut prius. 

2 Thomas Stonore . ut prius. 

3 Joh. Gowfre, at. 

4 Ric. Walkested, mil. 

5 Thomas Wykham . ut prius. 

6 Thomas Stonar . . ut prius. 

7 Robertus James. 

8 Philip. Englefield . Inglefield. 

Barry of six, G. and Arg. on a chief O. a lion passant Az, 

9 Tho. Wikham, mil. . ut prius. 

10 Williel. Finderne. 

11 Willielmus Darrell. 

Az. a lion rampant Arg. crowned O. 


Aimo Names. Place. 

12 Steph. Haytfield. 

13 Rich. Restwold. 

Arg. three bends S. 

14 Thomse Fetiplace . Childre. 

G. two chevrons Arg. 

15 Ric. Gtuatermayns . OXFORD. 

G. a fess betwixt four hands O. 

16 Johannes Norys. 

Quarterly, Arg. and G. a fret O. with a fess Az. 

17 Edwardus Rede. 

G. a saltire twixt four garbs O. 

18 Walter SkuU. 

Arg. a bend between six lions'-head erased of the field. 

19 Johan. Stokes. 

20 Petrus Fetiplace . ut prius. 

21 Johannes Norys . ut prius. 

22 Johan. Charles. 

23 Johan. Lidyard . Benham 

Arg. on a chief O. a flower de luce G. 

24 Joh. Roger, juri. 
35 Edw. Langford. 

26 Idem. 

27 Johannes Penicock 

28 Williel. Wikham . ut prius. 

29 Edwardus Rede . ut prius. 

30 Joha. dialers, mil. 

31 Johan. Roger, arm. . ut prius. 

32 Thomas Stonore . ut prius. 

33 Ric. Quatermayns . ut prius. 

34 Rob. Harecourte . ut prius. 

35 Wai. Mantell. 

36 Johannes Noris, arm. . ut prius. 

37 Williel. Brocas, arm. 

38 Tho. de la More, arm. 

Arg. six martlets three two and one S. 


1 Rich. Harecourte . ut prius. 

2 Ric. Restwood, arm. . ut prius. 

3 Idem. . . . ut prius. 

4 Thomas Roger, arm. . ut prius. 

5 Jo. Barantyn, arm. . ut prius. 

6 Tho. Stonore, arm. . ut prius. 

7 Ric. Harecourt, arm. . ut prius. 

8 JohAHoward, mil. . NORFOLK, 

G. a bend inter six crosslets fitchee Arg. 

9 Will. Norys, mil. . ut prius. 
10 Thomas Prout, arm. 


Anno Name. Place. 

11 Edw. Langford, arm. 

12 Williel. Staverton. 

13 Will. Bekynham. 

14 Johann. Langston. 

15 Hump. Forster, arm. . Aldermaston. 

S. a chevron between three arrows Arg, 

16 Thomas de la Moremi ut prius. 
J7 Thomas Restwold . ut prius. 

18 James Vyall. 

19 Johan. Norys, arm. . ut prius. 

20 Hum. Talbot, mil. 

G. a lion rampant, within a border engrailed Q, 

21 Tho. de la More . ut prius. 

22 Will. Norys, mil. . ut prius. 


1 Thomas Kingeston. 

2 Johannes Barantyn , ut prius. 

3 Edwardus Franke, ^ 


1 Edw. Mountford. . ^ " 

2 Will. Norys, mil. . ut prius, 

3 Thomas Say. 

4 Willielm. Besilles . ut prius. 

5 Th. Delamore, mi. . ut prius. 

6 Johan. Home, mil. 

7 Williel. Harecourt ". ut prius. 

8 Ro. Harecourt, arm. . ut prius. 

9 Geo. Gainford, arm. 
JO Idem. 

11 Joh. Ashfield, arm. 
J2 Hugo Shirley, arm. 

Paly of six, O. and Az. a canton Erin, 

13 Ant. Fetiplace, arm . ut prius. 

14 Ge. Gainsford, arm. 

15 Johannes Basket. 

Az, a chevron E. betwixt three leopards' heads O. 

16 Willi. Besilles, arm. . ut prius. 

17 Rich. Flower, mil. 

18 Jo. Williams, mil. , Tame, Oxford. 

Az. an organ-pipe in bend sinister saltirewise surmounted 
of another dexter betwixt four crosses patee Arg. 

19 Williel. Harecourt , ut prius. 

20 Edw. Grevill, arm, 

21 E. Chamberlain 

G. a chevron Arg. betwixt three escallops O. 

22 Jo, Home, arm. 


Anno Name. Place. 

23 Jo. Home, arm. 

24 Jo. Langford. mil. 


1 Williel. Es'sex, arm. . Lambom. 

Az. a chevron Erm. betwixt three eagles displayed Arg. 

2 Williel. Harecourt . utprius. 

3 Will. Barantin, arm. . ut prius. 

4 Thos. Hay dock, arm. 

5 Wai. Raducy, mil. 

6 Simon. Harecourt, mil. . ut prius. 

7 Jo. Dauncy, mil. 

Az. a dragon O. and lion combatant Arg. 

8 Geor. Foster, mil. . ut prius. 

9 Ed. Chamberlain, mil. . ut prius. 

10 Williel. Essex, mil. . utprius. 

11 Tho. Englefeld, arm. . ut prius. 

12 Hen. Brugges, arm. 

Arg. on a cross S. a leopard's head O. 

13 Jo. Oswalston, arm. 

14 Simon Harecourt . ut prius. 

15 Jo. Fetiplace, arm. . ut prius. 

16 Williel. Essex, mil. . ut prius. 

17 Will. Barantin, mil. . utprius. 

18 Thos. Den ton, arm. 

G. a chevron betwixt three crescents Arg. 

19 Thorn. Ellyot, arm. 

20 Si. Harecourt, mil. . ut prius. 

21 Will. Stafford, arm. . Bradfield. 

O. a chevron G. and a canton Erm. 

22 Hen. Brugges, arm. . ut prius. 

23 Thomas Umpton, arm. Wadley. 

Az. on a fess engrailed O. between three spear-heads Arg. 
a greyhound cursant S, 

24 Hum. Forster, mil. 

25 Will. Farmar, arm. 

Arg. a fess S. betwixt three leopards 5 heads erased G. 

26 Walt. Stoner, mil. . utprius. 

27 Thomas Carter, arm. 

28 Anth. Hungerford 

S. two bars Arg. in chief three plates. 

29 Si. Harecourt, mil. . ut prius. 

30 Joh. Williams, mil. . utprius. 

31 Rich. Brigges,arm. . utprius. 

32 Williel. Essex, mil. . utprius. 

33 Walt. Stoner, mil. . utprius. 

34 Wil. Barantin, mil. . utprius. 

35 Williel. Farmor, arm. . utprius, 


Anno Name. Place. 

36 Job. Williams, arm. . ut prius. 

37 Hum. Foster, mil. . ut prius. 

38 Le. Chamberlain . ut prius. 


1 Fra. Englefeld, mil. . ut prius. 

2 Anth. Cope, mil. . Hanwel 

Arg. on a chevron Az. between three roses G. slipp d 
and leav'd V. three flowers de luce O. 

3 Will. Rainsf. mil. 

4 Richard Fines, arm. . Broughton 

Az. three lions rampant O. 

5 Willielm. Hide, arm. . S. Denchw. 

G. two chevrons Arg. . ut prius. 


J Jo. Williams, mil. . ut prius. 

let Jo. Brome, mil. . ut prius. 

1. 2 Ric. Brigges, mil. . ut prius. 

2. 3 Will. Rainsford. 

3. 4 Thomas Brigges, arm. . ut prius. 

4. 5 Johan. Denton, arm. . ut prius. 

5. 6 Richard. Fines, arm. . ut prius. 


1 Edw. Ashfeld, arm. 

2 Edw. Fabian, arm. 

3 Johan. Doyle, arm. 

O. two bendlets Az. 

4 Henric. Norys, arm. . ut prius. 

5 Ric. Wenman, arm. 

Quarterly G. and Az. a cross patonce O. 

6 Job. Croker, arm. . Tame P. Ox. 

Arg. on a chevron engrailed G. between three crows, as 
many mullets O. pierced. 

7 Tho. Stafford, arm. . ut prius. 

8 Christ. Brome. 


2. THOMAS CHAUCER. He was sole son to Geffery Chau- 
cer, that famous poet, from whom he inherited fair lands at 
Dunnington Castle in this county, and at Ewelme in Oxford- 
shire. He married Maude, daughter and co-heir of Sir John 
Burwash, by whom he had one only daughter named Alice, mar- 
ried unto William de la Pole, duke of Suffolk. He lieth buried 
under a fair tomb in Ewelme church, with this inscription : 
ee Hie jacet Thomas Chaucer, Armiger, quondam dominus istius 


villse et Patronus istius Ecclesiae, qui obiit 18 die mensis Novem- 
bris, anno Dom. 1434 ; et Matilda uxor ejus, quee obiit 28 men- 
sis Aprilis, anno Domini 1436." 


1. THOMAS WIKHAM. I behold him as kinsman and next 
heir to William Wykham, that famous Bishop of Winchester, 
to whom the Bishop left, notwithstanding above * six thousand 
pounds bequeathed by him in legacies (for the discharge whereof 
he left ready money), one hundred pound lands a year. As for 
his arms, viz. Argent, two chevrons Sable between three roses 
Gules, a most ingenious Oxfordian f conceiveth those che- 
vrons (alias couples in architecture) given him in relation to the 
two colleges he built, the one in Oxford, the other in Winches- 
ter. It will be no sin to suspect this no original of but a post- 
nate allusion to his arms, who was (whatever is told to the con- 
trary) though his parents were impoverished, of a knightly ex- 
traction. J But if it was his assigned and not hereditary coat, 
it will be long enough ere the Herald's office grant another to 
any upon the like occasion. 


3. JOHANNES GOWFRE, Arm. No doubt the same with him 
who 2 Henry V. was written John Golofre. He is the first per- 
son who is styled Esquire, though surely all who were before 
him were (if not Knights) Esquires at the least, and 
afterwards this addition grew more and more fashionable in 
the reign of king Henry the Sixth : for, after that Jack Straw 
(one of the grand founders of the Levellers) was defeated, the 
English gentry, to appear above the common sort of people, 
did, in all public instruments, insert their native or acquired qua- 


8. JOHN HOWARD, Miles. He was son to Sir Robert How- 
ard, and soon after was created a Baron by this king, and Duke 
of Norfolk by king Richard the Third, as kinsman and one of 
the heirs of Anne, Duchess of York and Norfolk, whose mother 
was one of the daughters of Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Nor- 
folk. Soon after he lost his life in his quarrel who gave him 
his honour, in Bosworth field. 

From him descended the noble and numerous family of the 
Howards, of whom I told four earls and two barons sitting in 
the last parliament of king Charles. I have nothing else for 
the present to observe of this name, save that a great antiquary 

* Bishop Godwin, in Bishops of Winchester. 

f Sir Isaac Wake, in his Musse Regnantes. 

j Harpfield, Ecclesiastical History, p. 550. 

Earls Arundel, Nottingham, Suffolk, Berkshire. Barons Moubray, Estrick. 


will have it originally to be Hold ward ; * (L and D being omit- 
ted for the easier pronunciation) which signifieth the keeper of 
any castle, hold, or trust committed unto them, wherein they 
have well answered unto their name. Did not Thomas Howard 
Earl of Surrey well hold his ward by land, when in the reign 
of king Henry the Eighth he conquered the Scots in Flodden 
field, and took James the Fourth their king prisoner ? And did 
not Charles Howard (afterwards Earl of Nottingham) hold his 
ward by sea in 88, when the armada was defeated ? But hereof 
(God willing) hereafter. 

5 15. HUMPHRY FOSTER, Arm. This must be he (consent of 
times avowing it) who was afterwards knighted, and lieth buried 
in St. Martin's in the Fields, London, with the following in- 
scription : t if Of your charity, pray for the soul of Sir Hum- 
phrey Foster, knight, whose body lieth buried here in earth un- 
der this marble stone: which deceased the 18th day of the 
month of September, 1500; on whose soul Jesu have mercy." 


8. ROBERT HARECOURT, Miles. Right ancient is this fa- 
mily in France, having read in a French herald, J who wrote in 
the reign of king Edward the Sixth, that it flourished therein 
eight hundred years, as by a genealogy drawn by him should ap- 

Of this family (for both give the same coat at this day, viz. 
Gules two barrs Or,) a younger branch, coming over at the Con- 
quest, fixed itself in the Norman infancy at Staunton Hare- 
court in Oxfordshire. And I find that in the reign of king 
John, Richard de Harecourt of Staunton aforesaid, marrying 
Orabella daughter of Saer de Quincy Earl of Winchester, had 
the rich manor of Bos worth in Leicestershire .bestowed on him 
for his wife's portion. 

I cannot exactly distinguish the several Harecourts contem- 
poraries in this county, and sheriffs thereof, so as to assign them 
their several habitations ; but am confident that this Robert 
Harecourt (sheriff in the reign of king Henry the Seventh) was 
the same person whom king Edward the Fourth made knight 
of the Garter. From him lineally descended the valiant knight 
Sir Simon Harecourt, lately slain in the wars against the rebels 
in Ireland, whose son, a hopeful gentleman, enjoys the manor 
of Staunton at this day. 

15. JOHN BASKET. He was an esquire of remark and mar- 
tial activity in his younger days, who in some years after re- 

* Verstegan, of Decayed Intelligence, p. 320. 

t Weaver's Funeral Monuments, p. 447. 

+ Jean Le Feron, en le Chapter des Mareschaviz, de France. 


moved to Devenish in Dorsetshire, to whom king Henry the 
Eighth, going over into France, committed the care of that 
county, as by his following letter will appear. 

" By the King. 

" Trusty and well-beloved, We greet you well. And whereas 
we at this time have written as well to the sheriff of that our 
shire, as also to the justices of our peace within our said shire, 
commanding and straightly charging, that as well the said she- 
riff as the said justices, endeavour them for the keeping of our 
peace and the entertainment of our subjects, in good quiet and 
restfulness, during the time of our journey into the parties of 
beyond the sea ; to the which we entend to dispose us about 
the latter end of this present month of May : and forasmuch 
also as we have for your great ease spared you of your attend- 
ance upon us in our said journey, and left you at home to do us 
service in keeping of our peace, and good rule amongst our said 
subjects : We will therefore and command you, that during the 
time of our said absence out of this our realme, ye have a spe- 
cial oversight, regard, and respect, as well to the sheriff as to the 
said justices, how and in what diligence they do and execute 
our commandement, comprised in our said letters. And that 
ye also from time to time, as ye shall see meet, quickly and sharply 
call upon them in our name, for the execution of our said com- 
mandement ; and if you shall find any of them remiss or negli- 
gent in that behalf, we will that ye lay it sharply to their charge ; 
advertising, that in case they amend not their defaults, ye will 
thereof advertise our councell remaining with our dearest daugh- 
ter the princess, and so we charge you to do indeed. And if 
our said sheriff or justice, or any other sheriff or justice of any 
shire next to you, upon any side adjoining, shall need or require 
your assistance, for the execution of our said commandements, 
we will and desire you that what the best power ye can make of 
our subjects in Harneys, ye be to them aiding and assisting from 
time to time as the case shall require- Not failing hereof as 
you intend to please us, and as we specially trust you. Given 
under our signet, at our manor of Greenwich, the 18 day of 


1. WILLIAM ESSEX, Arm. He was a worthy man in his ge- 
neration, of great command in this county (whereof he was four 
times sheriff), and the first of his family who fixed at Lambourn 
therein, on this welcome occasion. He had married Elizabeth, 
daughter and sole heir of Thomas Rogers of Benham, whose 
grandfather, John Rogers, had married Elizabeth, daughter and 
heir of John Shotesbroke of Bercote in this county (whose an- 
cestors had been sheriffs of Berkshire in the fourth, fifth, and 
sixth of king Edward the third), by whom he received a large 


Nor was the birth of this Sir William (for afterwards he was 
knighted) beneath his estate,, being son unto Thomas Essex, 
Esquire, Remembrancer and Vice-Treasurer unto king Edward 
the Fourth; who died November 1, 1500; lieth buried with a 
plain epitaph in the church of Kensington, Middlesex. He de- 
rived himself from Henry de Essex, Baron of Rawley in Essex, 
and standard-bearer of England (as I have seen in an exact 

Eedigree attested by Master Camden) ; and his posterity have 
itely assumed his coat, viz. Argent, an orle Gules. There was 
lately a baronet of this family, with the revenues of a baron ; 
but (( riches endure not for ever,"* if providence be not as well 
used in preserving as attaining them, 

24. HUMPHRY FORSTER, Knight. He bare a good affection 
to Protestants, even in the most dangerous times, and spake to the 
quest in the behalf of Master Marbeck, that good confessor :f 
yea, he confessed to king Henry the Third, that never any thing 
went so much against his conscience, which under his Graced 
authority he had done, as his attending the execution of three 
poor men martyred at Windsor.}: 


1. FRANCIS INGLEFIELD, Mil. He afterwards was Privy- 
councillor unto queen Mary, and so zealous a Romanist, that after 
her death he left the land, with a most large inheritance, and 
lived for the most part in Spain. He was a most industrious 
agent to solicit the cause of the queen of Scots, both to his Holi- 
ness and the Catholic king ; as also he was a great promoter of 
and benefactor to the English college at Valladolid in Spain, 
where he lieth interred : and a family of his alliance is still 
worshipfully extant in this county. 


1. JOHN WILLIAMS, Miles. Before the year of his shrievalty 
was expired, queen Mary made him Lord Williams of Tame in 
Oxfordshire ; in which town he built a small hospital and a very 
fair school ; he with Sir Henry Bennyfield were joint keepers 
of the lady Elizabeth, whilst under restraint, being as civil as the 
other was cruel unto her. Bishop Ridley, when martyred, re- 
quested this lord to stand his friend to the queen, that those 
leases might be confirmed which he had made to poor tenants ; 
which he promised, and performed accordingly. || His great 
estate was divided betwixt his two daughters and co-heirs, 
one married to Sir Henry Norrice, the other to Sir Richard 


4. HENRY NORRICE, Arm. Son-in-law to the Lord Williams 

Prov. xxvii. 24. f Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 1219. 

I Idem. p. 1221. Camden's Britannia, in Oxfordshire. 

II See the picture of Bishop Ridley's burning, in Mr. Fox. 


aforesaid. He was by queen Elizabeth created Baron Norrice 
of Ricot in Oxfordshire. It is hard to say whether this tree of 
honour was more remarkable for the root from whence it sprang, 
or for the branches that sprang from him. He was son to Sir 
Henry Norrice, who ^uffered in the cause of queen Anne Bullen, 
grandchild to Sir Edward Norrice, who married Fridswide, sister 
and coheir to the last Lord Lovell. He was father (though him- 
self of a meek and mild disposition) to the martial brood of the 
Norrices, of whom hereafter.* 

Elizabeth, his great grandchild, sole daughter and heir unto 
Francis Norrice, Earl of Berkshire, and Baroness Norrice, 
was married unto Edward Wray, Esquire, whose only daughter, 
Elizabeth Wray, Baroness Norrice, lately deceased, was married 
unto Montague Bertie, Earl of Lindsey ; whose son, a minor, 
is Lord Norrice at this day. 



Anno Name. Place. 

9 Edw. Unton, mil. . Wadley. 

Arms : Az. on a fess eng. O. twixt three spear-heads Arg. 
a hound cursant S. collared G. 

10 Jo. Fetiplace, arm. . Chilrey. 

G. two chev. Arg. 

11 Will. Forster, arm. . Aldermerston. 

Sable, a chev. betwixt three arrows Arg. 

12 Will. Dunch, arm. . Litlewitham. 

O. a chev. betwixt two towers in chief and a fleur-de-lis in 
base Arg. 

13 Joha. Winchcomb . Budebury. 

14 Hen. Nevill, mil. . Billingber. 

15 Tho. Essex, arm. . >Limborn. 

Az. a chevron betwixt three eagles Arg. 

16 Ric. Lovelace, arm. , Hurley. 

G. on a chief indented S. three marvets O. 

17 Anth. Bridges, arm. . Hemsted-Marshal. 

18 Thorn. Parry, arm. 

19 Jo. Fetiplace, mil. '. ut prius. 

20 Tho. Stafford, arm. . Bradfield. 

O. a chev. and canton E. 

21 Tho. Stephans, arm. 

22 Hum. Foster, arm. . ut prius. 

23 Tho. Bullock, arm. . Arborfield. 

G. a chev. twixt three bulls 5 heads Ar. armed O. 

24 Tho. Read, arm. . Abingdon. 

G. a saltire twixt four garbs O. 

25 Mich. Molens, arm. . Clapgate. 

* In the description of Oxfordshire, title SOLDIERS. 


Anno Name. Place. 

26 Be. Fetiplace, arm. . ut prius. 

27 Edw. Fetiplace, arm. . ut prius, 

28 Chris. Lillcot, arm. . Rushcomb. 

O. two bars vairy Arg. and S. 

29 Edm. Dunch, arm. . ut prius. 

30 Thomas Parry, arm. . ut prius. 

31 Tho. Dolman, arm. . Shaw. 

Az. a fess dancette inter six garbes Or. 

32 Johan. Latton, arm. 

33 Rich. Ward, arm. 

34 Fr. Winchcombe . ut prius. 

35 Hum. Forster, arm. . ut prius. 

36 Ricar. Hide, arm. . S. Denchw. 

G. two chevrons Arg. 

37 Hen. Nevill, arm. . ut prius. 

38 Edm. Wiseman, arm. . Stephenton. 

S. a chev. twixt three bars of spears Arg.. 

39 Chri. Lidcotte, mil. . ut prius. 

40 Hen. Pool, mil. 

41 Tho. Reede, mil. . ut prius. 

42 Sa. Backhouse, arm. . Swallofield, 

43 Johan. Norris, mil. 

44 Ed. Fettiplace, mil. . ut prius. 

45 Ed. Dunch, arm. and 1 Ja. ut prius, 


1 Edm. Dunch, arm. 

S. a chev. betwixt three towers Arg. 

2 Ant. Blagrave, arm. 

O. on a bend S. three greaves erased at the ancle Ar. 

3 Thomas Read, arm. . ut prius. 

4 Will. Stonhou. arm. . Radley. 

Arg. on a fess S. between three falcons volant Az. a leo- 
pard's head and two mullets O. 

5 Fr. Winchcombe. . ut prius. 

6 Will. Foster, mil. . ut prius. 

7 Anth. Barker, mil. . Suning. 

8 Ric. Lovelace, mil. . ut prius. 

9 Tho. Vachell, mil. . Colly. 

Bendy of six pieces, Erm. and Az. 

10 Tho. Hinton, arm. 

11 Car. Wiseman, arm. . ut prius. 

12 Jo. Ayshcombe, arm. 

13 Will. Young, mil. 

14 Will. Standin, arm. . Arborfield. 

15 Val. Knightley, mil. 

Quarterly, Erm, and O. three pales G. 

16 Joh. Catcher, arm. 

17 Hum. Foster, arm. . tit prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

18 Gabriel Pyle, mil. < Compton. 

19 Jo. Winchcombe. . ut prius. 

20 Jo. Marry cot, arm. 

21 William Hide, arm. 

22 Jo. Blagrave, mil. 



1 Joh. Darrel, Bar. . W. Woodh. 

Az. a lion rampant O. crowned Arg. 

2 Edr. Clark, mil. . Ardigton. 

3 Gor. Willmot, arm. . Charlton. 

4 Edw. Yates, Barr. . Buckland. 

5 Sam. Dunch, arm. . ut prius. 

Per fess embattled Arg. and S. three yates counterchanged. 

6 Jo. Fetiplace, arm. . ut prius. 

7 Hen. Samborn, mil. . Moulsford. 

8 Henry Powle, arm. 

9 Edm. Dunch, arm. . ut prius. 

10 Hum. Dolman, arm. . ut prius. 

11 Will. Barker, arm. . ut prius. 

12 Ric. Harrison, mil. . Hurst. 

O. on a chief S. three eagles displayed of the first. 

13 Geo. Stonhouse, bar. . ut prius. 

14 Humph. Hide, arm. . ut prius. 

15 Gea. Puresy, arm. . Wadley. 

S. three pair of gauntlets dipping, Arg. 

16 Peregrine Hobby. . Bisham. 

Arg. three fusiles upon slippers G. 

17 Tanfield Vachel. . ut prius. 

22 Jo. Southleg, arm. 


9. EDWARD UNTON, or UMPTON, Miles. This ancient and 
worshipful name was extinct in the days of our fathers for want 
of 'issue male, and a great part of their lands devolved by an 
heir-general to George Purfey, of Wadley, Esquire, whose care 
is commendable in preserving the monuments of the Umptons 
in Faringdon church, and restoring such as were defaced in the 
war to a good degree of their former fairness. 

26. BESILIUS FETIPLACE. Some may colourably mistake 
it for Basilius, or Basil, a Christian name frequent in some fami- 


lies, whereas indeed it is Besil, a surname. These lived in 
great regard at Lee, thence called Besiles-Lee, in this county, 
until Elizabeth, daughter and heir of William Besiles, last of 
that name, was married unto Richard Fetiplace, whose great- 

freat-grandchild was named Besile, to continue the remem- 
rance of their ancestors. 

Reader, I am confident an instance can hardly be produced 
of a surname made Christian in England, save since the Refor- 
mation ; before which time the priests were scrupulous to admit 
any at font, except they were baptized with the name of a 
Scripture or legendary saint. Since, it hath been common ; 
and although the Lord Coke was pleased to say he had noted 
many of them prove unfortunate, yet the good success in others 
confutes the general truth of the observation. 


.8. RICHARD LOVELACE, Knight. He was a gentleman of 
metal; and in the reign of queen Elizabeth, making use of 
letters of mart, had the success to light on a large remnant of 
the king of Spain's cloth of silver, I mean his West-Indian 
fleet ; wherewith he and his posterity are the warmer to this 
day. King Charles created him Lord Lovelace, of Hurley. 


1. SIR JOHN DARELL, Baronet. He being the first who, 
in the catalogue of sheriffs, occurreth of that order, a word of 
the institution thereof. We meddle not with ancient baronets, 
finding that word formerly promiscuously blended with Ban- 
nerets (Sir Ralph Fane, in a patent passed unto him, is expressly 
termed a baronet) ; but insist on their new erection in the ninth 
of king James. 

Their Qualifications. 1. They were to be persons morum 
probitate spectati. 2. Descended at least of grandfather, by the 
father's side, that bare arms. 3. Having a clear estate of one 
thousand pounds per annum ; two-thirds thereof at least in 
possesion, the rest in reversion expectant on one life only, 
holding in dower or in jointure. 

Their Service. 1. Each of them was to advance, towards the 
planting of the province of Ulster in Ireland, with colonies 
and castles to defend them, money enough to maintain thirty 
foot for three years, after the rate of eight-pence a day for every 
one of them. 2. The first'year's wages was to be paid down on 
the passing of their patent ; the remainder, as they contracted 
with the king's commissioners authorized to treat and conclude 

Their Dignity. 1. They were to take place, with their wives 
and children respectively, immediately after the sons of barons ; 

* Rot. Pat. quarto Edwardi Sexti. 


and before all Knights-bachelors of the Bath, and Bannerets ; 
save such solemn ones as hereafter should be created in the 
field by the king there present, under the standard royal dis- 
played. 2. The addition of Sir was to be prefixed before theirs ; 
of Madam, their wives' names. 3. The honour was to be here- 
ditary ; and knighthood not to be denied to their eldest sons of 
full age, if desiring it. 4. For an augmentation in their arms, 
they might bear a bloody hand, in a canton or escutcheon, at 
their pleasure. 

The king did undertake that they should never exceed two 
hundred ; which number completed, if any chanced to die with- 
out issue male, none were to be substituted in their place ; that 
so their number might daily diminish, and honour increase. 
He did also promise, for himself and his heirs, that no new order 
under another name should be superinduced. 


NEWBUBY; the first ,1643, Sept. 20. The Earl of Essex, 
having raised the siege of Gloucester, and returning towards Lon- 
don, was rather followed than overtaken by the king's army. 
Both sides might be traced by a track of bloody footsteps, espe- 
cially at Auborn in Wilts, where they had a smart encounter. 
At Newberry the earl made a stand. Here happened a fierce 
fight on the east side of the town, wherein the Londoners did 
shew that they could as well use a sword in the field as a met- 
ward in a shop. The Parliament was conceived to lose the 
most, the king the most considerable, persons : amongst whom 
the Earls of Carnarvon and Sunderland, the Viscount Falkland, 
colonel Morgan, &c. Both armies may be said to beat and 
be beaten, neither winning the day, and both the twilight. 
Hence it was that both sides were so sadly filled with their sup- 
per over night, neither next morning had any stomach to break- 
fast ; but, keeping their stations, were rather contented to face, 
than willing to fight, one another. 

NEWBURY ; the second, 1644, Oct. 27. One would wonder 
where the Earl of Essex, so lately stripped out of all his infan- 
try in Cornwall, so soon reinvested himself with more foot, save 
that London is the shop general of all commodities. Recruited 
with fresh (but not fresh-water) soldiers, he gave the king battle. 
This fight was as long and fierce as the former ; but the conquest 
more clear on the Parliament's side. The Cornish (though be- 
having themselves valiantly) were conceived not to do so well, 
because expected to have done better. 

The Royalists were at night fain to hang lighted matches on 
the hedges (so to similate their abode thereabouts) ; whilst they 
drew off, securing their cannon in Dunnington castle (the gover- 
nor whereof, Sir J. Bois, did the king knight's service) ; and so, 
in a pace slower than a flight and faster than a retreat, returned 
in as good order as their condition was capable of. Many here 

VOL. i. M 


lost their lives, as if Newbury were so named by a sad prolepsis, 
fore-signifying that that town should afford a new burying place 
to many slain in two bloody battles. 


Being to take my leave of this shire, I seriously considered 
what want there was therein, that so I might wish the supply 
thereof. But I can discover no natural defect ; and I therefore 
wish the inhabitants a thankful heart to that God who hath given 
them a country so perfect in profit and pleasure. Withal it is 
observed, that the lands in Berkshire are very skittish, and often 
cast their owners; which yet I impute not so much to the un- 
ruliness of the beasts, as to the unskilfulness of the riders. I 
desire heartily that hereafter the Berkshire gentry may be better 
settled in their saddles, so that the sweet places in this county 
may not be subject to so many mutations. 


Charles ABBOT, first Lord Colchester, Speaker of the House 
of Commons : born at Abingdon 1757 ; died 1829. 

James Pettit ANDREWS, .a learned miscellaneous writer ; born 
at Newbury 1737; died 179?. 

Dr. Phannel BACON, a dramatic poet; born at Reading 1737; 
died 1783. 

Sir John BARNARD, patriotic alderman of London ; born at 
Reading 1685 ; died 1764. 

Dr. Joseph BUTLER, Bishop of Durham, and author of " Ana- 
logy of Religion ;" born at Wantage 1692 ; died 1752. 

Charles COATES, historian of his native town of Reading ; died 

Henry Edward DAVIS, author of the " Defender of Christianity/' 
against the historian Gibbon; born at Windsor 1756. 

William DOD WELL, a learned divine and author ; born at Shaftes- 
broke 1710; died 1785. 

John FELL, Bishop of Oxford; born at Langworth 1625; died 

John FOSTER, Master of Eton, the great classical scholar ; born 
at Windsor 1731 ; died 1773. 

Thomas GODWIN, Bishop of Bath and Wells ; born at Woking- 
ham 1517; died 1590. 

James GRANGER, a divine, collector of engraved portraits, au- 
thor of a " Biographical History of England/' and some ser- 
mons ; died 1776, aged about 60. 

Thomas HEARNE, an antiquary, historian, and classical editor; 
born at Littleford Green in White Waltham ; died 1735. 


Sir Thomas HOLT, a lawyer, and recorder of his native town of 

Issac KIMBER, historian and biographer ; born at Wantage 

1692; died 1758. 
William LLOYD, Bishop of St. Asaph, one of the seven bishops 

imprisoned by James II. ; born at Tilehurst 1627 ; died 1717* 
James MERRICK, a divine, poet, and translator of the Psalms ; 

born at Reading 1?19; died 1769. 
Edward MOORE, a dramatic poet, author of "The World," 

" Gamester," and " Fables for the Female Sex ; " born at 

Abingdon 1712 ; died 1757. 
Henry NEVILL, a republican, and author of " Plato Redivivus ;" 

born at Billingbeare 1620; died 1694. 
W T illiam NEWCOME, Archbishop of Armagh, of great learning 

and exemplary manners; born at Buxton-le-Clay 1729; died 

Sir Constantine PHIPPS, Lord Chancellor of Ireland; born at 

Reading; died 1723. 
Henry James PYE, Poet-laureat ; born at Farringdon 1745; 

died 1813. 
George SEWELL, a physician, poet, and miscellaneous writer j 

born at Windsor ; died 1726. 
Sir John SOANE, F.R.S., S.A., &c. Professor of Architecture in 

the Royal Academy, architect to the Bank of England, &c. ; 

born at Reading 1752; died 1837. 
Sir Thomas ST AMPLE, Lord Mayor of London in 1692 ; born 

at Reading. 

William Bagshaw STEVENS, a poet and divine ; born at Abing- 
don about 1755 ; died 1800. 

Sir John STONEHOUSE, a physician and divine; born 1716. 
The Rev. Dr. VALPY, classical scholar and divine, master of* 

Reading School; born 1774; died 1836. 

John WORRAL, author of " Bibliotheca Legum ;" born at Read- 
ing; died I77l 
Edward YOUNG, Dean of Salisbury, a theologian, and father of 

the poet, born at Woodhay ; died 1705. 

** The principal Works published since Dr. Fuller's time, relative to this county, 
are the History of Berkshire, by Elias Ashmole (1736) ; History of Windsor Castle, 
by J. Pote (1749); History of the Beauties of England (1801) ; Lyson's Britan- 
nia (1813) ; Histories of Reading, by the Rev. C. Coates (1802), and by J. Maa 
(1816) ; and the History of Windsor, by J. Hakewell (1813). ED, 



BEDFORDSHIRE hath Northamptonshire on the north, Hun- 
tingdon and Cambridgeshires on the east, Hertfordshire on the 
south; Buckinghamshire on the west thereof. It lieth from 
north to south in an oval form, and may be allowed two and 
twenty miles in length, though the general breadth thereof ex- 
tendeth not to full fifteen. 

The soil consisteth of a deep clay, yet so that this county may 
be said to wear a belt, or girdle of sand, about, or rather athwart 
the body thereof (from Woburn to Potton), affording fair and 
pleasant, as the other part doth fruitful and profitable, places for 
habitation, which partakes plentifully in the partage of all Eng- 
lish conveniences. 

Here let this caveat be entered, to preserve its due [but 
invaded] right to much grain growing in this county : for corn- 
chandlers (the most avouchable authors in this point) will in- 
form you, that when Hertfordshire wheat and barley carries the 
credit in London, thereby much is meant (though miscalled) 
which is immediately bought in and brought out of Hertfordshire, 
but originally growing in Bedfordshire, about Dunstable and 
elsewhere. But let not the dry nurse, which only carried the 
child in her arms and dandled it in her lap, lay claim to that 
babe which the true mother did breed and bear in her body. 



White, large, plump, and full of flower. The countryman will 
tell you, that of all our grains this is most nice, and must be 
most observed in the several seasons thereof. It doth not only 
allay hunger, but also in a manner quencheth thirst, when or- 
dered into malt. It is (though not so toothsome) as wholesome 
as wheat itself, and was all the staff of bread, which Christ's 
body leaned on in this life; eating, to attest his humanity, 
barley loaves to evidence his humility.* 

* John vi. 9. 



This is barley with the property thereof much altered, hav- 
ing passed both water and fire, steeped and dried on a kiln. That 
the use hereof was known to the Greeks, plainly appears by the 
proper word wherewith they express it, Rvvij and no maltster 
of Bedford can better describe the manner thereof than is done 
by Aetius ; " Est hordeum madefactum, quod germen emisit, 
deinde cum ligulis enatis tostum est."* Besides, we read of 
OIVOQ KptOivoz, and Athenseus maketh mention of such who were 
Kpidtvov TTETTWKOTCC otj/oj',f " drinkers of barley wine," a liquor 
probably more wholesome for northern bodies than that which 
groweth in grapes. 

What great estates malsters got formerly in this county, may be 
collected from the wealth of the ale-brewers therein, there being 
so near a relation betwixt the two callings. For I read in the reign 
of king Henry the Fifth, of William Murfley, an ale brewer of 
Dunstable (accounted, I confess, a Lollard, and follower of the 
Lord Cobham,) who when taken had two horses trapped with 
gilt armour led after him, and had a pair of gilt spurs in his bo- 
som, expecting (say they) knighthood from the Lord Cobham. J 
And although I believe not the report in full habitude, it is 
enough to intimate unto us that in that age it was a wealthy em- 


Great store of this is digged up not far from Woburn in this 
county, whence it is commonly called Woburn earth. Such 
the use thereof in drapery, that good cloth can hardly be made 
without it, foreign parts affording neither so much, nor so good 
of this kind. No wonder then if our statutes strictly forbid 
the transportation thereof, to preserve the perfection of clothing 
amongst ourselves. But were this fullers-earth like terra lemnia, 
or sigillata, and all the parcels thereof locked up under a seal, 
yet the Dutch (so long as they are so cunning, and we so care- 
less) will stock themselves hence with plentiful proportions 


The most and best of these are caught and well dressed about 
Dunstable in this shire. A harmless bird whilst living, not 
trespassing on grain ; and wholesome when dead, then filling 
the stomach with meat, as formerly the ear with music. In 
winter they fly in flocks, probably the reason why Alauda signi- 
fieth in Latin both a lark and a legion of soldiers ; except any 
will say a legion is so called because helmeted on their heads 
and crested like a lark, therefore also called in Latin Gakrita, 

* Lib. x. c. 29. t Lib. i. et x. 

i Harpfield, History of Wickliffe, p. 708 ; and Hollinshed, p. 544, 

See more hereof in Surrey, title Natural Commodities. 


If men would imitate the early rising of this bird, it would con- 
duce much unto their healthfulness. 


Fat folk (whose collops stick to their sides) are generally lazy, 
whilst leaner people are of more activity. Thus fruitful coun- 
tries (as this is for the generality thereof) take to themselves a 
writ of ease ; the principal cause why Bedfordshire affords not 
any trades peculiar to itself. 


This county affordeth no cathedral, and the parochial churches 
entitle not themselves to any eminency. Only I hear such high 
commendations of a chapel and monument erected at Maldon 
by Thomas Earl of Elgin to the memory of his deceased lady 
Diana Cecil, that I am impatient till I have beheld it, to satisfy 
myself whether it answereth that character of curiosity which 
credible persons have given thereof. 

Taddington, Amphtill, and Woburn carrv away the credit 
amongst the houses of the nobility in this county. 


At Harleswood, commonly called Harold, in this county, the 
river of Ouse, anno 1399, parted asunder ; the water from the 
fountain standing still, and those towards the sea giving way, so 
that it was passable over on foot for three miles together, not 
without the astonishment of the beholders.* It was an ominous 
presage of the sad civil wars betwixt the two houses of York and 

There js a rivulet in this county (though confining on Buck- 
inghamshire) near a village called Aspeley ; and take the strange 
operation thereof from his pen, who (though a poet) is a credi- 
ble author : 

' The Brook which on her bank doth boast that earth alone, 
Which, noted of this isle, converteth wood to stone. 
That little Aspeley's earth we anciently instyle, 
'Mongst sundry other things, A Wonder of the Isle."| 

But, by his leave, there is another of the same nature in North- 
amptonshire ; which because less known I will there enlarge 
myself on that subject. 


"As plain as Dunstable road.''] 

It is applied to things plain and simple, without either welt 
or guard to adorn them, as also to matters easy and obvious to 
be found without any difficulty or direction. Such this road ; 

* Hypodagma, p. 163. f Drayton's Poly-olbion, the 22nd Song. 


being broad and beaten, as the confluence of many leading to 
London from the north and north-west parts of this land. 

" As crooked as Crawley brook."] 

This is a nameless brook arising about Woburn, running by 
Crawley, and falling immediately into the Ouse. But this pro^ 
verb may better be verified of Ouse itself in this shire, more 
mceandrous than Mceander, which runneth above eighty miles in 
eighteen by land. Blame it not, if, sensible of its sad condition, 
and presaging its fall into the foggy fens in the next county, it 
be loath to leave this pleasant place ; as who would not prolong 
their own happiness ? 

" The Bailiff of Bedford is coming."] 

This proverb hath its original in this, but use in the next, 
county of Cambridge. The river Ouse running by is called the 
Bailiff of Bedford, who, swelling with rain, snow-water, and tri- 
butary brooks in the winter, and coming down on a sudden, ar- 
resteth the Isle of Ely with an inundation. But I am informed 
that the drainers of the Fens have of late, with incredible care, 
cost, art, and industry, wrested the mace out of this BailifFs 
hand, and have secured the country against his power for the 


MARGARET BEAUFORT, Countess Richmond and Derby. 
No person of judgment or ingenuity will find fault with her 
posture under this title, who was great-great-grandchild to king 
Edward the Third, and mother to king Henry the Seventh, 
besides her (almost incredible) alliance to so many foreign 

Thus, reader, I am confident I have pleased thee as well as 
myself, in disposing her in this place. And yet I am well as- 
sured that, were she alive, she would (half-offended hereat) be 
more contented to be ranked under another and lower topic of 
benefactors to the public ; yea, (if left to her own liberty) would 
choose that reposing-place for her memory. This is not only most 
consonant to her humility and charity (desiring rather to be 
good than great) : but also conformable to her remarkable 
expression (according to the devotion of those darker days) 
" that, if the Christian princes would agree to march with an army 
for the recovery of Palestine, she would be their landress." 

This is she who, besides a professor of divinity placed in both 
universities, founded the two fair colleges of Christ and Saint 
John in Cambridge. By the way be it observed, that Cam- 
bridge hath been much beholden to the strength of bounty in 
the weaker sex. Of the four Halls therein, two, viz. Clare and 
Pembroke, were (as I may say) feminine foundations ; and of 
the twelve colleges, one third, Queen's, Christ's Saint John's, 

* .See their number in her Funeral Sermon, preached by Bishop Fisher, 


and Sidney, owe their original to worthy women : whereas no 
female ever founded college in Oxford (though bountiful bene- 
factors to many) ; seeing queen's college therein, though com- 
mended to the queens of England for its successive patronesses, 
had Robert Eglesfield for the effectual founder thereof. 

And Cambridge is so far from being ashamed of, she is joy- 
ful at, and thankful for, such charity ; having read of our Saviour 
himself, that " Mary Magdalen, and Joanna, and Susanna, and 
many other women, ministered unto him of their substance/'* 
But this worthy Lady Margaret, being too high for a mean man 
to commend, is long since gone to the great God to reward, dy- 
ing in the beginning of the reign of her grand-child king Henry 
the Eighth. 


AINULPHUS, of royal British blood, was an holy hermit, who, 
waving the vanities of this wicked world, betook himself in this 
county to a solitary life, renowned for the sanctity (or rather 
sanctimony) thereof. The age he lived in is not exactly 
known ; but sure it is, that Ainulphsbury (a town in the con- 
fines of this and Huntingdonshire), was erected in his memory, 
pait whereof (corruptly called Ainsbury) is extant at this day, 
and the rest is disguised under the new name of Saint Neot's. 


THOMAS CHASE, an ancient and faithful labourer in GodV 
vineyard, led his life most in Buckinghamshire, but found his 
death in this county, long kept in durance, and hanged at last, 
in the bishop's prison at Woburn. His executioners, to palli- 
ate their murder, and asperse his memory, gave it out that he 
had destroyed himself; a loud lie, seeing he was so loaden with 
chains, that he. could not lift up his own body.f But the clear- 
ing hereof must be remitted to that day wherein all things done 
in secret shall be made manifest. His martyrdom happened in 
the reign of king Henry the Seventh, anno Domini 1506. 


SILVESTER de EVERTON, for so is he written in the Records 
of Carlisle (though Eversden and Everseen in other books) 
which are most to be credited, as passing under the pens of the 
best (and to his particular the most knowing) clerks, no doubt, 
took his name from Everton, a village in this (but the confines 
of Cambridge) shire. He was a man memorable for his pre- 
ferment, and very able to discharge the lay part thereof, re- 
ceiving the great seal, anno the 29th of king Henry the Third, 
1 246, and is commended for one most cunning in customs of 
Chancery. The same year he was chosen bishop of Carlisle, 

* Luke viii. 3. f Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 775. 

J Whence Bishop Godwin transcribed his Catalogue of Bishops. 
John Philipot, in his Chancellors of England, p. 20. 



though demurring on the acceptance thereof (conscious to him- 
self, perchance, as unqualified) his consecration was deferred 
until the next year. 

He, with the rest of the English bishops, addressed them- 
selves to king Henry the Third, and boldly enough requested- 
required of him, that all foreigners and insufficient persons 
might be put out of their bishoprics. Now, as to the point of 
insufficiency, the king, singling out this Silvester, thus bespake 

" Et tu, Silvester Carliolensis, qui dm lambens Cancellariam, 
clericorum meorum clericulus extitisti, qualiter post-positis mul- 
tis theologis, et personis reverendis te in episcopum sublimavi, 
omnibus satis notum est." (( And thou, Silvester of Carlile, 
who, so long licking the Chancery, was the little clerk of 
my clergyman, it is sufficiently known to all, how I advanced 
thee to be a bishop, before many reverend persons, and able 

His expression " licking the Chancery " hath left posterity to 
interpret it, whether taxing him for ambition, liquorishly longing 
for that place ; or for adulation, by the soft smoothing of flat- 
tery making his way thereunto ; or for avarice, licking it so, 
that he gained great (if good) profit thereby. As for his ex- 
pression " little clerk," it is plain it referred not to his stature, 
but dwarfness in learning. However, all this would not per- 
suade him into a resignation of his bishopric, though it was not 
long before he lost both it and his life, by a fall from a skittish 
horse, anno Domini 1254. 

I find no bishop born in this county since the Reformation ; 
and therefore we may go on in our propounded method. 


SIR JOHN COKEYN, Knight, Chief Baron of the Exchequer 
in the reign of king Henry the Fourth, founded a worshipful 
family at, and imparted his surname to, Cokeyn Hatley, in this 
county. But, being convinced that he was born at Ashbourn, 
in Derbyshire, I have reserved his character for that county. 

EDMOND WINGATE, Esq. was a native of this county, whose 
family flourisheth at Hartington therein. He was bred in Grey's 
Inn in the study of our common law, whereof he wrote, besides 
others, a book entitled, " The Reason of the Common Law ;" and 
is lately deceased. 


JOHN of D UNSTABLE, so called from a market-town in this 
county, wherein he was born. If hitherto the reader hath not, 
it is high time for him now, to take notice of a person of such 
perfection. Indeed at first my pen feared famishing, finding so 

* Matthew Paris, anno 1253. 


little ; since surfeiting, meeting so much of this man. For this 
John of Dunstable was John of all arts, as appeareth by his 
double epitaph, one inscribed on his monument, the other writ- 
ten on his memory. But be it premised of both, that we will 
not avouch the truth of the Latin, or quantity in these verses ; 
but present them here as we find them, with all their faults, 
and his virtues on whom they were made. 

On his tomb in St. Stephen's, Wallbrook, London. 

" Clauditur hoc tumulo qui coelum pectore clausit, 
Dunstable I., juris astrorum conscius ille, 
. . . novit . . . abscondita pondere coeli ; 
Hie vir erat tua laus, tua lux, tua musica princeps 
Quique tuas fulces per mundum sparserat artes. 

Suscipiant proprium civem coeli sibi cives." 

The second, made by John IVheathamsted, Abbott of Saint Albant.* 

" Musicus hie Michalus alter, novus et Ptolomseus, 
Junior ac Atlas supportans robore ccelos. 
Pausat sub cinere ; melior vir de muliere 
Nunquam natus erat, vitii quia labe carebat. 
Et virtutis opes possedit unicus omnes. 
Perpetuis annis celebretur fama Johannis 
Dunstable ; in pace requiescat et hie sine fine." 

What is true of the bills of some unconscionable tradesmen, 
" if ever paid, over paid ;'* may be said of this hyperbolical 
epitaph, " if ever believed, over believed/ 5 Yea, one may safely 
cut off a third in any part of it, and the remainder will amount 
to make him a most admirable person. Let none say that these 
might be two distinct persons, seeing (besides the concurrence 
of time and place) it would bankrupt the exchequer of Nature 
to afford two such persons, one phoenix at once being as much 
as any will believe. This Dunstable died anno 1455. 


GEORGE JOY was born in this county, though the exact 
place be not expressed.! He was a great friend to Master 
Tindall,{ and therefore perfectly hated by Wolsey, Fisher, and 
Sir Thomas More. The particulars of his sufferings, if known, 
would justly advance him into the reputation of a confessor. 
He translated some parts of the Bible into English, and wrote 
many books reckoned up by Bale ; notwithstanding many ma- 
chinations against his life, he found his coffin where he fetched 
his cradle, "in su patrid sepultus," being peaceably buried 
in his native country 1553, the last year of king Edward the 

FRANCIS DILLINGHAM was born at Dean in this county, 
and bred fellow in Christ College in Cambridge. He was an 

* Extant in Weaver's Funeral Monuments, p. 577. 

Bale, de Script. Brit. Cent. 9. 
$ Fox, Acts and Monument?, p. 1027. 


excellent linguist, and subtle disputant. My father was present 
in the Bachelors 5 schools, when a Greek Act was kept, between 
him and William Alabaster, of Trinity College, to their mutual 
commendation ; a disputation so famous that it served for an 
era or epoch for the scholars in that age thence to date their 

He was afterwards chosen, anno 1607, to be one of the trans- 
lators of the Bible ; and, being richly beneficed at Wilden in 
this county, died a single man, leaving a fair estate to his bro- 
ther Master Thomas Dillingham, who was chosen one of the 
late assembly ; (though, for age, indisposition, and other rea- 
sons, not appearing therein) ; and for many years was the hum- 
ble, painful, and faithful pastor of Dean, the place of his nati- 

WILLIAM Sc LATER was born at Lay ton-buzzard in this 
county,* son to Anthony Sclater, the minister thereof for fifty 
years together, who died well nigh an hundred years of age. 
This William his son was bred in Eaton, then in King's Col- 
lege in Cambridge, where he commenced Bachelor, and (after 
many years' discontinuance) Poctor of Divinity. Hence he was 
invited to be preacher at W r alsall in Staffordshire, where he be- 
gan his sermons (afterwards printed) on the three first chapters 
of the Romans. Afterwards, John Coles, Esquire, of Somerset- 
shire, over-entreated him into the Western parts, where he pre- 
sented him vicar of Pitmister. Here he met with manifold and 
expensive vexations, even to the jeopardy of his life ; but, by 
the goodness of God, his own innocency and courage, with the 
favour of his diocesan, he came off with no less honour to him- 
self, than confusion to his adversaries. 

He was at first not well affected to the ceremonies of the 
Church : but afterwards, on his profound studying of the point, 
he was reconciled to them^ as for order and decency ; and, by 
his example, others were persuaded to conform. 

Constancy of studying contracted the stone upon him, which 
he used to csiX\. flagellum studiosorum. Nor was his health im- 
proved by being removed to a wealthier living, when John Lord 
Paulet of Hinton (at the instance of Elizabeth his lady,, in whose 
inheritance it was, a worthy favourer of piety and pious men) 
preferred him to the rich parsonage of Limpsam in Somerset- 
shire, where indeed there was scarce any element good, save 
the earth therein. Whereupon, for his own preservation, 
he was re-persuaded to return to Pitmister, there con- 
tinuing till the day of his death, which happened in 
the year of our Lord 1627, in the fifty-first year of his age, 
leaving many learned works behind him ; as, his " Comment 

* So was I informed by his son Doctor Sclater, late minister of Peter's Poor, 
London. F, 


on the Romans/' and on (e the Thessalonians," " Sermons at 
PauPs Cross," and the Treatise of Tithes, styled " the Minister's 
Portion/' with other posthume works,, some since set forth by, 
more remaining in., the hand of his son, William Sclater, Doctor 
of Divinity, and minister at London, lately deceased. 


Sir WILLIAM, son to William HARPER, was born in the 
town of Bedford, but bred a Merchant Tailor in the city of 
London ; where God so blessed his endeavours, that, anno 1561, 
he was chosen Lord Mayor thereof. In gratitude to God and 
the place of his nativity, he erected and endowed a free school 
in Bedford, in which town he lieth buried.* 

HENRY GRKY, son to Henry Grey, was born at Wrest in 
this county. Something must be premised of his extraction. 
Richard Grey, third earl of Kent of that family, was so profuse 
a person, that he wilfully wasted his estate ; giving away what 
he could not spend, to the king and others ; so little he reflected 
on Sir Henry Grey his brother (but by a second venter) of 
Wrest in this county. Hereupon the said Sir Henry, though 
heir to his brother Richard after his death, yet perceiving him- 
self over-titled, or rather under-stated, for so high an honour 
(the undoubted right whereof rested in him) declined the assum- 
ing thereof. Thus the earldom of Kent lay (though not dead) 
asleep in the family of the Greys almost 50 years : viz. from 
the 15th of king Henry the Eighth till the 13th of queen Eliza- 
beth, when she advanced Reginald Grey, grandchild to Sir 
Henry Grey aforesaid (who had thriftily recruited himself with 
competence of revenues) to be Earl of Kent, anno 1571. 

This Reginald dying issueless within the year, Henry his 
brother (the subject of our present description) succeeded to 
his honour; a person truly noble, expending the income of his 
own estate and of his lady's fair jointer (Mary the relic of Ed- 
ward Earl of Derby) in hospitality, 

He was a most cordial Protestant, on the same token that, 
being present at the execution of the queen of Scots, when she 
requested the nobility there to stand by and see her death, he 
(fearing something of superstition) hardly assented thereunto. 
Yet was he as far from the faction as superstition,f deserving 
the character given unto him, e( Omnibus verse nobilitatis orna- 
mentis vir longe honoratissimus/'J He left no issue, except 
some will behold him in some sort parent of Sidney College in 
Cambridge, as one of the executors to the foundress thereof, 
who did both prove and improve her will, besides his personal 
benefaction thereunto ; and being the surviving executor, he 

Stow's Survey of London, p. 62. f Camden's Elizabeth, anno 1587. 

I Idem, in his Britannia, in Kent. 


did perpetuate the fellowships (formerly temporary) according 
to the implicit trust deposited in him, to the advantages of that 
foundation. He died anno Domini 1613. 

FRANCIS CLEARK, Knight, was born at Eaton-socoii in this 
shire, near to Saint Neot's, in the lordship there commonly 
called The Parsonage. He was a noble benefactor to Sidney' 
College, augmenting all the scholarships of the foundation, and 
erecting a fair and firm range of building. Such his skill in 
arithmetic and architecture, that, staying at home, he did pro- 
vide to a brick what was necessary for the finishing thereof. 
He founded four new fellowships : and, had he been pleased to 
consult with the College, the settlement with the same expence 
might have proved more advantageous : for though, in gifts to 
private persons, it be improper that the receiver should be the 
director thereof, a corporation may give the best advice to im- 
prove the favours conferred upon it. But it is a general prac- 
tice that men desire rather to be broad than thick benefactors. 

However, seeing every one may do with his own as he pleas- 
ethj blessed be the memory of this worthy knight, whose gift 
in effect was felt by the College before the giver thereof was 
seen, being himself a mere stranger unto it. Some say, that 
because this was the youngest foundation in the University (ge- 
nerally the last child hath the least left it), his charity pitched 
upon it. But I have been informed, that Sir Francis coming 
privately to Cambridge, to see unseen, took notice of Doctor 
Ward's daily presence in the hall, with the scholars 5 conformity 
in caps, and diligent performance of exercises ; which endeared 
this place unto him. Thus the observing of old statutes is the 
best loadstone to attract new benefactors. His death happened 
anno Domini 163. .. 


A woman, whose name I cannot recover, lived, died, and is 
buried at Dunstable in this county. It appeareth by her epitaph* 
in the church, that she had nineteen children at five births : 
viz. three several times three children at a birth, and five at 
a birth two other times. How many of them survived 
to man's estate is unknown.f Here I must dissent from 

* Hakewill's Apology, p. 253. 

t The Epitaph to which Dr. Fuller here alludes (first published by Hakewill, 
and since by Brown Willis) is simply that of Mr. Mulso, who, by two wives, was 
father of nineteen children. The words are these : 

" Hie William Mulso sibi quern sociavit et Alice, 
Marmore sub duro conclusit mors geiieralis. 
Ter tres, bis quinos hie natos fertur habere 
Per sponsas binas. Deus his clemens miserere." 

This, Dr. Fuller by mistake ascribes to one woman having 19 children at five 
births ; and the tradition of the place confirms the error. Bishop Gibson also, in 
his Additions to Camden, repeats it implicitly, gravely adding " that after the co 
ronation of King Charles IT. the wives of two blacksmiths were at the same time de- 


an author maintaining that more twins were born in the first age 
of the world, than now-a-days ; * whereas we meet with none 
but single births in the patriarchs before the flood ; and, more 
than six hundred years after the Deluge, Esau and Jacob were 
the first twins mentioned in Scripture. 


1. Thomas Chalton, son of Thomas Chalton, of Dunstable, Mer- 
cer, 1449. 

2. William Stoker, son of Thomas Stoker, of Eaton, Draper, 

3. William Butler, son of Rich. Butler, of Bidenham, Grocer,1515. 

4. William Harper, son of William Harper, of Bedford, Mer- 
chant Taylor, 1561. 




William Bishop of Lincoln, and John de Fanhope, chevalier, 

John Wenlock, arm., and John Gascoigne, arm., knights for the 

shire, Commissioners. 
Abbatis de Woborn, et sui ce- Johannis Fitzgeffrey. 

lerarii Johannis Radwell. 

Abbatis de Warden. Johannis Fyse. 

Prioris de Dunstable. Johannis Coldington. 

Prioris de Chekesond. Christophori Preston. 

Prioris de Xunham. Stephani Cruker. 

Prioris de Chaldwell. Thomae Roxston. 

Prioris de Buschemede. Willielmi Lancelin. 

Simonis Filbrigge, chevalier. Henrici de Lye. 

Henrici Bronnflete, chevalier. Joh. Conquest de Houghton. 

Thomse Wauton, chevalier. Thomce Lonnde. 

Thomce Maningham. Walter! Lonnde. 

Thomae Hoo. Johannis Lonnde. 

Johannis Broughton. Richardi Merston. 

Johannis Enderby. Johannis Peeke, j unioris. 

Roberti Mordant. Thomse Peeke. 

Johannis Hertusherne. Willielmi Peeke. 

Henrici Godfrey. Johannis Glove, j unioris. 

Johan. Boteler de Xorthzele. Johannis Turvey de Turvey. 

Humphrei Acworth. Johannis Ferroiir de Bedford. 

Johannis Ragon. Johannis Gerveys de Maldon. 

Thomae Ragon. Henrici Etewelf. 

livered of three children each, one of three boys, the other of three girl?. :< See tLe 
"History of Dunstable," in Bibliotheca Tonoeraphica Britannic*, Xo. VIII. n. 

173 ED. 

t Huartes, in the " Trial of Wits." 



Robert! Bollock. 
Willielmi Wale. 
Nicholai Ravenhull. 
Xicholai Low. 
Valentin! Bailli de Luton. 
Willielmi White de eadem. 
Johannis Boughton. 
Hugonis Hasselden. 
Thomae Bailli de Houghton. 
Willielmi Trought. 
Henrici Manntell. 
Roberti Valence. 
Johannis Attehay. 
Willielmi Ypping. 
Johannis Petifer. 
Thomae Purvey. 
Willielmi Purvey. 
Willielmi Shotfold. 
Willielmi Wingate. 
Willielmi Kene. 
Thomae Stokker. 
Ade Alford. 
Johannis Morton. 
Thomae Morton. 
Thomae Stratton. 
Thomae Chamberlain. 
Radulphi Cleark. 
Math. Stepeing. 
Xicholai Harding. 
Willielmi Marham. 
Richardi Sampson. 
Roberti Warner. 
Johannis Coke de Crawley. 
Willielmi Sileham. 
Willielmi Purvey. 
Willielmi Rede.' 
Thomce Blondell. 
Willielmi Milward. 
Roberti Ratele. 
Johannis Kiggill de Todinton. 
Johannis Pesfell de Xunham. 
Thomae Chopper de Turvey. 

Hungry time hath made a glutton's meal on this catalogue of 
gentry, and hath left but a very little morsel for manners remain- 
ng ; so few of these are found extant in this shire, and fewer 
continuing in a genteel equipage. Amongst whom I must not 
forget the family of the Blundels, whereof Sir Edward Blundell 
behaved himself right valiantly, in the unfortunate expedition 
to the Isle of Ree. 

Johannis Marram. 

Thomae Jakes. 

Johannis Pikot. 

Willielmi Molso. 

Johannis Sewell. 

Henrici Sewell. 

Radulphi Falwell. 

Hugonis Billingdon. 

Johannis Baldoe. 

Willielmi Palmer. 

Roberti Davy, junioris. 

Johannis Stanlow. 

Richardi Lincoln. 

Walter! Taillard. 

Thomae Spencer de Geton. 

Johannis Spencer. 

Johannis King de Harrowdon, 

Johannis Wait. 

Willielmi Bochell. 

Thomae William. 

Roberti Ratull. 

Roberti Warner de la Hethe. 

Johannis Potter. 

Johannis Grecell. 

Willielmi tocher de Henlow. 

Will. Halle de Chitingdon. 

Johannis Halle. 

Willielmi Ludsopp. 

Job. Conquest de Houghton. 

Stephani Cruker. 

Thomae Rokeston. 

Willielmi Lancelein. 

Henrici de Lye. 

Thomae Ragon. 

Johannis Mepurshale. 

Johannis Eitz. 

Johannis Pekke, junioris. 

Hugonis Billingdon. 

Thomee Pekke. 

Willielmi Pekke. 

Johannis Glove, junioris. 





1 Rich. Basset and Albertus 

de Veer, Rob. Carun. 

2 Henric. de Essex consti- 

tuit Simonem Fitz Petre 
Vicecomitem, for four 

6 Gal. filius Radulph. 

7 Rich, filius Osberti, for 

three years. 

10 Hug. de la Lega, et Rich, 
filius Osberti, for six 

16 David. Archdea. and Will. 

filius Rich. 

17 Will, filius Rich, and Dav. 

Arch, for three years. 
20 Will, filius Rich, for six 

26 Williel. Rufus, for seven 

33 Will. Rufus, et Oger. 

filius Ogeri, p(p dimid. 



1 Will. Rufus, for six years. 
7 Simon, de Belchampe, for 

three years. 

10 Will, de Albeny, et Rob. 


1 WiU. de Albeny. 

2 Galf. filius Petri, et Rob. 

de Braybrook, for four 

6 Rob. de Braybrook, et 

Rob. filius Hemer. 

7 Rob. et Rober. 

8 Rob. filius Hemeri. 
9. Idem. 

10 Rob. de Braybrook, for 

three years. 
13 Rob. de Braybrook, et 

Hen. filius ejus. 

14 Hen. Braybrook, et Rob. 

pater ejus. 

15 Idem. 

16 Hen. Braybrook. 

17 Idem. 



2 Fulco de Breantel. 

3 Idem. 

4 Ful. de Breantel, et Rad. 

de Bray, for four years. 

8 Ful. de Breantel. 

9 Walt, de Pateshull de Ac- 

cestane, for four years. 

13 Steph. de Wegrave, and 

Will, de Martiwaste. 

14 Steph. de Segne. 

15 Steph. de Segne, et Rich. 

de Atteneston, for three 

18 Steph. de Segne, and Joh. 


19 Radus. filius Reginald. 

20 Will, de Bello Campo, and 

Ric. de Porchhalt. 

21 Will, de Bello Campo. 

22 Reginald, de Albo Monas- 


23 Rob. de Hega. 

24 Paulus Penire. 

25 Idem. 

26 Joh. Grumband. 

27 Will. Holdwell, for seven 


34 Alex, de Hammeden, for 
three years. 

37 Nul.Titl. Com. in Rotulo, 

38 Simon de Glendon. 

39 Idem. 

40 Rov. le Savage, Rich, le 

Savage, filius Johan. 

41 Rob. de Tottenhall. 

42 Idem. 

43 Alex, de Hamden, for four 




47 Alex, de Hamden, et 
Simon de Pateshill, for 
five years. 

52 Edw. films Regis primo- 


53 Idem. 

54 Edw. filius primo-genitus, 

et Barthol. de Towen 
Subvic. ejus, for three 


1 Thomas de Bray. 

2 Idem. 

3 Hugo de Stapleford, for 

four years. 
7 Johan. de Chedney, for 

four years. 
11 Radul. de Goldington, for 

three years. 
14 Will, de Boyvill, for three 

1? Will, de Tarrevill. 

18 Joh. de Popham. 

19 Idem. 

20 Will, de Turrevill, for five 


25 Sim. de Bradenham. 

26 Molesworth, for 

ten years. 


1 Gil. de Holme, et Wai. 

de Molesworth. 

2 Will.Merre, for four years. 
6 Walt, de Molesworth, et 

Joh. de Pabenham, for 
three years, 
9 Joh. de la Hay. 

10 Idem. 

11 Joh. de la Hay, et Rog. 

de Tirringham. 

12 Phil, de Aylesbury, et 

Rich, de Cave. 

13 Rich, de Cave, et Ingil- 

ran de Berenger. 

14 Idem. 

15 Ingelramus Berenger. 

VOL. I, 


17 Rog. de Tiringham. 

18 Rog. de Tiringham, et 

Joh. de la Hay. 

19 Johan. de la Hay, et Phil. 

de Aylesbury. 


1 Johan. de la Mareschall, 

et Phil, de Aylesbury. 

2 Idem. 

3 Joh. de Mareschall. 

4 Phil, de Aylesbury, for 

three years. 

7 Nul. Titl. Com. in Rotulo. 

8 Rad. de Wedon. 

9 Idem. 

10 Rich. Ward. 

11 Rad. de Wedon. 

12 Nich. de Passelow, et 

Will. Aloton. 

13 Idem. 

14 Nich. Passelow. 

15 Ger. de Bray brook. 

16 Henric. Chalfhunt, et Ger- 

rard. de Braybrook. 
1? Joh. Aygnell, et Hen. 

18 Hen. Chalfhunt, et Joh. 


19 Tho. de Swinford. 

20 Idem. 

21 Will. Croyser. 

22 Idem. 

23 Tho. Fernibrand. 

24 Idem. 

25 Joh. Chastilion, et Tho. 


26 Joh. Chastilion. 

27 Ger. de Braybrook. 

28 Idem. 

29 Pet. de Salford, et Ger. 


30 Pet. de Salford. 

31 Joh. de Hampden, et Hug. 


32 Joh. de Hampden. 

33 Idem. 

34 Pet. de Salford. 



Anno Anno 

16 35 Joh. de Hampden. 

36 Pet. de Salford, for four 47 Johan. Ragoun. 

years. 48 Johan. Aylesbury. 

40 Joh. de Aylesbury, for six 49 Johan. cle Arden. 

years. 50 Johan. de B rough ton. 

46 Johan. Chyne. 51 Johan. de Ollueyge. 


catalogue of the sheriffs of Cambridge and Huntington-shires, as 
also of Essex and Hertfordshire, beginneth with the same 
names ; so that six counties (but all lying together) were under 
their inspection. None need to question, but that this Alberi- 
cus de Veer was the very same with him who by Maud the em- 
press was made the first earl of Oxford, of whom hereafter this 
year in Cambridgeshire. Meantime we take notice of an Us- 
terosis, beholding Richard Basset (though first named) as his 

2. HENRY de ESSEX. He is too well known in our English 
chronicles, being Baron of Raleigh in Essex, and hereditary 
standard-bearer of England. It happened in the reign of this 
king there was a fierce battle fought in Flintshire, at Coleshull, 
betwixt the English and Welch, wherein this Henry de Essex, 
animum et signum simul abjecit, ( (( betwixt traitor and coward 
cast away both his courage and banner together,") occasioning a 
great overthrow of English.* 

But he that had the baseness to do, had the boldness to deny 
the doing of, so foul a fact ; until he was challenged in combat 
by Robert de Momford, a knight, eye-witness thereof, and by 
him overcome in a duel ; whereupon his large inheritance was 
confiscated to the king, and he himself, partly thrust, partly go- 
ing into a convent, hid his head in a cowl, under which, betwixt 
shame and sanctity, he blushed out the remainder of his life. 

16. DAVID ARCHIDIACONUS, &c. It may justly seem 
strange, that an archdeacon should be sheriff of a shire : and one 
would have sought for a person of his profession rather in a 
pulpit, than in a shire-hall. 

Some will answer, that in that age men in orders engrossed 
not only places of judicature, but also such as had military and 
martial relations, whereof this sheriff did in some sort partake. 
Bufr, under correction, I conceive, that though bishops (who had 
also temporal baronies) were sometimes sheriffs, yet no inferior 
clergymen, being in orders, were ever advanced to that office, 
neither in ancient nor in modern times. Sure I am that, in the 

Compare Camden's Britannia in Essex with him in Flintshire. 


reign of king Charles, one being pricked sheriff of Rutland es- 
caped, pleading that he was a deacon. 

Yet we meet with many, whose surnames sound of churdh- 
relation, both in the catalogue of ancient and modern sheriffs : 

1. Abbot of London ; 2. Archdeacon of Cornwall ; 3. Bishop 
of Sussex; 4. Chaplain of Norfolk; 5. Clerk of Northampton- 
shire ; 6. Dean of Essex ; 7- Friar of Oxfordshire ; 8. Moigne 
of Dorsetshire ; 9. Monk of Devonshire; 10. Parson of Buck- 
inghamshire ; 11. Pope of Oxfordshire; 12. Prior of London. 

It addeth to the difficulty, that whereas persons of their pro- 
fession were formerly enjoined single lives, we find in this list 
some of their sons in the next generation sheriffs also. 

But take one answer to all. As these were laymen, so pro- 
bably their ancestors were ecclesiastics, and did officiate accord- 
ing to their respective orders and dignities. These afterwards, 
having their patrimony devolved unto them by the death of their 
elder brethren, were dispensed with by the Pope to marry, yet 
so that they were always afterwards called by their former profes- 
sion, which was fixed as a surname on their posterity. Thus we read 
how in France Hugh de Lusignian, being an archbishop (and 
the last of his family), when, by the death of his brethren, the 
signiories of Partnay, Soubize, &c. fell unto him, he obtained 
licence to marry, on condition that his posterity should bear the 
name of Archeveque, and a mitre over their arms for ever. 

As for the surname of Pope in England, it is such a tran- 
scendant, I cannot reach it with mine own, and must leave it to 
more judicious^ conjectures. 


13. ROB. de BRAYBROOK, et HEN. filius ejus. 14. HEN. 
BRAYBROOK, et ROB. pater ejus. Here is a loving recipro- 
cation. First, a son under-sheriff to his father; that was his 
duty. Secondly, the father under-sheriff to his son ; that was 
his courtesy. Indeed I can name one under-sheriff to his own 
father, being a gentleman of right worthy extraction and estate, 
which son afterwards (in my memory) became lord chief justice 
and treasurer of England. 


52. EDVARD. filius REGIS primo-genitus. It soundeth not 
a little to the honour of these two shires, that prince Edward, 
afterwards the most renowned king of England (first of his 
Christian name since the Conquest) was their sheriff for five 
years together. Yea, the imperial crown found him in that of- 
fice^ when it fell unto him, though then absent in Palestine. 
We may presume, that Bartholomew de Fowen, his under-she- 
riff, was very sufficient to manage all matters under him. 

N 2 




Anno Names and Arms. Place. 

1 Job. de Aylesbury . Aylesbury. 

Arms ; Az. a cross Arg. 

2 Thomas Peynere. 

3 Egidius Daubeny . SOMERSETSHIRE. 

G. four lozenges in fess Arg. 

4 Thomas Sackwell . SUSSEX. 

Quarterly O. and G. a bend vaire. 

5 Job. de Aylesbury . ut prius. 

6 Idem ut prius. 

7 Job. Widevill . . Northam. 

Arg. a fess and canton G. 

8 Rob. DikesweU. 

9 Thomas CovelL 

Az. a lion ramp. Arg. a file of three lambeaux G. 

10 Job. de Aylesbury . ut prius. 

11 Rad. Fitz. Rich. 

12 Thomas Peynere. 

13 Thomas Sackvill . . ut prius. 

14 Edm. Hampden . . Hampden, Buc. 

Arg. a saltire G. between four eaglets displayed Az. 

15 Will. Teringham . . Teringham, Buc. 

Az. a cross engrailed Arg. 

16 Thomas Peynere. 

17 Phil. Walwane. 

18 Johannes Longvile . Wolverton, Buc. 

G. a fess indented betwixt six crosslets Arg. 

19 Edm. Hampden . . ut prius. 

20 Regin. Ragon. 

21 Johannes Worship. 

22 Idem. 


1 Thomas Eston. 

2 Edw. Hampden . . ut prius. 
Ro. Beauchamp . . Eaton, Bed. 

G, a fess between six martlets O. 

3 Reg. Ragon. 

4 Johannes Boys . . KENT. 

O. a griffin segreant S. within two borders G. 

5 Idem. 

6 Edw. Hampden . . ut prim. 

7 Thomas Peynere. 

8 Richardus Hay. 

9 Bald. Pigott ' . . Stratton, Bed. 

S. three pick-axes Arg. 


Anno Name. Place. 

10 Tho. Strickland . . YORKSHIRE. 

G. a chev. O. between three crosses formee Arg. on a 
canton Erm. a buck's head erased S. 

1 1 Richardus Wyott. 

12 Bald. Pigott . 4 ut prim. 


1 Tho. Strickland . . ut prius. 

2 Edw. Hampden . . ut prius. 

3 Thomas Wauton. 

4 Richard Wyott. 

5 Joh. Gifford. 

6 Will. Massy. 

7 Walt. Fitz. Rich, 
S Johan. Radwell. 

9 Joh. Radwellet. 

10 Will. Massy. 

11 Idem. 


1 Johan. Wauton. 

2 Joh. Cheney, mil. . . Cheneys, Buc. 

Cheeky O. and Az. a fess G. fretty Erm. 

3 Richardus Wyott. 

4 Johan. Cheney. . . ut prius. 

5 Will. Massy, arm. 

6 Hum. Stafford, arm. 

O. a chev. G. a quarter Erm. 

7 Tho. Wauton, mil. 

8 Thomas Hoo. 

Quarterly S. and Arg. 

9 Joh. Cheney . . ut prius. 

10 Egid. Daubeny, mil. . ut prias. 

11 Tho. Wauton, mil. 

12 Johan. Glove. 

13 Joh. Hampden, arm. . ut prius. 

14 Joh. Broughton. 

15 Rob. Manfeld. 

16 Hum. Stafford, mil. . ut prius. 

17 Joh. Hampden . . ut prius, 

18 Walt. Strickland . . ut prius. 

19 Joh. Brekenoll. 

20 Edw. Campden . . ut prius. 

21 Edw. Rede. 

22 Tho. Singleton. 

23 Joh. Wenlock. 

Arg. a chev. between three blackmore heads couped proper. 

24 Thomas Rokes. 


Anno Name. Place. 

25 Thomas Gifford. 

26 Gor. Longvile . . -tit prius. 

27 Idem . . . ut pris. 

28 Will. Gedney. 

29 Joh. Hampden . . ut prius. 

30 Ro. Whittingham. 

31 Rob. Olney. 

32 Edw. Rede, arm. 

Joh. Poulter . . HERTFORDSHIRE. 

Arg. a bend voided S. 

33 Tho. Singleton. 

34 Tho. Charlton, mil. 

35 Joh. Hampden . . utpriuf. 

36 Joh. Maningham. 

37 Joh. Hey ton, arm. 

38 Johan. Broughton. 

Arg. a chev. betwixt three mullets G. 


1 Edw. Rede, arm. 

2 Thomas Reynes. 

3 Idem. 

4 Pet. House, arm. 

5 Joh. Broughton . . ut prius. 

6 Joh. Bottiler, mil. . Biddenham, Bed. 

G.a fess compone Arg. and S. betwixt six crosses crossletsO. 

7 Tho. Hampden . ; ut prius. 

8 Joh. Foster, arm. . BERKSHIRE. 

S. a chev. engrailed between three arr. A. 

9 Will. Lucy, arm. 

G. crusuly O. three pikes hauriant Arg. 

10 Rob. Dooth, arm. . CHESHIRE. 

Arg. three boars* heads erased S. tusked O. 

11 Regin. Grey . . . Wrestlingw. Bed. 

Barry of six Ar. and Az. in chief three torteauxes. 

12 Joh. Lanoston, arm. 

13 John Botiler, mil. . ut prius. 

14 Rich. Bulstrode. 

(See our Notes in BUCKS.) 

15 Hugo Brudenell . BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 

Arg. a chevron G. between three chappews Az. 

16 Edward Molinen. 

17 Jo. Rotheram, arm. . Luton, Bed. 

V. three roebucks tripping O. a baton G. 

18 Thomas Rokes. 

19 Thomas Fowler. 

20 Rich. Enderby, arm. 

Arg three bars dancette S. a pale in chief E. 


Anno Name. Place. 

21 Joh. Verney. 

Az. on a cross Arg. five mullets G. 

22 Tho. Hampden . . ut prim. 


1 Dru. Brudnell . . ut prius. 

2 Thomas Fowler. 

3 Joh. Boone, mil. 


1 Gor. Ingledon. 

2 Tho. Rokes. 

3 Tho. Fowler. 

4 Joh. Rotheram . . ut prius. 

5 Rich. Godfrey. 

6 Joh. Laneston, sen. 

7 Rich. Restwood . . La Vache, Bed. 

8 Edw. Cokaine, arm. . Hatley, Bed. 

Arg. three cocks G. 

9 Rich. Godfrey, arm. 

10 Will. Rede. 

11 Thomas Darell . . Lillingston, Bed. 

Az. a lion rampant O. crowned Arg. 

12 Thomas Langston. 

13 Joh. Gefford, arm. 

14 David Phillip, arm. 

15 Rich. Restwood. 

16 Hug. Conway, mil. 

S. on a bend betwixt two cotises Arg. a rose G. betwixt 
two annulets. 

17 Joh. St. John, mil. . Bletso, Bed. 

Arg. on a chief G. two mullets pierced O. 

18 Rich. Blount, arm. 

Barry formy nebulee of six O. and S. 

19 Edw. Bulstrod, arm. . ut prius. 

20 Tho. Darell, arm. . ut prius. 

21 Joh. Cheyney, arm. . ut prius. 

22 Will. Gascoigne . . Cardinton, Bed. 

Arg. on a pale S. a lucie^s head erected O. 

23 Joh. Longvile, mil. . ut prius. 

24 Geor. Harvey, arm. 

G. on a bend Arg. three trefoils V. 


1 Joh. Mordant, arm. . Turvey, Bed. 

Arg. a chevron inter three estoiles S. 

2 John Dive, arm. . . Brumham, Bed. 

Parti per pale Arg. and G. a fess Az. 

3 Rad. Verney, arm. . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Dineham, arm. 


Anno Name. Place. 

5 Will. Gascoigne . . ut prius. 

6 Edw. Bray, arm. 

Arg. a chev. between three eagles 5 legs, erased S. 

7 Job. St. John, mil. . ut prius. 
S Gor. Harvey, mil. . ut prius. 
9 Will. Gascoigne . . ut prius. 

10 Mich. Fisher, arm. 

11 Will: Rede, mil. 

12 Joh. Cheney, arm. . ut prizes. 

13 Rob. Lee, mil. . . Quatendon, Buc. 

Arg. a fess between three crescents S. 

14 Rob. Dormer, arm. . Winge, Buc. 

Az. ten billets, four, three, two, and one O. in a chief of 
the second, a lion issuant S. 

15 Tho. Langston, arm. 

16 Rad. Verney . . ut prius. 

17 Tho. Rotheram . . ut prius. 

18 Edw. Grevill, mil. 

S. a bordure and cross engrailed O. therein five pellets. 

19 Fran. Pigote, arm. . ut prius. 

20 Joh. Hampden, mil. . ut prius. 

21 Joh. St. John, mil. . ut prius. 

22 Mich. Fisher. 

23 Rob. Dormer, arm. . ut prius. 

24 Edw. Dun, mil. 

25 Rob. Lee, mil. . . ut prius. 

26 Joh. St. John, mil. . ut prius. 

27 Rog. Corbet, arm. . SHROPSHIRE. 

O. a raven proper. 

28 Tho. Longvile, arm. . ut prius. 

29 Will. Windsor, mil. . Bradenham, Buc. 

G. a saltier Arg. betwixt twelve cross crosslets O. 

30 Rob. Dormer, mil. . ut prius. 

31 Tho. Rotheram . . ut prius. 

32 Rad. Verney, mil. . ut prius. 

33 Joh. Gostwick, mil. . Wellington, Bed. 

Arg. a bend G. cotised S. betwixt six Cornish choughs 
proper ; on a chief O. three mullets V. 

34 Idem . . . ut prius. 

35 Thomas Giffard, arm. 

36 Mich. Fisher, mil. 

37 Lod. Dyve, arm. . . ut prius. 

38 Rob. Drury, mil. 

Arg. on a chief V. the letter Tau betwixt two mullets 
pierced O. 


1 Fran. Russell, mil. . Cheneis, Buc. 

A lion ramp, G, on a chief S. three escallops of the first. 


Anno Name. Place. 

2 Fran. Pigott, arm. . nt prius. 

3 Joh. St. John, mil. . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Rotheram . . ut prius. 

5 Oliv. St. John, arm. . ut prius. 

6 Tho. Pigott, arm. . . ut prius. 


1 Will. Dormer, mil. . ut prius. 


1 Arth. Longvile, arm. . ut prius. 

2 Rob. Drury, mil. . . ut prius. 

3 Rob. Peckham, mil. 

4 Tho. Pigott, arm. . . ut prius. 

5 Hum. Rat cliff, mil. 

Arg. a bend engrailed S. 


1 Will. Hawtry, arm. . Checkers, Buc. 

Arg. four lioncels passant S. betwixt two gemews in bend. 

2 Tho. Teringham . . ut prius. 

3 Rob. Drury, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Joh. Goodwin, arm. 

5 Paul Damil, arm. 

6 Tho. Fleetwood . . Vache, Buc. 

Parti per pale nebule Az. and O. six martelets counter- 

7 Hen. Cheyne, mil. . Tuddington, Bed. 

8 AMP. Joh. Cheny, arm. 

9 Joh. Burlacy, arm. 

10 Will. Dormer, mil. . ut prius. 

S. a fess engrailed between three flower-de-luce Arg. 

11 Edw. Ashfeld, mil. 

12 Lod. Mordant, mil. . ut prius. 

13 Tho. Pigottj arm. . ut prius. 

14 Lodo Dive, arm. . . ut prius. 

15 Gor. Peckham, mil. 

16 Rad. Astry, arm. . . Harlington, Bed. 

Barry-wavy of six Arg. and Az. ; on a chief G. three 


8. THOMAS Hoo. If any ask me the place of his residence 
in these counties, I must return, Non sum informatus.* But 

* Dr. Fuller's want of information in this instance may be supplied from the 
History of Luton, in the " Bibliotheca Topographica Britannica," No. VIII. 
pp. 27, 53; where it will be seen that Luton Hoo, the residence of the Mar- 
quis of Bute, was possessed by Robert (the grandfather of Thomas), who took 
the addition of de Hoo from this place. Thomas was created Lord Hastings and 


this is he who is charactered by Master Camden, " Vir egre- 
gius,"* whom king Henry the Sixth made Knight of the Garter, 
and Lord Hoo and Hastings. He left four daughters, thus 
married: 1. Anne to Sir Jeffery Bollen ; 2. Eleanor to Sir 
Richard Carew ; 3. Jane to Robert Cople, esq. ; 4. Elizabeth 
to Sir John Devenish. From the first of these was queen 
Elizabeth descended. Some of the issue male of the same 
family were very lately extant in Hertfordshire. 

23. JOHN WENLOCK. His surname seemeth to have something 
in it of a Salopian reference to a market town therein so called ; 
however his principal residence was (but where to me unknownt) 
in this county, whereof he was returned knight to the Parlia- 
ment, in the twelfth of this king's reign ; the very same whom 
afterwards this king created Baron Wenlock, and Knight of the 
Garter, and who afterwards lost his life in his cause, valiantly 
fighting in the battle of Tewksbury. It is charity to enter this 
memorial of him, the rather because he died without issue (and 
his fair estate, forfeited to king Edward the Fourth, was quickly 
scattered amongst many courtiers) ; but from his cousin and heir 
general, the Lauleys in Shropshire are lineally descended. 


17. Sir JOHN SAINT JOHN, Mil. There were three Sir 
John Saint Johns successively in the same family, since their 
fixing in this county: 1. The father (this year sheriff) being son 
to Sir Oliver Saint John, by Margaret daughter and sole heir 
to Sir John Beauchamp. This Margaret was afterwards mar- 
ried to John Duke of Somerset, to whom she bare Margaret, 
mother to king Henry the Seventh. 2. The son (sheriff in the 
seventh year of king Henry the Eighth.) 3. The grandchild, 
sheriff in the third of Edward the Sixth, and father to Oliver (the 
first Lord Saint John. This we insert to avoid confusion ; it 
being the general complaint of heralds that such liomonymy 
causeth many mistakes in pedigrees. 

22. WILLIAM GASCOIGNE. Much wondering with myself 
how this northern name straggled into the south, I consulted one 
of his family, and a good antiquary : by whom I was informed 

Hoo in 1447 ; and settled ten parts of the tithes of the Hoo on the abbey of St. 

Alban's, for the use of strangers ED. * Britannia, in Sussex. 

"\" According to the Bibliotheca Topographica, pp. 25, 45, his mansion was at 
Somerys, about two miles to the north-west of Luton, where, as Leland informs us, 
Lord Wenlock had begun sumptuously a house, but never finished it. He was bu- 
ried in a chapel of his own foundation, adjoining to the church of Luton; and on 
his tomb is said to have been a native of Wenlocke, " et hujus ville dominus." " At 
Luton," says Mr. Camden, " I saw a fair church, but the choir then roofless and 
overrun with weeds ; and adjoining to it an elegant chapel founded by Lord Wen- 
locke, and well maintained by the family of Rotherham, planted here by Thomas 
Rotherham, archbishop of York and chancellor of England in the time of king 
Edward IV." &c._ ED. 


that this William was a younger brother of Gauthorpe House in 
Yorkshire, and was settled at Cardirigton nigh Bedford, in this 
county, by marrying the inheritrix thereof. He was afterwards 
twice sheriff under king Henry the Eighth, knighted, and con- 
troller of the house of Cardinal Wolsey. A rough gentleman, 
preferring rather to profit than please his master. And although 
the pride of that prelate was far above his covetousness, yet his 
wisdom, well knowing thrift to be the fuel of magnificence, would 
usually digest advice from this his servant, when it plainly 
tended to his own emolument. The name and (which is worse) 
the estate, is now quite extinct in this county. 


1. JOHN MORDANT, Arm. He was extracted of a very an- 
cient parent in this county, and married one of the daughters and 
heirs of Henry Vere, of Addington in Northamptonshire, whereby 
he received a great inheritance, being by aged persons in those 
parts remembered by the name John of the Woods (Reader, I 
was born under the shadow, and felt the warmth of them) ; so 
great a master he was of oaks and timber in that county, besides 
large possessions he had in Essex and elsewhere. King Henry 
the Eighth, owning him deservedly for a very wise man, created 
him Baron Mordant of Turvey. 

29. WILLIAM WINDSOR, Mil. He was descended from 
Walter Fitz Otho,* castle keeper of Windsor in the time of king 
William the Conqueror, and was by king Henry the Eighth 
created Baron Windsor of Bradenham in Buckinghamshire, an- 
cestor to the present Lord Windsor, descended from him by an 
heir-general ; so that Hickman is his surname. 


1. FRANCIS RUSSEL, Mil. He was son to Lord John 
Russel, afterward Earl of Bedford. Succeeding his father in his 
honour, so great was his hospitality, that queen Elizabeth was 
wont to say pleasantly of him, " That he made all the beggars/ 5 
He founded a small school at Woburn ; and dying in great age 
and honour, was buried at Cheneys, 1585. 

5. OLIVER SAINT JOHN, Arm. He was by queen Elizabeth 
made Lord Saint John of Bletso in this county, and left two 
sons, who succeeded to his honour. First, John, whose only 
daughter Anne was married to William Lord Effingham, and was 
mother to Elizabeth now Countess Dowager of Peterborough. 
His second son was Oliver, blessed with a numerous issue, and 
ancestor to the present Earl of Bullinbrook. 

* Camden's Britannia, in Berkshire. 



1. WILLIAM DORMER, Mil. He was son to Sir Robert 
Dormer (sheriff the 14th of king Henry the Eighth) by Jane 
Newdigate his wife ; which lady was so zealous a Papist, that 
after the death of queen Mary she left the land, and lived be- 
yond the seas. This Sir William, by Mary Sidney his wife, had 
a daughter, married to the Count of Feria, when he came over 
hither with king Philip. 

This Count, under pretence to visit his sick lady, remaining 
here, did very earnestly move a match betwixt king Philip, his 
master, and queen Elizabeth, which in fine took no effect.* He 
then also mediated for Jane Dormer, his grandmother, and some 
other fugitives, that they might live beyond the seas, and receive 
their revenues out of England ; which favour the queen thought 
not fit to indulge : whereat the Count was so incensed, that he 
moved Pope Pius the Fourth to excommunicate her, though his 
wife did with all might and main oppose it.f 



Anno Name and Arms. Place. 

17 Ge. Rotheram, esq. . Farly. 

Arms : V. three roe-bucks tripping Or, a baton Gules. 

18 John Barnardeston . Jewelbury. 

G. a saltire engrailed Arg. 

19 Ge. Kenesham, esq. . Temesford. 

20 John Spencer, esq. . Cople. 

21 Nicholas Luke, esq. . Woodend. 

Arg. a bugle horn S. 

22 Henry Butler, esq. . Biddenham. 

G. a fess cheeky Ar. and S. bewixt six cross crosslets Arg. 

23 John Tompson, esq. . Crawley. 

24 Ric. Conquest, esq. . Houghton. 

Quarterly, Arg. and S. a label with three points. 

25 Lodo. Dive, esq. . . Brumham. 

Parti per pale Arg. and G. a fess Az. 

26 Joh. Rowe, esq. and 

Ric. Charnock, esq. . Holcot. 

Arg. on a bend S. three crosses crosslet of the field. 

27 Oliver St. John, esq. 

Arg. on a chief G. two mullets O. 

28 Ric. Charnock, esq. . ut prius. 

29 Will. Butler, esq. . . ut prius. 

* Camden's Elizabeth, anno 1558. 

t " Uxore frustra obnitente," Idem, anno 1560. 


Anno Name. Place. 

30 Rad. Astry, esq. . . Westning. 

Barry wavy of six Arg. and Az. on a chief G. three be- 

31 Oliver St. John, esq. . ut prius. 

32 Ge. Rotheram, esq. . ut prius. 

33 Ex. Hoddeson, esq. . ut prius. 

34 Will. Buncombe . Batlesden. 

Parti per chevron counterflore G. and Arg. three talbots' 
heads erazed counterchanged. 

35 Nicholas Luke, esq. . ut prius. 

36 John Dive, esq. . . ut prius. 

37 Will Gostwick, esq. . Willington. 

Arg. a bend G. cotised S. betwixt six Cornish choughs 
proper ; on a chief O. three mullets V. 

38 Ric. Conquest, esq. . ut prius. 

39 Tho. Cheney, esq. . Sundon. 

40 Edr. Ratcliffe, knt. . Elstow. 

Arg. a bend engrailed S. 

41 Will. Butler, esq. . ut prius. 

42 John Croft, knt. 

43 Ri. Charnocks, esq. . ut prius. 

44 George Franklin . . Malvern. 

45 John Dive, knt. . . ut prius. 


1 John Dive, knt. . . ut prius. 

2 John Leigh, esq. 

3 Edr. Sands, knt. . . Eaton. 

4 Fra. Anderson, esq. . E worth. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three cross crosslets S. 

5 Tho. Snagge, knt. . Marson. 

6 Edw. Mordant, esq. . Ockley. 

Arg. a chevron between three etoiles S. 

7 Tho. Ancell, esq. . Barford. 

G. on a saltire O. between four bezants a mascle of the 

8 Fran. Ventres, knt. . Campton. 

Az. a lucie between two bends wavy Arg. 

9 Robert Sandy, esq. 

10 Will. Beecher, esq. . Hooberry. 

11 Ric. Sanders, esq. . Marson. 

Parti per chevron Arg. and S. three elephants' heads 
erazed counterchanged. 

12 Edw. Duncombe . ut prius. 

13 Will. Plomer, esq. . Holms. 

V. a chevron between three lions' heads erazed O. bil- 
leted G. 


Anno Name. Place. 

14 Roger Burgoyne . . Sutton. 

G. a chevron O. between three talbots; on chief embat- 
tled Arg. as many martlets S. 

15 Oliver Luke, knt. . . ut prius. 

16 Ed. Conquest, knt. . tit prius. 

17 Ge. Keynsham, esq. 

18 Fran. Stan ton, esq. . Birchmore. 

19 Will. Bryers, esq. . Woodbery. 

20 Wil. Hawkins, esq. . Tilbrook. 

21 Fran, Clerke, knt. 

22 Math. Denton, esq. . Barton. 


1 John Wingate, esq. . Harlington. 

S. a bend E. cotised O. between six martlets Arg. 

2 Ed. Gostwick, knt. . ut prius. 

3 John Moore, esq. 

4 Anth. Chester, bart. 

Per pale, Arg. and S. a chevron between three rams 5 heads 
erased, armed O. within a border engrailed roundly, all 

5 Michael Grigg, esq. 

6 William Cater, esq. . Kempston. 

E. on a pile G. a lion passant gardant O. 

7 Edmund Anderson . ut prius. 

8 Ja. Beverley, esq. . Clapwell. 

E. a rose G. 

9 Oufl. Winch, esq. . Everton. 

10 Hum. Monoux, esq. . Wootton. 

11 Richard Gery, esq. . Bushmede. 

12 Henry Chester, esq. . lit prius. 

13 Will. Boteler, esq. . ut prius. 

14 Will. Plomer, esq. . ut prius. 

15 Richard Child, esq. . Puddington. 

G. a chevron engrailed E. betwixt three doves Arg. 

16 Joh. Burgogne, esq. . ut prius. 

17 Tho. Alston, knt. bart. . Wodhill. 

Az. ten stars O. 

20 Nich. Denton, esq. 
22 Math. Taylor, esq. . Eaton. 


Being to take my farewell of this county, I am minded of the 
mistake (what writer is free from them ?) in Mr. Stowe, telling 


us of tide-boats, till-boats, and barges, which come from Bed- 
fordshire down the Thames to London,* which surely must 
row over many miles of dry-land in their passage thereunto. 
But, if there be a possibility of such a conveyance by art 
and industry to be effected, may his words prove true by way of 
prediction, seeing certainly such a conveniehcy must needs be 
advantageous to this county ! 

* Stowe, in Survey of London, p. 18, writing of the river Thames. 


John BUNYAN, Anabaptist preacher, author of " The Pilgrim's 

Progress f born at Elstow 1628 ; died 1688. 
Hon. John BYNG, admiral ; born at Southhill 1704 ; shot 1757* 
Edmund CHISHULL, divine, antiquary, and Latin poet ; born 

at Ey worth ; died 1733. 

Samuel PALMER, nonconformist ; born at Bedford 1740. 
John POM FRET, poet and classical scholar ; born at Luton 

1677; died 1?03. 
William RICHARDSON, divine and ecclesiastical antiquary, 

editor of Godwin " De Prsesulibus ;" bom at Wilhamstead 

1698; died 1775. 
Nicholas ROWE, dramatic poet ; born at Little Bockford 1673 ; 

died 1718. 
Nathaniel SALMON, divine, topographer, and antiquary ; born at 

Meppershall; died 1742. 

Thomas SALMON, historian and geographer ; born at Mepper- 
shall; died 1743. 
Elkanah SETTLE, poet, author of the " City Triumphs on Lord 

Mayor's Day/' &c. ; born at Dunstable 1647-8 ; died 1?24. 
Sir Christopher TURNOR, judge, born at Milton Ernest; died 

Samuel WHITBREAD, eminent brewer, public benefactor, and 

father of the distinguished statesman ; born at Cardington ; 

died 1?96, aged 76. 

* * The Works which have been published relative to this county, since Ful- 
ler's time, consist chiefly of Parry's History of Bedfordshire (1828), and of Woburn 
Abbey (1831), besides notices given in the Beauties of England, and Ly- 
sons' Magna Britannia. There have also been published Accounts of Wimmington, 
by the Rev. O. St. John Cooper (1785), and of Odell, by the same author (1 7 87). 
In 1812, Mr.Thos. Fisher likewise published Collections for Bedfordshire. &D. 


IT is a long narrow county (the miles therein proportioned 
accordingly) stretching forty-four miles from North to South, 
whilst the breadth is content with fourteen at the most. A 
fruitful country, especially in the vale of Aylesbury, where one 
[lately] entire pasture, called Beryfield (now part of the inherit- 
ance of Sir Robert Lee, baronet), in the manor of Quarendon, 
is let yearly for eight hundred pounds, the tenant not complain- 
ing of his bargain. 

This county takes its name from Buckingham, the chief town 
therein ; as that from beeches (called in the Saxon tongue buc- 
cen) growing plentifully thereabouts, as in other places in this 
county, and therefore placed first amongst its 



This was esteemed sacred amongst the Romans : " Manius 
Curius juravit se ex praeda nihil attigisse, praeter guttum faginum 
quo sacrificaret : " ( ff protested, that he touched nothing of the 
prey besides a beech-cup, wherewith he should sacrifice."*) It 
is also medicinal ; though we would wish none sore lips or eyes 
to try the truth of Pliny's report, whether beech-leaves cure 
the one, or the ashes of beech-mast heal the other.f Our ordi- 
nary use thereof (besides making of many utensils) is for build- 
ing of houses. One asked, when beech would make the best 
timber ? meaning what season of the year wasVbest to cut it down 
for that purpose. It was answered, " that beech would make 
the best timber when no oak was to be had;'' a time, I assure 
you, which daily approacheth in our land.J 

Hence it was, that such care was taken in the reign of king 
Henry the Eighth (when woods were in a far better condition 
than now-a-days) for the preserving of the standels of beech. 
As also it was provided in the first of queen Elizabeth, that no 
timber trees of oak, beech, and ash (where beech deservedly is 

Plin. lib. decimo sexto, p. 287. cap. 38. ver. 44. 
Plin.lib. vigesimo quarto, p. 442. cap. 5, ver. 37. 
I Stat. 35 Hen. VIII. cap. 17. Stat. 1 Eliz. cap. 15. 


made second), being one foot square at the stub, and growing 
within fourteen miles of the sea, or any navigable river, should 
be converted to coal or fuel,* as the debasing of that which, 
if nature did not first intend, necessity^must employ for better 


The best and biggest bodied in England are the'.Vale of Ayles- 
bury in this county, where it is nothing to give ten pounds or 
more for a breed-ram. So that, should a foreigner hear of the 
price thereof, he would guess that ram rather to be some Roman 
engine of battery, than the creature commonly so called. 

I know not whether his observation, with the reason thereof, 
be worth the inserting, who first took notice, that our cattle 
for food are English when feeding in the field, but French when 
fed on in a family. 

English. 1. Sheep. 2. Ox. 3. Calf. 4. Hog. 5. Pig. 

French. 1. Mutton. 2. Beef. ; 3. Veal. 4. Bacon. 5. Pork. 
Whereof he assigned this reason, that, after the Norman Con- 
quest, the French so tyrannized over the English tenants, that 
they forced them to keep and feed their cattle ; but the Mon- 
sieurs ate all their good meat after it was slaughtered. 

Foreigners much admire at our English sheep, because they 
do not (as those beyond the seas) follow their shepherds like to 
a pack of dogs, but wander wide abroad ; and the popish priests 
tell their simple flocks, that this disobedience of our sheep hap- 
peneth unto us, because (risum teneatis, amid ?) we have left 
the great shepherd, the Pope ;* whereas they did so long before 
our separation from Rome, because, freed from the fear of 
wolves (infesting them in foreign parts), they feed safely in the 
fields, needing neither guide to direct, nor guard to defend 


They first took their name from Phasis, a river in Asia ; and 
long their flight thence into England : a fowl fair in the feathers, 
a cock especially (males by nature, though female by art, the 
finest of both sexes), and dainty in the flesh. Abundance of 
these are kept about Wycombe ; the care being more than the 
cost, seeing their general repast is on pismires. Whether these 
tame be as good as wild pheasants, I leave to palate-men to de- 


It is true of this county, that it liveth more by its lands than 
by its hands. Such the fruitfulness, venting the native commo- 
dities thereof at great rates (thank the vicinity of London, the 

* Stat. 1. Eliz. c. 15. f Sam. Hartlib's Legacie, p. 84. 

VOL. I. O 


best chapman), that no handicrafts of note, save what common 
to other countries,, are used therein, except any will instance in 
bone-lace, much thereof being made about Owldney in this 
county ; though more, I believe, in Devonshire, where we shall 
meet more properly therewith. 


" Buckinghamshire bread and beef.''*] 

The former is as fine, the latter as fat, in this as in any other 
county. If, therefore, the inhabitants thereof come with hearty 
grace and hungry appetites, no doubt both strength and health 
will follow on their repast. 

" Here if you beat a bush, it's odds you'lcl start a thief."f] 

No doubt there was just occasion for this proverb at the ori- 
ginal thereof, which then contained satirical truth, proportioned 
to the place before it was reformed ; whereof thus our great an- 
tiquary :{ 

" It was altogether unpassable in times past by reason of 
trees, until that Leofstane abbot of St. Albany's did cut them 
down, because they yielded place of refuge for thieves." 

But this proverb is now antiquated as to the truth thereof, 
Buckinghamshire affording as many maiden assizes as any 
county of equal populousness. Yea, hear how she pleadeth 
for herself, that such highwaymen were never her natives, but 
fled thither for their shelter out of neighbouring counties. 


St. EDBURG, daughter unto Redwald, king of the East 
Angles, embraced a monastical life at Aylesbury in this county, 
where her body was deposited, and removed afterwards to 
Edburgton (now Edburton), in Suffolk, her native country. It 
seems her person would make one county proud, which made 
two happy: Aylesbury observing her memory on the day of 

, whilst Edburton was renowned for her miracles. By the 

way, it seems wonderful that in Scripture we only meet with 
one posthume miracle, viz. the grave-fellow of Elisha raised 
with the touch of his bones ; whilst most of popish miracles 
are [reported] born after the saints 5 death, merely to mould 
men's minds to the adoration of their relics. 

St. RUMALD was the same with St. Rumbald (commonly 
called by country people St. Grumbald), and St. Rumwald, as 
others spell him ; but distinct from another St. Rumwald of 
Irish extraction, a bishop and martyr, whose passion is cele- 
brated at Mechlin, in Brabant. This criticism, reader, I request 
thee to take on my credit for thy own ease, and not to buy the 
truth of so difficult a trifle with the trouble I paid for it. 

* Michael Dray ton, in his Polyolbion. f Idem. 

J Camden's Britannia, in Buckinghamshire, 

SAINTS. 395 

Entering now on the legend of his life, I write neither what 
I believe, nor what I expect should be believed, but what I find 
written by others. Some make him son of a British king,* 
which is sufficiently confuted by his own Saxon name. More 
probable their tale who relate him son to a king of Northum- 
berland, by a Christian daughter of Penda, king of Mercia. 
Being born at King's Sutton, in this county, as soon as he came 
out of his mother's womb, he cried three times, " I am a Chris- 
tian ;f" then, making a plain confession of his faith, he desired 
to be baptized, chose his godfathers, and his own name Rum- 

He also, by his fingers, directed the standers by to fetch him 
a great hollow stone for a font, which sundry of his father's 
servants essayed in vain, as much above their strength ; till the 
two priests (his designed godfathers) did go and fetch it easily 
at his appointment. J Being baptized, he for three days dis- 
coursed of all the common-places of popery; and, having 
confirmed their truth, he bequeathed his body to remain at 
Sutton one year, at Brackly two, and at Buckingham ever after. 
This done, he expired. 

Reader, I partly guess by my own temper how thine is affected 
with the reading hereof, whose soul is much divided betwixt 
several actions at once: 1. To frown at the impudency of the 
first inventors of such improbable untruths. 2. To smile at the 
simplicity of the believers of them. 3. To sigh at that well- 
intended devotion abused with them. 4. To thank God that 
we live in times of better and brighter knowledge. 

Now, although St. Rumwald was born in this county, he 
was most honoured at Boxley in Kent; and thereon a story 

There was in the church of Boxley a short statue of St. Rum- 
wald (as of a boy-saint), small, hollow, and light ; so that a child 
of seven years of age might easily lift it. The moving hereof 
was made the criterion of women's chastity. Such who paid the 
priest well might easily remove it, whilst others might tug at it 
to no purpose ; for this was the contrivance of the cheat that 
it was fastened with a pin of wood by an invisible stander 
behind. Now when such offered to take it who had been 
bountiful to the priest before, they bare it away with ease, which 
was impossible for their hands to remove who had been close- 
fisted in their confessions. " Thus," saith my author, ^ it 
moved more laughter than devotion ; and many chaste virgins 
and wives went away with blushing faces, leaving (without 
cause) the suspicion of their wantonness in the eyes of the 
beholders; whilst others came off with more credit (because 

* The English Martyrology, on the 28th of August, 
t Camden's Britannia, in Buckinghamshire, 
j Nova Legenda Anglica, in the Life of Saint Rumwald. 
I Lambarde, in his Perambulation of Kent, p. 187. 



with more coin), though with less chastity/ 5 * The certain time 
of his life is unknown, but may be guessed about the year 680. 


JOHN SCRIVENER was martyred at Amersham, anno Domini 
1521 ; on whom an extraordinary piece of cruelty was used, his 
own children being forced to set the first fire upon him ;f for 
which the law (Deut. xiii. 6) was most erroneously pretended, 
as will appear by the perusing thereof : 

" If thy brother, the son of thy mother, or thy son, or thy 
daughter, or the wife of thy bosom, or thy friend which is as 
thy own soul, entice thee secretly, saying, Let us go and serve 
other gods, thou shalt not consent unto him, nor hearken unto 
him : but thou shalt surely kill him ; thine hand shall be first 
upon him to put him to death/' 

See we here how in the case of idolatry one is to spare none 
related unto them, either as equals or inferiors. But this law 
enjoins not children to accuse or execute their own parents, as 
Scrivener's children were compelled to do ; a barbarous cruelty, 
especially seeing the civil law among the heathen Romans did pro- 
vide, that " filius non torquetur in caput parentis," (" a son shall 
not be examined on the rack to accuse his father, in such cases 
wherein his life is concerned/') Others, besides Scrivener, were 
martyred, and more confessors molested in this small county, 
anno 1521, than in all England elsewhere for twenty years 


RICHARD de WENDOVER (a place well known in this shire) 
was rector of Bromley, in Kent, where the Bishop of Rochester 
hath a palace ; and, that see being vacant, he was lawfully 
chosen the bishop thereof. But Edmund, archbishop of Canter- 
bury (afterwards sainted) refused to give him consecration, 
because he was rude and unlearned. Hereupon Wendover 
appealed to the Pope, whom he found his better friend, because 
Edmund (a bitter inveigher against papal extortions) was a foe 
unto him, and so was consecrated. Now none will grudge him 
his place amongst our WORTHIES, seeing what he lacked in 
learning he had in holiness ; and such his signal sanctity, || that, 
after his death, he was, by special mandate of king Henry the 
Third, buried in the church of Westminster (as another Jehoi- 
adah, for his public goodness,!) anno 1250. 

JOHN BUCKINGHAM (for so his name is truly written), alias 
Bokingham and Bukingham, took his name and nativity, no 

* Lambarde, in his Perambulation of Kent, p. 187. 

Fox's Acts and Monuments, p. 838. 
1 See Fox's Acts and Monuments, in that year. 
Godwin, in the Bishops of Rochester. || Idem. 

If 2 Chron. xxiv, 16. 

I'llKLATES. 197 

doubt, from Buckingham, in this county, d-la-mode of that age. 
He was bred at the university of Oxford ; and, although since 
by some causelessly slandered for want of learning, was a great 
disputant, and well-studied scholar, as his works do declare.* 
He was afterwards preferred Bishop of Lincoln, where several 
contests happened betwixt him and Pope Boniface the Ninth, 
who, in revenge, ex plenitudine potestatis, removed him from 
Lincoln to Lichfield ; that is, from the hall into the kitchen ; a 
bishopric of less credit and profit. Buckingham grew sullen 
hereat, and would rather shut himself out than play at a less 
game ; and so, quitting^episcopacy, 1397* lived and died a private 
monk at Canterbury, where he lies buried the lowermost in the 
body of Christchurch, under a very fair grave-stone, as my 
industrious friend hath well retrieved his memory,t though the 
brass on his monument be worn or rather torn away. He 
indented with the prior and convent at Canterbury to build 
him a chantry-chapel near his sepulchre, which I find not 

JOHN YOUNG was born at Newton-longville, in this county,! 
and bred in New College in Oxford, on the same token that 
there are no fewer than ten Youngs in their register, reckoned 
fellows of that foundation; and one said, that "seeing the 
college was always new, well may many fellows be young 
therein." This John Young became warden thereof, and after- 
wards was made bishop of the fair city of Callipoli, in Greece ; 
an excellent place to fat a neither camel nor lion but came- 
lion in ; and seeing the great Turk was his tenant, little the 
rent he paid to this his landlord. However, this titular bish- 
opric gave him precedency, a vote in general councils, and 
power of ordination. But some English earth doth not well 
with such Grecian air; and, for his better support, he was 
made Master of the Rolls, Jan. 12, in the first of king Henry the 
Eighth, and either died or resigned his office some eight years 
after. As I remember, he lieth buried, with a brass inscription, 
in New College chapel. 

JOHN HOLYMAN was born at Codington, in this county, 
bred in New College in Oxford, || and afterwards became a 
Benedictine in Reading, until that monastery was dissolved. 
Queen Mary, in the first of her reign, preferred him Bishop of 
Bristol, whilst his predecessor, Paul Bush (deprived for being 
married) was yet alive. He lived peaceably, not embruing 

* J. Bale and J. Pits, de Scriptoribus Britannicis. 

f William Sommers, in his Antiquities of Canterbury, p. 181. 

J New College Register, anno 1482. 

J. Philpot, in bis Catalogue of the Masters of the Rolls. 

II New College Register., anno Domini 1512. 


his hands in Protestants 5 blood ; and died, seasonably for him- 
self, a little before the death of queen Mary, 1558. 


JOHN HARLEY was born in the parish of Newport- Pagnel 
in this county, as a learned antiquary* (a native of the same 
place) hath informed me,, where some of his kindred were lately 
(if not still) in being. He was bred first fellow, then school- 
master in Magdalen College in Oxford. In the dangerous days 
of king Henry the Eighth, he was an hearty but concealed Pro- 

In the first week of the reign of king Edward the Sixth, 
whilst most men's minds stood at a gaze (it being dead water 
with them which way the tide would turn,) Master Harley, in 
the parish church of Saint Peter's in Oxford, in a solemn Lent 
sermon, publicly preached anti-papal doctrine, and powerfully 
pressed justification by faith alone; whereupon the over-offi- 
cious vice-chancellor hurried him up to London for an heretic, 
there to answer for his contempt.f 

But the case was soon altered : Harley was acquitted, com- 
mended, preferred to be tutor to the sons of John Earl of 
Warwick, afterwards Duke of Northumberland. He was thence 
made Bishop of Hereford. 

It is said of Abraham, (e he was buried in a good old age/' J It 
cannot be said of our Harley, he died in an old age (finding him 
not above fifty ;) though expiring in a good age, in two respects 
in relation to the piety of his life past, and in reference to the 
future troubles which immediately followed. Surely, had he 
survived a little longer, he had lost his life, as he did his bishop- 
ric, for being married, in the first of queen Mary 

Doctor Laurence Humphred, Harley ; s scholar in Magdalen 
College, hath consecrated this distich to the memory of his 
master, though the Muses in my mind looked very solemnly, 
without the least smile at the making thereof, 

" Flos domui Harlseus, socius ludique magister, 
Celsus deinde throno, celsior inde polo." 

He died anno Domini 1554, shifting from place to place, the 
cause why there is no certain intelligence where he was interred. 

ROBERT ALDRICH, although he lived but in the twilight of 
religion, he is justly to be placed not on the dark but light side 
of Reformation; for, though his actions were but weak, his 
affections were sincere therein. Born he was at Burnham in 
this county, bred in King's College, in Cambridge, proctor of that 

* Mr. Martin, beneficed near Northampton. 

t Laurence Humphred, in the Latin Life of Bishop Jewell. 

J Gen. xv. 15. 

Bishop Godwin, in his Catalogue of the Bishops of Hereford. 


university, anno 1525 ;* about which time many letters passed 
betwixt him and his familiar friend Erasmus,, who styleth him, 
"blandee eloquentise juvenem." He was afterwards school- 
master, then fellow and provoster of Eaton, and at last made 
bishop of Carlile, anno 1537, by king Henry the Eighth. He 
was never a thorough-paced Papist (much less a persecutor of 
Protestants,) though a complier with some superstitions. He 
died at Horncastle, in Lincolnshire (a house belonging to his 
see), in the reign of queen Mary, 1555.f 

WILLIAM ALLEY was born at Wickham,in this county, bred 
first at Eton, . then in King's College, where he was admitted 
anno Domini 1528. J Hence he went away being bachelor of arts, 
and afterwards became lecturer in Saint Paul's ; I say lecturer, 
which name, though since it hath sounded ill in some jealous 
ears as infected with faction, was an ancient office founded 
in some cathedrals, to read divinity there ; and this Master 
Alley's learned lectures (according to that age) are extant in 
print. He was consecrated Bishop of Exeter, July 14, 1560 ; 
and dying 1576, lieth buried under a fair marble in his own 

RICHARD Cox was born at Whaddon, in this county, and 
bred for some years in King's College, in Cambridge ; even 
when Cardinal Wolsey was erecting Christ Church, in Oxford. 
This great prelate, desiring that this his college should be as fair 
within as without, and have learning answerable to the building 
thereof, employed his emissaries to remove thither the most 
hopeful plants of Cambridge, and this Richard Cox amongst 
the rest. He became afterwards schoolmaster of Eton, which 
was happy with many flourishing wits under his endeavours, 
and Haddon amongst the rest, whom he loved with filial affec- 
tion ; nor will it be amiss to insert the poetical pass betwixt 

Walter Haddon to Doctor Cox, his schoolmaster. 
" Vix caput attollens e lecto scribere carmen 
Qui velit, is voluit, scribere plura, Vale." 

Doctor Cox to Walter Haddon, his scholar. 
" Te magis optarem salvum sine carmine, fili, 
Quam sine te salvo, carmina rnulta, Vale.'' 

Hence he was sent for to be instructor to prince Edward, 
which, with good conscience, to his great credit he discharged. 
Here, reader, forgive me in hazarding thy censure, in making 
and translating a distich upon them. 

Prceceptor doctus, docilis magis an puer itte ? 
Ille puer docilis, praceptor tu quoque doctus. 

* Mr. Hatcher, in his Manuscript Catalogue of the Fellows of King's College, 
t Godwin, in his Catalogue of Bishops, 
j Mr. Hatcher, ul prius. Ibid. 


" Master more able; child of more docility ? 
Docile the child, master of great ability. " 

At last he was preferred Bishop of Ely, 1559, comrnendably 
continuing therein, whatever causeless malice hath reported to 
the contrary, twenty-one years, and dying anno Domini 1580. 

THOMAS BICKLEY was born at Stow, in this county, bred 
first chorister, then scholar, then fellow in Magdalen College 
in Oxford.* In the first of Edward the Sixth, his detestation 
of superstition may rather be commended, than his discretion in 
expressing it, when (before the public abolishing of Popery) at 
evening-prayer, he brake the consecrated Host with his hands, 
and stamped it under his feet, in the college chapel.f After- 
wards he fled over into France, living an exile at Paris and Or- 
leans all the reign of queen Mary. Returning into England, he 
became chaplain to Archbishop Parker, who preferred him 
warden of Merton College, wherein he continued twenty years. 
When passed the age of a man (eighty years old) he began the 
life of a bishop, and was rather contented than willing to accept 
the bishopric of Chichester, freely offered unto him :J yet lived 
he eleven years therein, and died ninety- years of age, April 30, 
1596, and had a most sumptuous funeral ; all the gentry of the 
vicinage doing their homage to " the crown of his old age, 
which was found in the way of truth." He led a single life, left 
an hundred pound to Merton College, and other moneys to 
pious uses. 

JOHN KING was born at Warnhall, nigh Tame, in this county ; 
Robert King, the last abbot of Osney, and first bishop of Ox- 
ford, being his great uncle. He was first dean of Christchurch, 
then bishop of London, being full fraught with all episcopal 
qualities ; so that he who endeavoureth to give a perfect account 
thereof will rather discover his own defects, than describe this 
prelate's perfections. He died anno Domini 1618, being buried 
in the choir of Saint Paul's, with the plain epitaph of " Resur- 
gam ;" and I cannot conceal this elegant elegy made upon him : 

" Sad Relique of a blessed soul whose trust 
We sealed up in this religious dust ; 
O do not thy low exequies suspect, 
As the cheap arguments of our neglect. 
'T\vas a commanded duty that thy grave 
As little pride as thou thyself should have. 
Therefore thy covering is an humble stone, 
And but a word for thy inscription ; 
When those that in the same earth neighbour thee, 
Have each his chronicle and pedigree, 
They have their waving penons and their flags 
Of matches and alliance, formal brags ; 

* Godwin, in his Catalogue of Bishops of Chichester. 

t Dr. Humphred, in his Latin Life of Bishop Jewell, p. 73. 

" Episeopatum oblatum ultro, non nimis cupide accepit." (Godwin, ui priiis.) 
" Resurgam."' 


When thou (although from ancestors thou came 

Old as the Heptarchy, great as thy name) 

Sleep'st there enshrin'd in thy admired parts, 

And hast no heraldry but thy deserts. 

Yet let not them their prouder marbles boast ; 

For they rest with less honour, though more cost. 

Go search the world, and with your mattock wound 

The groaning bosom of the patient ground ; 

Dig from the hidden veins of her dark womb 

All that is rare and precious for a tomb : 

Yet when such treasure, and more time is spent, 

You must grant his the nobler monument, 

Whose faith stands o'er him for a hearse, and hath 

The Resurrection for his Epitaph." 

See more of the character of this most worthy prelate, in our 
"Ecclesiastical History/" anno 1620, wherein he died. 

RICHARD MONTAGUE was born at Dorney (where his father 
was vicar of the parish), within three miles of Eaton, and so 
(though not within the reach) within the sight of that staple 
place for grammar-learning, wherein he was bred :* thence was 
he chosen successively fellow of kingVcollege in Cambridge, 
fellow of Eaton, parson of Stanford Rivers in Essex, canon 
of Windsor, parson of Petworth, elected bishop of Chichester, 
and at last of Norwich. He spent very much in repairing his 
parsonage-house at Petworth, as also on his episcopal house at 
Allingbourn near Chichester. 

He was most exact in the Latin and Greek ; and, in the vin- 
dication of tithes, wrestled with the grand antiquary of England, 
and gave him a fair flat fall in the point of a Greek criticism, 
taxing him justly for mistaking a god (amongst the Egyptians) 
more than there was, by making a man amongst the gramma- 
rians fewer than they 'should be. 

He hath many learned works extant against the Papists, some 
in English, some in Latin ; and one, called his " Appello Cee- 
sarem," which (without his intent and against his will) gave oc- 
casion of much trouble in the land. He began an Ecclesiastical 
History, and set forth his apparatus, and, alas ! it was but an ap- 
paratus ; though, through no default of his, but defect of his 
health ; sickness, troublesome times, and then death, surprising 
him. Had it been finished, we had had church-annals to put 
into the balance with those of Baronius ; and which would have 
swayed with them for learning, and weighed them down for 
truth. He died anno Domini 1641. 

HENRY KING, D.D., son to John King (lately mentioned), 
bishop of London, and his wife (of the ancient family of the 
Conquests), was born in this county, in the same town, house, 
and chamber, with his father; a local coincidence, which 
in all considerable particulars cannot be paralleled. 

We know the scripture proverb, used in exprobration, "As is the 

* So am I informed by his son-in-law. Doctor David Stokes. 


mother, so is the daughter ;"* both wicked, both woeful. But 
here it may be said, by way of thankfulness to God and honour 
to the persons, " As was the father, so is the son ;" both pious, 
both prosperous, till the calamity of the times involved the 

Episcopacy, anno 1641, was beheld by many in a deep con- 
sumption, which many hoped would prove mortal. To cure this 
it was conceived the most probable cordial, to prefer persons 
into that order, not only unblameable for their life, and eminent 
for their learning, but also generally beloved by all disengaged 
people; and amongst these, king Charles advanced this our 
doctor bishop of Chichester. 

But all would not do. Their innocency was so far from stop- 
ping the mouth of malice, that malice almost had swallowed 
them down her throat; since God hath rewarded his patience, 
giving him to live to see the restitution of his order. 

David saith, that " the good tree [man] shall bring forth his 
fruit in due season ;"t so our doctor varied his fruits, according 
to the diversity of his age. Being brought up in Christ-church 
in Oxford, he delighted in the studies of music and poetry : more 
elder, he applied himself to oratory and philosophy ; and in his 
reduced age fixed on divinity, which his printed sermons on the 
Lord's-prayer, and others which he preached, remaining fresh in 
the minds of his auditors, will report him to all posterity. He 
is still living, anno Domini 1660. 


Sir GEORGE CROOK, knight, son of Sir John Crook and 
Elizabeth Unton his wife, was born at Chilton in this county, J 
in the second year of the reign of queen Elizabeth, bred first in 
Oxford, then a double reader in the Inner Temple, serjeant at 
law, and the king's serjeant, justice first of the Common-bench, 
22 Jacobi, and then of the Upper-bench, 4 Caroli. 

His ability in his profession is sufficiently attested by his own 
printed " Reports ;" eight eminent judges of the law, out of their 
knowledge of his great wisdom, learning, and integrity, approv- 
ing and allowing them to be published for the common benefit. 

He was against the illegality of ship-money, both publicly in 
Westminster-hall, and privately in his judgment demanded by 
the king, though concluded to subscribe (according to the course 
of the court) by plurality of voices. The country-man's wit (le- 
velled to his brain) will not for many years be forgotten " that 
ship-money may be gotten by Hook, but not by Crook ;" though 
since they have paid taxes (loins to the little finger, and 
scorpions to the rod of ship-money) ; but whether by Hook or 
Crook, let others inquire. 

His piety, in his equal and even walkings in the way of God 

* Ezek. xvi. 44. f Psalm i. J In his Life, prefixed to his Reports. 


through the several turnings and occasions of his life, is 
evidenced by his charity to man, founding a chapel at Beachley 
in Buckinghamshire, two miles at least distanced from the mo- 
ther-church, and an hospital in the same parish, with a liberal 

Considering his declining and decaying age, and desiring to 
examine his life, and prepare an account to the Supreme Judge, 
he petitioned king Charles for a writ of ease ; which, though iii 
some sort denied (what wise master would willingly part with a 
good servant?) was in effect granted unto him. He died at 
Waterstock in Oxfordshire, in the eighty-second year of his age, 
anno Domini 1641. 

EDWARD BULTSTRODE, Esq. (born in this county, bred in the 
studies of our municipal laws in the Inner Temple, and his High- 
ness's justice in^North Wales,) hath written a book of divers re- 
solutions and judgments, with the reasons and causes thereof, 
given in the court of King's Bench, in the reigns of king James 
and king Charles ; and is lately deceased. 


SIR WILLIAM WINDSOR, Knight. I am confident herein 
is no mislocation, beholding him an ancestor to the Right 
Honourable Thomas Windsor Hickman, Lord Windsor, and 
fixed at Bradenham. He was deputed by king Edward the 
Third, in the forty- seventh year of his reign, Lord Lieutenant 
of Ireland, which country was then in a sad condition : for the 
king was so intent on the conquest of France (as a land 
nearer, fairer, and due to him by descent), that he neglected the 
effectual reduction of Ireland. 

This encouraged the Irish grandees (their O's and Mac's) to 
rant and tyrant it in their respective seigniories, whilst such 
English who were planted there had nothing native (save their 
surnames) left; degenerating by degrees to be Irish in their 
habits, manners, and language. Yea, as the wild Irish are ob- 
served to love their nurses or fosters above their natural 
mothers, so these barbarizing English were more endeared to 
the interest of Ireland which fed, than of England which bare 
and bred them. 

To prevent more mischief, this worthy knight was sent over, 
of whose valour and fidelity the king had great experience. He 
contracted with the king to defray the whole charge of that 
kingdom (as appeareth by the instrument in the Tower) for 
eleven thousand two hundred and thirteen pounds, six shillings, 
and eight pence, per annum.* 

Now Sir William undertook not the Conquest, but custody of 
the land in a defensive war. He promised not with a daring 

* 47 Edward III, Claus. pars 2, m. 24 and 26. 


mountebank to cure, but with a discreet physician to ease, this 
Irish gout. 

Indeed I meet with a passage in Froissart, relating how Sir 
William should report of himself, " that he was so far from sub- 
duing the Irish, he could never have access to understand arid 
know their countries, albeit he had spent more time in the ser- 
vice of Ireland than any Englishman then living ;" * which to 
me seems no wonder, the Irish vermin shrouding themselves 
under the scabs of their bogs, and hair of their woods. How- 
ever, he may truly be said to have left that land much improved, 
because no whit more impaired during those dangerous distrac- 
tions, and safely resigned his office (as I take it) in the first of 
king Richard the Second. 

ARTHUR GRAY, Baron of Wilton, is justly reckoned amongst 
the natives of this shire, whose father had his habitation (not at 
Wilton, a decayed castle in Herefordshire, whence he took his 
title, but) at Waddon, a fair house of his family, not far from 

He succeeded to a small estate, much diminished on this sad 
occasion. His father William Lord Gray being taken prisoner 
in France, after long ineffectual soliciting to be (because capti- 
vated in the public service) redeemed on the public charge, at 
last was forced to ransom himself with the sale of the best part 
of his patrimony. 

Our Arthur endeavoured to advance his estate by his valour, 
being entered in feats of war under his martial father, at the 
siege of Leith, 1560, where he was shot in the shoulder, which 
inspirited him with a constant antipathy against the Scotch.f 
He was afterwards sent over lord deputy into Ireland, anno 
1580 : where, before he had received the sword, or any emblems 
of command,^ acrioribus initiis terrorem incut eret,% (" to fright 
his foes with his fierce beginning/ 5 ) he unfortunately fought the 
rebels at Glandilough, to the great loss of English blood. This 
made many commend his courage above his conduct, till he re- 
covered his credit, and finally suppressed the rebellion of 

Returning into England, the queen chiefly relied on his -coun- 
sel for ordering our land forces against the Spaniards in 88, and 
fortifying places of advantage. The mention of that year (criti- 
cal in Church differences about discipline at home, as well as 
with foreign foes abroad) mindeth me that this lord was but a 
back friend to bishops, and in all divisions of votes in parlia- 
ment, or council-table, sided with the anti-prelatical party. 

When secretary Davison, that state-pageant (raised up on 
purpose to be put down), was censured in the star-chamber 

* The same also in effect is found in Stow, in Richard the Second, 
f Camden's Elizabeth, anno notato. + Ibid, anno 1580. 


about the business of the queen of Scots, this Lord Grey only 
defended him, as doing nothing therein but what became an able 
and honest minister of state. An ear- witness saith, " Heec 
fuse, oratorie, et animose, Greium disserentem audivimus."* 
So that besides bluntness (the common and becoming eloquence 
of soldiers) he had a real rhetoric, and could very emphatically 
express himself. Indeed this warlike lord would not wear " two 
heads under one helmet," and may be said always to have borne 
his beaver open, not dissembling in the least degree, but own- 
ing his own judgment at all times what he was. He deceased 
anno Domini 1593. 


ROGER de WENDOVER was born at that market-town in this 
county, bred a benedictine in St. Alban's, where he became the 
king's historian. 

Know, reader, that our English kings had always a monk, 
generally of St. Alban's (as near London, the staple of news 
and books), to write the remarkables of their reigns.f One 
addeth (I am sorry he is a foreigner, and therefore of less credit 
at such distance), that their chronicles were locked up in the 
king's library ; so that neither in that king's nor his son's life 
they were ever opened. If so, they had a great encouragement 
to be impartial, not fearing a blow on their teeth, though com- 
ing near to the heels of truth, which in some sort were tied up 
from doing them any hurt. 

This Roger began his chronicle at the Conquest, and con- 
tinued it to the year 1235, being the 19th year of king Henry 
the Third. Indeed Matthew Paris doth quarter too heavily on 
the pains of Wendover, who only continuing his chronicle for 
some years, and inserting some small alterations, J is entitled 
to the whole work. As a few drops of blood, because of the 
deep hue thereof, discoloureth a whole bason of water into 
redness ; so the few and short interpolations of Paris, as the 
more noted author, give a denomination to the whole history, 
though a fabric built three stories high, whereof our Roger laid 
the foundation, finished the ground-room and second loft, to 
which by M. Paris was added the garret, as since the roof by 
W. Rishanger. This Wendover died about the year of our 
Lord 1236. 

JOHN AMERSHAM was born in that small corporation in this 
county, bred a monk in St. Alban's, where he contracted not 
only intimacy, but in some sort identity of affection, with John 
Weathamsted, abbot thereof; insomuch that what was said of 

* Camden's Elizabeth, anno 1587. 

f Ponticus Virunius, cited by J. Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 4, 
num. 94. 

I See^Dr. Watts's Prefatory Notes to Matthew Paris. 


two other friends was true of them (ethics making good the 
grammar thereof;) "duo amici vixit in eodem conventu." 

Now there was a great faction in that convent against their 
abbot, which to me seemeth no wonder ; for the generality of 
monks being lewd, lazy, and unlearned, they bare an antipathy 
to their abbot, who was pious, painful, and a profound scholar. 
Nor did they only rail on his person whilst living, but also revile 
his memory when dead. Our Amersham, surviving his dear 
friend, wrote a book (besides other of his works), intituled, 
ff The shield of Weathamsted," therein defending him from the 
undeserved darts of his enemies' obloquy.* He flourished anno 
Domini 1450. 

MATTHEW STOKES was born in the town and bred in the 
school of Eton,t until he was admitted in King's College in 
Cambridge, anno Domini 1531. He afterwards became fellow 
of that house, and at last esquire beadle, and register of the 

A register indeed, both by his place and painful performance 
therein ; for he (as the poets feign of Janus with two faces) saw 
two worlds, that before and after the Reformation ; in which 
juncture of time, so great the confusion and embezzling of 
records, that, had not Master Stokes been the more careful, I 
believe, that though Cambridge would not be so oblivious as 
Massala Corvinus, who forgot his own name, yet would she 
have forgotten the names of all her ancient officers. 

To secure whose succession to posterity, Mr. Stokes, with 
great industry and fidelity, collected a catalogue of the chancel- 
lors, vice-chancellors, and proctors. He was a zealous papist 
(even unto persecution of others) ; which I note, not to disgrace 
his memory, but defend myself, for placing him before the 
Reformation, though he lived many years in the reign of queen 


WALTER H ADDON was born of a knightly family in this 
county, bred at Eton,{ afterwards fellow in King's College, 
where he proceeded Doctor of Law, and was the King's pro- 
fessor in that faculty, chosen Vice-chancellor of Cambridge 1550 : 
soon after he was made President of Magdalen College in Ox- 
ford, which place he waived in the reign of queen Mary, and 
sheltered himself in obscurity. Queen Elizabeth made him one 
of the Masters of her Requests, and employed him m several 
embassies beyond the seas. Her Majesty, being demanded whe- 
ther she preferred him or Buchanan for learning, wittily and 
warily returned, " Buchananum omnibus antepono, Haddonum 

* Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis ; and Pitsseus, aetat. 14, num. 843. 
f Hatcher's MS. Catalogue of the Fellows of King's College. 
J Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent, nono, num. 87. 


nemini postpone." Indeed he was a most eloquent man, and 
a pure Ciceronian in his style, as appeareth by his writings, and 
especially in his book against Osorius. The rest may be learned 
out of his epitaph : 


" GUALTERO HADDONO, Equestri loco nato, Jurisconsulto, 
Oratori, Poetce celeberrimo, Graecee Latineeque eloquentise sui 
tempons facile principi; sapientia. et sanctitate vitse, in id 
invecto, ut reginse Elizabethan a supplicum libellis magister 
esset, destinareturquejnajoribus nisi facto immaturius cessisset: 
interim in omni gradu viro longe eminentissimo. Conjugi suo 
optimo meritissimoque ANNA SUTTONA, uxor ejus secunda, 
flens, moerens, desiderii sui signum posuit. Obiit anno Salut. 
hum. 1572, sotatis 56." 

This his fair monument is extant in the wall at the upper end 
of the chancel of Christ's Church in London ; where so many 
ancient inscriptions have been barbarously defaced. 

LAURENCE HUMPHRED was born in this county,* bred in 
Magdalen College, in Oxford, a great and general scholar, able lin- 
guist, deep divine, pious to God, humble in himself, charitable 
to others. In the reign of queen Mary he fled into Germany, 
and there was fellow- commoner with Mr. Jewell (whose Life he 
wrote at large in Latin) in all his sufferings. Here he trans- 
lated Origen de Recta Fide," and Philo " de Nobilitate," out 
of Greek. 

Returning into England in the reign of queen Elizabeth, he 
was made President of. Magdalen College in Oxford, and Dean 
of Winchester. Higher preferment he never attained, because 
he never desired it ; though a learned author seems to put it on 
another account, fe fortasse eo quod de adiaphoris non juxta cum 
Ecclesia Anglicana senserit."f I deny not but he might scruple 
some ceremonies ; but sure I am he was much molested in his 
college with a party of fierce (not to say furious) Nonconformists 
from whom he much dissented in judgment. He died anno 
Domini 1589. 

Here I must confess a ^mistake in my " Ecclesiastical His- 
tory" (misguided therein with many others by general tradition), 
when I reported the gold lately found and shared amongst the 
president and fellows of Magdalen College in Oxford, to have 
been the gift of this Doctor Humphred, which since appeareth 
a legacy left by William Wainfleet, their founder. Would I had 
been mistaken in the matter as well as the person, that so un- 
worthy an act had never been performed. But what said Jacob 
to his sons : " Carry back the money again ; peradventure it was 
an oversight."^ Seasonable restitution will make reparation. 

* " Humfredus patriot Buchingamensi." Baleus, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, 
Cent. xi. num. 93. 

f Camden's Elizabeth, in anno 1589. J Gen - xliii.12. 


ROGER GOAD was born at Houton in this county, and was 
admitted sholar in King's College in Cambridge 1555.* Leaving 
the college,, he became a schoolmaster at Guilford in Surrey. 
But pity it is that a great candle should be burning in the 
kitchen, whilst light is lacking in the hall, and his public parts 
pent in so private a profession. He was made not to guide boys 
but govern men. Hence, by an unexpected election, he was 
surprised into the Provostship of King's College, wherein he 
remained forty years. He was thrice Vice-chancellor of Cam- 
bridge ; a grave, sage, and learned man. He had many contests 
with the young fry in this college, chiefly because he loved their 
good better than they themselves. Very little there is of his in 
print, save what he did in conjunction with other doctors of the 
university. By his testament he gave the rectory of Milton to 
the college ; and dying on St. Mark's day, 1610, lieth buried in 
a vestry on the north side of the chapel. 

- JOHN GREGORY was born November 10, 1607;, at Amersham 
in this county, of honest though mean parents, yet rich enough 
to derive unto him the hereditary infirmity of the gout, which 
afflicted him the last twenty years of his life. He was bred in 
Christ Church in Oxford, where he so applied his book, that he 
studied sixteen hours of the four-and-twenty for many years to- 
gether.f He attained to be an exquisite linguist and general scho- 
lar ; his modesty setting the greater lustre on his learning. His 
notes on Dr. Ridley's book of Civil Law gave the first testimony 
of his pregnancy to the world, and never did text and comment 
Better meet -together. 

He was first chaplain of Christ Church, and thence preferred 
by Bishop Duppa, Prebendary of Chichester and Sarum ; and 
indeed no church preferment compatible with his age was above 
his deserts. He died at Kidlington in Oxfordshire, 1646, and 
was buried at Christ Church in Oxford. I find a smart epitaph, 
made by a friend, on his memory ; and it was, in my mind, as 
well valiantly (consider the times) as truly indited : 

" Ne premas cineres ho see, viator, 
Nescis quot sub hoc jacet lapillo ; 

Greeculus, Hebreeus, Syrus, 
Et qui te quovis vincet idiomate. 

At ne molestus sis 

Ausculta, et causam auribus tuis imbibe : 

Templo exclusus, 

Et avita Religione 

Jam senescente (ne dicam sublata), 

Mutavit chorum, altiorem ut capesceret. 

Vade nunc, si libet, et imitare. R. W." 

* Mr. Hatcher, in his MS. Catalogue of the Fellows of King's College, 
t In his Life, prefixed to his book. 


His " Opera Posthuma " are faithfully set forth by his good 
friend John Gurgain, and deservedly dedicated to Edward Bish, 
Esquire ; one so able that he could (charitable that he would, and va- 
liant that he durst) relieve Master Gregory in his greatest distress. 

SAMUEL COLLINS, son to Baldwin Collins (born in Coventry, 
a pious and painful preacher, prodigiously bountiful to the poor, 
whom queen Elizabeth constantly called Father Collins) was 
born and bred at Eton ; so that he breathed learned air from the 
place of his nativity .* Hence coming to King's College in Cam- 
bridge, he was chosen successively Fellow, Provost, and Regius 
Professor ; one of an admirable wit and memory, the most fluent 
Latinist of our age ; so that, as Caligula is said to have sent his 
soldiers vainly to fight against the tide, with the same success 
have any encountered the torrent of his tongue in disputation. 
He constantly read his lectures twice a week for above forty 
years, giving notice of the time to his auditors in a ticket on the 
school doors, wherein never any two alike, without some consi- 
derable difference in the critical language thereof. When some 
displeased courtier did him the injurious courtesy to prefer him 
downwards (in point of profit) to the Bishopric of Bristol, he 
improved all his friends to decline his election. In these trou- 
blesome times (affording more preachers than professors), he 
lost his church, but kept his chair ; wherein he died about the 
year 1651. 

WILLIAM OUGIITRED was (though branched from a right 
ancient family in the North) born in the town, bred in the 
school of Eton, became Fellow of King's College ; and at last 
was beneficed by Thomas Earl of Arundel at Albury in Surrey. 
All his contemporaries unanimously acknowledged him the 
prince of mathematicians in our age and nation. This aged 
Simeon had (though no revelation) a strong persuasion that 
before his death he should behold Christ's anointed restored to 
his throne : which he did accordingly, to his incredible joy ; 
and then had his Dimittis out of this mortal life, June 30, 1660. 


THOMAS DORMAN was born at Ammersham in this county, 
being nephew unto Thomas Dorman of the same town, a con- 
fessor in the reign of king Hemy the Eighth. True it is, this 
his uncle, through weakness, did abjure (let us pity his, who de- 
sire God should pardon our failings) ; but was ever a cordial 
Protestant. He bred this Thomas Dorman, junior, at Berkham- 
sted school ( founded by Dr. Incent) in Hertfordshire, under 
Mr. Reeve, a Protestant school-master.f 

* Hence he styleth himself, in his books, Etonensis. 
f Fox's Acts and Monuments, p. 338. 

VOL. I. P 


But this Dorman turned tail afterwards, and became a great 
Romanist; running over beyond the seas, where he wrote a 
book, intituled, " Against Alexander Nowel, the English Calvin- 
ist." J. Pits doth repent that he affordeth him no room in the 
body of his book, referring him to his Appendix.* He flourished 
anno 1560. 


JOHN MATHEW, Mercer, son to Thomas Mathew, was born 
at Sherington in this county ; Lord Mayor of London, anno 
Domini 1490. He is eminent on this account, that he was the 
first bachelor that ever was chosen into that office, f Yea, it 
was above a hundred and twenty years before he was seconded 
by a single person succeeding him in that place, viz. Sir John 
Leman,t Lord Mayor 1616. It seemeth that a Lady Mayoress 
is something more than ornamental to a Lord Mayor ; their 
wives great portions, or good providence, much advantaging 
their estates, to be capable of so high a dignity. 

Dame HESTER TEMPLE, daughter to Miles Sands, Esquire, 
was born at Latmos in this county, and was married to Sir 
Thomas Temple, of Stow, Baronet. She had four sons and nine 
daughters, which lived to be married, and so exceedingly mul- 
tiplied, that this lady saw seven hundred extracted from her 
body. Reader, I speak within compass, and have left myself a 
reserve, having bought the truth hereof by a wager I lost. Be- 
sides, there was a new generation of marriageable females just 
at her death ; so that this aged vine may be said to wither, even 
when it had many young boughs ready to knit. 

Had I been one of her relations, and as well enabled as most 
of them be, I would have erected a monument for her thus de- 
signed. A fair tree should have been erected, the said lady and 
her husband lying at the bottom or root thereof ; the heir of the 
family should have ascended both the middle and top bough 
thereof. On the right hand hereof her younger sons, on the 
left her daughters should, as so many boughs, be spread forth. 
Her grandchildren should have their names inscribed on the 
branches of those boughs; the great grandchildren on the twigs 
of those branches ; the great great grandchildren on the leaves 
of those twigs. Such as survived her death should be done in 
a lively green, the rest (as blasted) in a pale and yellow fading 

Pliny (who reports it as a wonder worthy the chronicle, 
that Chrispinus Hilarus, prcelata pompd, " with open ostenta- 
tion/ 5 sacrificed in the Capitol seventy-four of his children 

* Pagina 914. f Stow's Survey of London, p. 573. 

t " This Mayor was the second batchlor," saith How, continuing Stow in his 
Survey of London, p. 195. Sed quaere ? F. Lib. vii. cap. 13. 


and children's children attending on him,) would more admire, 
if admitted to this spectacle. 

Vives telleth us of a village in Spain, of about an hundred 
houses, whereof all the inhabitants were issued from one cer- 
tain old man who then lived, when as that village was so peo- 
pled, so as the name of propinquity, how the youngest of the 
children should call him, could not be given.* te Lingua enim 
nostra supra abavum non ascendit ;" (" Our language/' saith 
he, meaning the Spanish, ee affords not a name above the great 
grandfather's father.") But, had the offspring of this lady been 
contracted into one place, they were enough to have peopled 
a city of a competent proportion, though her issue was not so 
long in succession, as broad in extent. 

I confess very many of her descendants died before her 
death ; in which respect she was far surpassed by a Roman ma- 
tron, on whom the poet thus epitapheth it, in her own person. f 

" Viginti atque novem, genitrici Callicratece, 

Nuttius sexus mors mihi visafuit. 
Sed centum et quinque ei-plevi bene messibus annos, 

In tremulam baculo non subeunte manum." 
" Twenty-nine births Callicrate I told, 
And of both sexes saw none sent to grave, 
I was an hundred and five winters old, 
Yet stay from staff my hand did never crave." 

Thus, in all ages, God bestoweth personal felicities on some 
far above the proportion of others. The Lady Temple died anno 
Domini 1656. 


1. John Brokle, son of William Brokle, of Newport Pagnel, 
Draper, 1433. 

2 Thomas Scot, son of Robert Scot, of Dorney, Draper, 1458. 

3* Henry Collet, son of Rob. Collet, of Wendover, Mercer, 1486. 

4*. John Mathew, son of Thomas Mathew, of Sherington, Mer- 
cer, 1490. 

5. John Mundy, son of William Mundy, of Wycombe, Gold- 

smith, 1522. 

6. John Coates, son of Thomas Coates, of Bearton, Salter, 1542. 



William bishop of Lincoln, and Reginald de Gray de Ruthyan, 

Chivaler, Commissioners to take the oaths. 
Thomas Sakevile, Miles, and William Wapload, knights for the 

shire, Commissioners. 

* In Comment upon the 8th chapter of Lib. xv. de Civitate Dei. 
fAusonius, Epitaph. Heroum, num. 34. 



Reginald! Lucy, chiv. 
Walteri Lucy, chiv. 
Johannis Cheyne, chiv. 
Thomse Chetewode, chiv. 
Johannis Cheyne, arm. 
Johan. Hampden de Hampden 


Andrese Sperling. 
Thomse Rokes, arm. 
Johannis Langeston, arm. 
Johannis Iwardby, arm. 
David Breknook, arm. 
Thomse Stokes, arm. 
Johan. Hampden de Kimbell. 
Walteri Fitz Richard, arm. 
Johannis Stretlee, arm. 
Thomse Shyngelton, arm. 
Thomse Cheyne, arm. 
Johannis Stokes, arm. 
Thomae Gifford, arm. 
Johan. Gifford de Whaddon, 

senioris, arm. 
Thomee Boteler, arm. 
Roberti Puttenham, arm. 
Rob. Olney de Weston, arm; 
Johannis Tyringham, arm. 
Johannis Brekenock, arm. 
Thomse RufFord, arm. 
Johannis Dayrell, arm. 
Nicolai Clopton. 
Edmundi Brutenell. 
Johannis Sewell. 
.Johannis Watkins. 
Willielmi Brook de Chesham. 
Bernard! Sanderdon. 
Thomse More. 
Willielmi Fouler. 
Johannis Arches. 
Johannis Skydmore. 
Johannis Kimbell. 
Willielmi Joyntour. 
Rogeri More. 
Johannis Horewode. 
Johannis Baldewin. 
Thomse Atte Welle. 
Will. Chapman de Aylesbury. 
ThomsB Tumour. 
Johan. Knight de Hampslape. 
Willielmi Watford. 
Thomse Oliver. 

Will. Colingryg de Toursey. 

Thomse Malins. 

Willielmi Parker de Eton. 

Willielmi Burton, persone Ec- 

clesise de Crowle, 
, Johannis Clerke de Olney. 

Richardi Hawtreve. 

Johan. Giffard de Hardmede. 

Johan. Tapelo de Hampslape. 

Thomse Knight de eadem. 

Johannis Giffard de Whad- 
don, junioris. 

Johannis Sapcote de Olney. 

Richardi Arnecok, 

Willielmi Edy. 

Nicholai Brackwell. 

Willielmi Sambroke. _ 

Johannis Edy, junioris. 

Thomee Edy. 

Johannis Puchas. 

Willielmi Berewell. 

Ade Asshinden. 

David. Whitchirche. 

Johannis Sweft. 

Will. Britwell de Cherdesle. 

Johannis Verney. 

Eustachii Grenvile. 

Johannis Fitz John. 

Willielmi Gerebray. 

Thomse Maudeleyn. 

Johannis Vesy. 

Thomse Wodewarde. 

Richardi Enershawe. 

Johan. Harewold de Weston. 

Henrici Loveden. 

Johannis Thorp. 

Johannis Parker de Fenny 

Nicholai Baker de Crowle. 

Nicholai Hobbesson. 

Thomee Malette. 

Johannis Kerye. 

Thomas Tappe. 

Richardi Hoo de Snenston e 

Johannis Manchestre. 

Johannis Phelip. 

Henrici Hunkes. 

Richardi Miches. 

Willielmi Meridale, 

Thomas Edward. 


Johannis Vaux. Richard! Yaloude. 

Willielmi Dun. Johannis Gold de Ailesbury. 

Henrici Toursey. Willielmi Clarke de eadem. 

Henrici Dicon. Willielmi Clarke de Culver- 

Willielmi Winslowe. don. 

Johannis Bilindon. Thomee Kene de Horsendon. 

Henrici Porter. Willielmi Symeon. 

Thomae Turgens. Willielmi Fether. 

Roberti Dalafeld. Johannis Caradons. 

Math. Colett. Willielmi Combe de Ayles- 

Johannis Hampden de Wy- bury. 

combe. Willielmi Gill. 

Johannis Wellesburn. Richardi Lamburn. 

Thomee Merston. Willielmi Hide. 

Willielmi Attegate. Thomse Bristow. 

Thomas Mery. Nicholai Baron. 

Richardi Milly. Willielmi Cook de Fertwell. 

Willielmi Wodeward. Johannis Glover de Kimbell. 

Thomee Pusey. Johannis Balke de Aylesbury. 
Roberti Broun de Beknesfeld. Johannis Lucy, et 

Johannis Jourdeley. Richardi Lucy, 
Thomee Houghton, 


This county had the same with Bedfordshire, until they 
were parted in the seventeenth year of queen Elizabeth. Since 
which time these have been the sheriffs of this county alone. 


Anno Name and Arms. Place. 

17 Joh. Croke, arm. . . Chilton. 

Arms : G. a fess between six martlets Arg, 

18 Griff. Hampden, arm. . Hampden. 

Arg. a saltire G. betwixt four eaglets Az. 

19 Mich. Blount, arm. 

Barry nebule of six O. and S. 

20 Rob. Drury, arm. . SUFFOLK. 

Arg. on a chief V. the letter Tau betwixt two mullets 
pierced O. 

21 Rich. Crafford, arm. 

22 Paul Darell, arm. . . Lillingstone. 

Az. a lion rampant O. crowned Arg. 

23 Th. Tasborough, arm. 

Az. on a cross Arg. five mullets G. 

24 Edm. Verney, arm. 

Arg. four lions passant S. betwixt two gemewes in bend.. 

25 Will. Hawtrey, arm. . Checkers. 

* Az. ten billets, four, three, two, and one, O. ; in a chief 
of the second a lion issuant S. 

26 Rob. Dormer, arm. . Wing. 


Anno Name. Place. 

27 Edw. Bulstrod, arm. . (See our Notes.) 

28 Joh. Temple, arm. . Stow. 

Arg. on two bars S, six martlets O. 

29 Joh. Goodwin, arm. . (See 21 of king James.) 

30 Joh. Burlace, arm. 

Arg. on a bend S. two cubit arms issuant out of two 
petit clouds rayonated all proper, rending of a horse- 
shoe O. 

31 Fran. Cheney, arm. . Chesham. 

Cheeky O. and Az. a fess G. fretty Erm. 

32 Geo. Fleetwood, arm. . the Vache. 

Partie per pale nebulee Az. and O. six martelets counter- 

33 Ale. Hampden, arm. . ut prius. 

34 Hen. Longvile, arm. . Wolverton. 

G. a fess indented betwixt six crosses crosslets Arg. 

35 Thomas Pigot, arm. . Doddershal. 

S. three pick-axes Arg. 

36 Mic. Harecourt, arm. 

O. two bars G. 

37 Edw. Tirrell, arm. . Thornton. 

Arg. two chev. Az. within a border engrailed G. 

38 An. Tirringham, arm. . Tirringham. 

Az. a cross engrailed Arg. 

39 Joh. Dormer . ut prius. 

40 Will. Garrend, arm. 

(See our Notes in Northamptonshire.) 

41 Will. Clarke, mil. 

42 Tho. Denton, arm. 

G. a chevron between three crescents Arg. 

43 Will. Burlace, arm. . ut prius. 

44 Anth. Chester, arm. . Chichely. 

Per pale Arg. and S. a chev. between three rams' heads 
erased armed O. within a border engrailed, roundelly, 
all counterchanged. 

45 . ut prius. 


1 Fra. Cheney, mil. . ut prius. 

2 [AMP.] W. Willoughby, mil. 

3 Ri. Ingoldesby, mil. . Lethenborough. 

Erm. a saltire engrailed S. 

4 Hen. Longvile, mil. . ut prius. 

5 Will. Andrews, mil. 

G. a saltire O. charged with another V. 

6 Fran. Fortescu, mil. 

Az. a bend engrailed Arg. cotised O. 

7 Anth. Greenway, arm. 


Anno Name. Place. 

8 Rob. Lovet, mil. . Liscomb. 

Arg. three wolves passant in pale S. 

9 lero. Horsey, mil. 

Az. three horses' heads couped O. bridled Arg. 

10 Edw. Tirrell, mil. . ut prius. 

11 Sim. Mayne, arm. 

Arg. on a bend engr. S. three dexter hands of the first. 

12 Bri. Johnson, arm. . Beaconfield. 

Quarterly, Az. and G. a cross patoncee, and a chief O. 

13 Edm. Wheeler, mil. . Riding Co. 

O. a chevron between three leopards' heads S. 

14 Th. Temple, mil. et bar. ut prius. 

15 Joh. Laurence, mil. . Iver. 

Arg. a cross-knotted G. on a chief Az. three leopards' 
heads O. 

16 Fra. Duncombe, arm. 

Partie per chev. counter-flory, G. and Arg. three talbots' 
heads erazed counterchanged. 

17 Be. Winchcombe, arm. (See our Notes.) 

18 Hen. Lee, mil. et ba. . Quarrendon. 

Arg. a fess betwixt, three crescents S. 

19 Joh. Denham. mil. 

G. three fusils Erm. 

20 Will. Fleetwood . . ut prius. 

21 Fra. Goodwin, mil. 

Per pale O. and G. a lion rampant, between three flower- 
de-luces counterchanged. 

22 Will. Pen, arm. . Pen. 

Arg. on a fess S. three plates. 


1 Edw. Coke, mil. . . Stoke. 

Partie per pale G. and Az. three eagles Arg. 

2 Gil' Gerrard, bar. 

Quarterly, the 1 and 4 Arg. a saltire G. 2 and 3 Az. a 
lion rampant Erm. crowned O. 

3 Tho. Darel, arm. . . ut prius. 
Fr. Catesby, arm. 

Arg. two lions passant S. crowned O. 

4 Tho. Lee, arm. . . ut prius. 

5 Will. Andrews, mil. . ut prius. 

6 Tho. Hide, bar. 

O. a chev. betwixt three lozenges Az. ; in chief an eagle 
of the first. 

7 Jaco. Dupper, arm. 

8 Rob. Dormer, arm. . ut prius. 

9 Fran. Cheney, mil. . ut prius. 


Anno Name. Pl:uv. 

10 Pet. Temple, mil. . lit prius. 

11 H encage Proby, arm. 

Erin, on a fess G. a lion passant, the tail extended O. 
I-. Anth. Chester, bar. . itt priug. 

15 Thomas Archdale, arm. 
1 7 Rich. Grevile, mil. 

S. a border and cross engrailed O. thereon live pellets. 

Hen. Beak, arm. 
22 Will. Collier, arm. 


17. JOHN CROKE, Arm. Being afterwards knighted. He 
was the son of Sir John Crook, a six-clerk in Chancery, and 
therefore restrained marriage until enabled by a statute of the 
14th of Henry the Eighth. His ancestors, in the civil wars 
between York and Lancaster, concealed their proper name Le 
Blount under the assumed one of Croke.* 

As for this Sir John Croke, first sheriff of Buckingham after 
the division of Bedfordshire, he was most fortunate in an issue 
happy in the knowledge of our municipal law ; of whom Sir 
John Croke, his eldest son, Speaker of the parliament in the 
43rd of queen Elizabeth, received this eulogium from her 
majesty : " That he had proceeded therein with such wisdom 
and discretion, that none before him had deserved better.* 5 As 
for Sir George, his second son, we have spoken of him before.t 

26. ROBERT DORMER, Arm. He was, on the 10th of June, 
1615, made baronet by king James, and on the 30th day of the 
same month was by him created Baron Dormer of Wing, in 
this county. 

His grandchild, Robert Dormer, was by king Charles, in the 
4th of his reign, created Viscount Ascot and Earl of Carnarvon. 
He lost his life, fighting for him who gave him his honour, at 
the first battle of Newbury. Being sore wounded, he was de- 
sired by a lord to know of him what suit he would have to his 
majesty in his behalf; the said lord promising to discharge his 
trust in presenting his request, and assuring him that his ma- 
jesty would be willing to gratify him to the utmost of his 
power. To whom the Earl replied, " I will not die with a suit 
in my mouth to any king, save to the King of heaven." By 

* Pretace to Croke's Reports. f In Law m this County. 


Anne, daughter to Philip, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 
he had Charles, now Earl of Carnarvon.* 

27. EDWARD BULSTROD, Arm. I have not met with so 
ancient a coat (for such it appeareth beyond all exception), so 
voluminous in the blazon thereof; viz". Sable, a buck's head 
-nt, attired O. shot the nose with an arrow of the third, 
headed and feathered of the second; a cross patee fitchee 
betwixt the attire O. 

34. HENRY LOXGVILE, Arm. He had to his fourth son 
Sir Michael Longvile, who married Susan, sole daughter to 
Henry Earl of Kent. Now, when the issue in a direct line of 
that earldom failed in our memory, Mr. Selden was no less 
active than able to prove that the barony of Ruthyn was 
dividable from the earldom, and descended to the son of the 
said Sir Michael ; and thereupon he sat as Baron Ruthyn in 
our late Long Parliament. 

Since his death, his sole daughter and heir hath been mar- 
ried unto Sir Henry Yelverton, of Easton, in the county of 
Northampton, Baronet, a worthy gentleman of fair estate ; so 
that that honour is likely to continue in an equipage of breadth 
proportionable to the height thereof. 


17. BENEDICT WINCHCOMBE, Arm. His arms (too large 
for the little space allotted them) I here fully represent, in 
gratitude to the memory of his ancestor, so well deserving of 
Newbury ;f viz. Azure, on a chevron engrailed between three 
birds O. as many cinquefoils of the first ; on a chief of the 
second a flower-de-luce between two spears* heads of the first. 


1. EDWARD COKE, Knight. This was our English Trebo- 
?iianus, so famous for his comments on our Common Law. This 
year a parliament was called, and the court party was jealous of 
Sir Edward's activity against them, as who had not digested his 
discontentments. Hereupon, to prevent his election as a mem- 
ber, and confine him to this county, he was pricked sheriff thereof. 

He scrupled to take the oath, pretending many things against 
it, and particularly " that the sheriff is bound thereby to prose- 
cute Lollards, wherein the best Christians may be included." 

It was answered, " that he had often seen the oath given to 
others without any regret; and knew full well that Lollard, 
in the modern sense, imported the opposers of the present 
religion, as established by law in the land. " J 

* Who lived till 1709, when he died without male issue. ED. 

f See " Memorable Persons " in Berkshire. 

t Sir Henry Spelman, in his Glossary, verbo Lollard. 


No excuses would serve his turn, but he must undertake this 
office. However, his friends beheld it as an injurious degra- 
dation of him, who had been Lord Chief Justice, to attend on 
the judges at the assises. 

FRANCIS CHENEY, Mil. It is an epidemical disease, to 
which many ancient names are subject, to be variously disguised 
in writing. How many names is it, Chesney, Chedney, Cheyne, 
Chyne, Cheney, &c. ? and all but one, de Casineto. A name 
so noble, and so diffused in the catalogue of sheriffs, it is harder 
to miss than find it in any county. 

Here, reader, let me amend and insert what I omitted in the 
last county. There was a fair family of the Cheneys flourishing 
in Kent (but landed also in other counties), giving for their 
arms, Azure, six lions rampant Argent, a canton Ermine. Of 
this house was Henry Cheney, high sheriff of this county and 
Bedfordshire, in the 7th of queen Elizabeth, and not long after 
by her created baron of Tuddington in Bedfordshire. In his 
youth he was very wild and venturous ; witness his playing at 
dice with Henry the Second, king of France, from whom he 
won a diamond of great worth at a cast. And being demanded 
by the king what shift he would have made to repair himself, 
in case he had lost the cast ; " I have, " said young Cheney, in 
an hyperbolical brave, e sheeps* tails enough in Kent, with 
their wool, to buy a better diamond than this. " His reduced 
age afforded the befitting fruits of gravity and wisdom; and 
this lord deceased without issue. 

As for Sir Francis Cheney, sheriff for this present year,* we 
formerly observed the distinct arms of his family. This worthy 
knight was father to Charles Cheney, Esq., who, by his exquisite 
travelling, hath naturalized foreign perfections unto himself, and 
is exemplarily happy in a virtuous lady, Jane, daughter to the 
truly noble William, Marquis of Newcastle, and by her of hope- 
ful posterity. 


On serious consideration, I was at a loss to wish to this 
county what it wanted ; God and the kings of England have so 
favoured it with natural perfections and civil privileges. In 
avowance of the latter, it showeth more borough towns (sending 
burgesses no fewer than twelve to the parliament) than any 
shire (though thrice as big) lying in the kingdom of Mercia. 
Now seeing, at the instant writing hereof, the general news of 
the nation is, of a parliament to be called after his majesty's 
coronation, my prayers shall be, that the freeholders of this 
county shall (amongst many therein so qualified) choose good 
servants to God, subjects to the king, patriots to the county, effec- 
tually to advance a happiness to the Church and Commonwealth. 

* Viz., in the 31st year of queen Elizabeth. 



George ANDERSON, a poor peasant, mathematician and ac- 
countant-general; born at Weston 1760; died 1796. 
Francis ATTERBURY, Bishop of Rochester, a restless and as- 
piring politician; born at Milton Keynes 1662; died 1731. 
Dr. Lewis ATTERBURY, elder brother, an amiable divine ; born 

at Caldecot 1656 ; died 1731. 

Giles AYRE, Dean of Winchester ; born at Burnham. 
John BISCOE, a nonconformist divine and author; born at 

Wycombe; died 1679. 

Owen BUCKINGHAM, Lord Mayor of London in 1705, bene- 
factor to Reading in Berkshire ; born at Colebrooke. 
Knightley CHETWOOD, Dean of Gloucester, author; born at 

Chetwode 1650; died 1?20. 

Euseby CLEAVER, Archbishop of Dublin; died 1819. 
William CLEAVER, brother of Euseby, Bishop of St. Asaph, 

critic ; born at Twyford 1742 ; died 1815. 
John CROWDER, printer, Lord Mayor of London ; died 1830. 
Sir Kenelm DIGBY, an alchymist and philosophical writer ; 

born at Gothurst 1603 ; died 1665, 
Charles DUNCOMBE, Lord Mayor of London in 1709, an 

eminent banker ; born at Drayton Beauchamp. 
Phillip ELLIS, Bishop of Pavia, author of some sermons pub- 
lished about 1686; born at Waddesdon. 
Welbore ELLIS, Bishop of Meath ; born at Waddesdon ; died 


Heneage FINCH, Earl of Nottingham, Lord Chancellor of Eng- 
land; born at Ravenstone 1621 ; died 1682. 
George GRENVILLE, statesman; born at Wotton 1712; died 

Richard GRENVILLE-TEMPLE, Earl Temple, a statesman; 

born at Wotton 1?!! ; died 1779. 

Josiah HOWE, an accomplished scholar, author of a sermon 
preached before Charles I. at Oxford, in 1644; born at 
Grendon Underwood; died 1701. 
Martin LISTER, physician, naturalist, and author ; born about 

1638; died 1712. 
Thomas MORELL, a divine, and writer on philology and 

criticism; born at Eton 1703; died 1784. 
Dr. William NICHOLS, a learned divine and polemical author ; 

born at Donnington 1664; died 1712. 
Thomas ODELL, a dramatic writer, about 1700. 
Thomas PHILLIPS, a Roman Catholic divine, biographer of 

Cardinal Pole ; born at Ickford 1708; died 1774. 
Joseph RAWSON, a divine and author; born at Aylesbury ; 
died 1?19. 


John THROCKMORTON, patron of Cowper, author; born at 
Weston Underwood ; d(ed 1819. 

William WAGSTAFFE, a physician, and ingenious and humour- 
ous writer; born at Cublington 1685 ; died 1725. 

Edward WESTON, statesman and author of " Sermons," 1700. 

Edward YOUNG, Bishop of Dromore ; born at Eton ; died 1772. 

%* The principal Works appertaining to Buckinghamshire, besides the Magna 
Britannia and the Beauties of England, are the History of Buckingham, by Browne 
Willis, LL.D. (1755); the History of Desborough, Wycombe, &c., by Thomas 
Langley, M.A. (1797) ; and the History of the County of Buckingham, by G. Lips- 
comb, M.D. [Hundred of Ashendon], which, we apprehend, is never likely to be 
completed . ED. 


CAMBRIDGESHIRE hath Lincolnshire on the north, Norfolk 
nnd Suffolk on the east, Essex and Hertfordshire on the 
south, Huntingdon and Bedford-shires on the west, being in 
length thirty-five, in breadth not fully twenty miles. The tables 
therein as well furnished as any ; the south part affording bread 
and beer, and the north (the Isle of Ely) meat thereunto. So 
good the grain growing here, that it out-selleth others some 
pence in the bushel. 

The north part of this county is lately much improved by 
draining, though the poorest sort of people will not be sensible 
thereof. Tell them of the great benefit to the public, because 
where a pike or duck fed formerly, now a bullock or sheep 
is fatted ; they will be ready to return, that if they be taken 
in taking that bullock or sheep, the rich owner inditeth them 
for felons ; whereas that pike or duck were their own goods 
only for their pains of catching them. So impossible it is that 
the best project, though perfectly performed, should please all 
interests and affections. 

It happened in the year 1657, upon the dissolution of the great 
snow, their banks were assaulted above their strength of resist- 
ance, to the great loss of much cattle, corn, and some Christians. 
But, soon after, the seasonable industry of the undertakers did 
recover all by degrees, and confute their jealousies who sus- 
pected the relapsing of these lands into their former condition. 

This northern part is called the Isle of Ely, which one will 
have so named from the Greek word "EXetoc, fenny or marshy 
ground.* But our Saxon ancestors were not so good Grecians ; 
and it is plain that plenty of eels gave it its denomination. Here, 
I hope, I shall not trespass on gravity, in mentioning a passage 
observed by the reverend professor of Oxford, Doctor Prideaux, 
referring the reader to him for the author's attesting the same.f 
When the priests in this part of the county would still retain 
their wives, in despite of whatever the Pope and monks could 
do to the contrary, their wives and children were miraculously 
turned all into eels (surely the greater into congers, the less into 

* Doctor Smith, in the Life of his father-in-law, Doctor Willet. 
f In his Comitiate Oration " De duobus Testibus," page 15. 


griggs) whence it had the name of Eely. I understand him a 
lie of Eels. No doubt the first founder of so damnable an 
untruth hath long since received his reward. However, for this 
cause, we take first notice, amongst this county's 


Which, though they be found in all shires in England, yet 
are most properly treated of here, as most, first, and best; 
the courts of the kings of England being thence therewith 
anciently supplied. I will not engage in the controversy whe- 
ther they be bred by generation as other fish ; or equivocally, 
out of putrefaction ; or both ways, which is most probable ; 
seeing some have adventured to know the distinguishing marks 
betwixt the one and other. I know the silver eels are gene- 
rally preferred, and I could wish they loved men but as well 
as men love them, that I myself might be comprised within the 
compass of that desire. Th'ey are observed to be never out of 
season (whilst other fishes have their set times) ; and the biggest 
eels are ever esteemed the best. I know not whether the 
Italian proverb be here worth the remembering, " Give eels 
without wine to your enemies. " 


Though these are found in all counties, yet because lately 
there was in this shire an hare-park nigh Newmarket, preserved 
for the king's game, let them here be particularly mentioned. 
Some prefer their sport in hunting before their flesh for eating, 
as accounting it melancholic meat, and hard to be digested ; 
though others think all the hardness is how to come by it. All 
the might of this silly creature is in the flight thereof ; and I 
remember the answer which a school-boy returned in a Latin 
distich, being demanded the reason why hares were so fearful : 

" Cur metuunt lepores ? Terrestris, nempe, marinus, 
JEthereus quod sit, tartareusque canis." 

Whether or no they change their sex every year (as some have 
reported), let huntsmen decide. These late years of our civil 
wars have been very destructive unto them ; and no wonder if 
no law hath been given to hares, when so little hath been 
observed toward men. 


Though plenty hereof in this county ; yet, because I conceive 
it first planted in Essex, we thither refer our description thereof. 


A sad tree, whereof such who have lost their love make their 
mourning garlands ; and we know what exiles hung up their 


harps* upon such doleful supporters. The twigs hereof are 
physic, to drive out the folly of children. This tree delighteth 
in moist places, and is triumphant in the Isle of Ely, where the 
roots strengthen their banks, and lop affords fuel for their fire. 
It groweth incredibly fast ; it being a by- word in this county, 
" that the profit by willows will buy the owner a horse, before that 
by other trees will pay for his saddle." Let me add, that if 
green ash may buVn before a queen, withered willows may be 
allowed to burn before a lady. 


Expect not I should, by way of preface, enumerate the seve- 
ral inventions, whereby the ancients did communicate and con- 
tinue their notions to posterity. First, by writing in leaves of 
trees, still remembered when we call such a scantling of paper a 
folio or leaf. Hence from leaves men proceeded to the bark 
of trees, as more solid, still countenanced in the notation of the 
word liber. Next they wrote in labels or sheets of lead, where- 
in the letters were deeply engraven, being a kind of printing 
before printing ; and to this I refer the words of Job (an author 
allowed contemporary with if not senior to Moses himself) ; 
" Oh that my words were now written, oh that they were print- 
ed in a book \f 

To omit many other devices in after-ages to signify their con- 
ceptions, paper was first made of a broad flag (not unlike our 
great dock) growing in and nigh Canopus in Egypt, which it 
seems was a staple commodity of that country, and substantial 
enough to bear the solemn curse of the prophet : " The paper- 
reeds by the brooks shall wither, be driven away, and be no 

Our modern paper is made of grinded rags, and yet this new 
artificial doth still thankfully retain the name of the old natural 
paper. It may pass for the emblem of men of mean extraction, 
who by art and industry, with God's blessing thereon, come to 
high preferment. ef He raiseth the poor out of the dust, and 
lifteth the needy out of the dunghill, that he may set him with 
his princes, even with the princes of his people." One may 
find, if searching into the pedigree of paper, it cometh into the 
world at the doungate, raked thence in rags, which, refined by 
art (especially after precious secrets are written therein), is 
found fit to be choicely kept in the cabinets of the greatest 
potentates. Pity it is that the first author of so useful an 
invention cannot with any assurance be assigned. || 

There are almost as many several kinds of paper as condi- 
tions of persons betwixt the emperor and beggar: imperial, 
royal, cardinal ; and so downwards to that coarse paper called 

* Psalm cxxxvii. 2. f Job. xix. 23. J Isaiah xix. 7. 

Psalm cxiii. 7. j| P. Vergil, de Rerum Inventionibus, lib. ii. cap. 8. 


emporetica, useful only for chapmen to wrap their wares therein. 
Paper participates in some sort of the characters of the country- 
men which make it: the Venetian being neat, subtile, and 
courtlike ; the French, light, slight, and slender ; the Dutch, 
thick, corpulent, and gross ; not to say sometimes also charta 
bibula, sucking up the ink with the sponginess thereof. 

Paper is entered as a manufacture of this county, because 
there are mills nigh Sturbridge-fair, where paper was made in 
the memory of our fathers. And it seemeth to me a proper 
conjunction, that seeing Cambridge ["yieldeth so many good 
writers, Cambridgeshire should afford paper unto them. Pity 
the making thereof is disused ; considering the vast sums yearly 
expended in our land for paper out of Italy, France, and Ger- 
many, which might be lessened were it made in our nation. To 
such who object that we can never equal the perfection of Venice 
paper, I return, neither can we match the purity of Venice 
glasses ; and yet many green ones are blown in Sussex, profit- 
able to the makers, and convenient for the users thereof, as no 
doubt such coarser (home-spun paper) would be found very 
beneficial for the Commonwealth. 


These are made of the osiers plentifully growing in the moist 
parts of this county, an acre whereof turns to more profit than 
one of wheat ; a necessary utensil in an house, whereby many 
things are kept, which otherwise would be lost. Yea, in some 
sort it saved the life of St. Paul, when " let down by the wall of 
Damascus in a basket ;* whence some (not improbably) conjec- 
ture him hominem tricubitalem, " a man of low stature." Mar- 
tial confesseth baskets to have been a British invention, though 
Rome afterwards laid claim thereunto : 

Barbara tie pictis veni Bascauda Britannis, 
Sed me jam mavult dicere Roma suam. 

" I, foreign basket, first in Britain known, 
And now by Rome accounted for her own." 

Their making is daily improved with much descant of art, 
splitting their wickers as small as threads, and dying them into 
several colours ; which daily grow a greater commodity. 


Cambridge is the chief credit of the county, as the University 
is of Cambridge. It is confessed, that Oxford far exceeds it for 
sweetness of situation ; and yet it may be maintained, that 
though there be better air in Oxford, yet there is more in the 
colleges of Cambridges ; for Oxford is an university in a town ; 
Cambridge a town in an university ; where the colleges are not 
surrounded with the offensive embraces of streets, but generally 
situated on the outside, affording the better conveniency of pri- 

* 2 Cor. xi. 3.3. 


vate walks and gardens about them. But, having formerly writ- 
ten of the fabrics of Cambridge,* I forbear any further enlarge- 


This presenteth itself afar off to the eye of the traveller, and 
on all sides, at great distance, not only maketh a promise, but 
giveth earnest of the beauty thereof. The lanthorn therein, 
built by Bishop Hotham, (wherein the labour of twenty years, 
and five thousand ninety-four pounds eighteen shillings ten 
pence half-penny farthing was expended), is a master- 
piece of architecture. When the bells ring, the wood-work 
thereof shaketh and gapeth (no defect, but perfection of struc- 
ture), and exactly chocketh into the joints again; so that it may 
pass for the lively emblem of the sincere Christian, who, though 
he hath motum trepidationis, of fear and trembling,! stands 
firmly fixed on the basis of a true faith. Rare also is the art in 
the chapel of Saint Mary's, the pattern or parent of that in King's 
College in Cambridge, though here (as often elsewhere) it hath 
happened, the child hath out-grown the father. Nor must the 
chapel of Bishop West be forgotten, seeing the master-masons 
of king James, on serious inspection, found finer stone-work 
herein, than in king Henry the Seventh's chapel at Westmin- 

It grieved me lately to see so many new lights in this church 
(supernumerary windows more than were in the first fabric), and 
the whole structure in a falling condition, except some good 
men's charity seasonably support it. Yet was I glad to hear a 
great antiquary employed to transcribe and preserve the monu- 
ments in that church, as all others in the late-drowned land. 
And it is hard to say, which was the better office, whether 
of those who newly have dried them from the inundation 
of water, or of those who shall drain them from the deluge of 
oblivion, by perpetuating their antiquities to posterity. 


Let me here insert an artificial wonder, of what is commonly 
called Devil's-ditch ; countryfolk conceiting that it was made by 
the devil, when the devil he made it, being the work of some 
king or kings of the East Angles. See the laziness of posterity ; 
so far from imitating the industry of their ancestors, that they 
belibel the pure effects of their pains as hellish achievements. 
But, if the aforesaid kings merely made this ditch to get them- 
selves a name, divine justice hath met with them, their names 
being quite forgotten. More probably it was made to divide 
and defend their dominions .from the kingdom of Mercia, 

* In my History of that University F. t Phil. ii. 12. 

VOL. I. Q 


or possibly to keep the people in employment, for diversion of 
mutinous thoughts ; laziness being the mother of disloyalty, in- 
dustry of obedience. 


Cantabrigia petit ^Equales ^Equalia. " Cambridge requires all to be equal." 

Some interpret this of their commons, wherein all of the same 
mess go share and share alike. Others understand it of the ex- 
penses out of the hall, all being 'lo-oo-v'/>t/3oXoi in their collations, 
all paying alike ; which parity is the best preservative of com- 
pany, according to the apophthegm of Solon, which Plutarch 
so commends* for the wisdom thereof, "laa TroXe^ov ov 7rote7, 
" Equality breeds no battles." Otherwise it is a murthering 
shot, where one pays all the reckoning, as recoiling on him that 
dischargeth it : yea, such inequality is a certain symptom of an 
expiring society. 

Some expound the words, that graduates of the same degree 
(either within or without the university) are to be fellows well 
met one with another. Dido had a piece of state in her court 
peculiar to herself (which may be called an equipage indeed) ; 
where she had a hundred servants in ordinary attendance, ge all 
of the same age."f Thus the same degree in effect levels all 
scholars ; so that seniority of years ought not to make any dis- 
tance betwixt them, to hinder their familiarity. I have nothing 
else to add of this proverb, saving that it is used also in Oxford. 

" Cambridgeshire Camels.''] 

I cannot reconcile this common saying to any considerable 
sense : I know a camel passeth in the Latin proverb either for 
gibbous and distorted, or for one that undertaketh a thing awk- 
ly or ungeenly ( (f Camelus sal tat" J) ; or else for one of extraor- 
dinary bulk or bigness : all inappliable in any peculiar manner 
to the people of this county, as straight and dexterous as any 
other, nor of any exorbitant proportions. 

All that I can recover of probability is this ; the fen-men 
dwelling in the northern part of this county, when stalking on 
their stilts, are little giants indeed, as master Camden hath well 
observed. However, that mathematician who measured the 
height of Hercules by the bigness of his foot, would here be 
much mistaken in his dimensions, if proportionably collecting 
the bulk of their bodies from the length of their legs. 

" A Boistea horse and a Cambridge Master of Art, are a couple of creatures that 
will give way to nobody."] 

This Proverb we find in the letter of William Zoon written to 
George Bruin, in his " Theatre of Cities ;" and it is objected 

* In vita Solonis. 

f " Centumque pares aetate ministri.'' (Virgil's ^Eneid, lib. i. juxtafinem.) 

J Hieronimus in Helvidium. Camden, in Cambridgeshire. 


against us by an Oxford antiquary ;* as if our masters wanted 
manners to give place to their betters ; though, all things con- 
sidered, it soundeth more to their honour than disgrace. 

For mark what immediately went before in the same author :t 
(C In plateis ambulantes, decedi sibi de via, non a civibus solum, 
sed etiam a peregrino quovis nisi dignitate excellat, postulant :" 
("Walking in the streets, they require, not only of the town's- 
men, but also of every stranger, except they excel in dignity, 
that they go out of the way unto them.") Herein two things 
are observable in the scholars: 1. Their manners, or civility. 
If the party, whatever he be, appear dignified above them, they 
willingly allow him superiority. What is this but to give what 
is due to another? 2. Their manhood, or courage. If he seem 
beneath them, then they do uti jure suo, and take what is their 
own to themselves. 

What reason is it he should give place to a townVman ; ut 
quid cedat plenum vacuo, scientia ignorantia ? ' This mindeth 
me of a passage in Plutarch concerning Themistocles : when a 
boy, going home from school, he met one of the Athenian Ty- 
rants in the city, and the people cried out unto him to go out 
of the way ; u What," said Themistocles, " is not all the street 
broad enough for him, but I must be put out of my path and 
pace to make room for him ?" This was interpreted, by such 
as heard him, as a presage of his future magnanimity. And 
surely it shews not want of breeding, but store of spirit, when a 
a man will not be put out of his way for every swelling empti- 
ness that meets him therein. 

"An Henry-Sophister."] 

So are they called, who, after four years 5 standing in the uni- 
versity, stay themselves from commencing Bachelors of Art, to 
render them (in some colleges) more capable of preferment. 
Several reasons are assigned of their name. 

That tradition is senseless (and inconsistent with his princely 
magnificence) of such who fancy, that king Henry the Eighth, 
coming to Cambridge, staid all the Sophisters a year, who ex- 
pected a year of grace should have been given unto them. 
More probable it is, because that king is commonly conceived 
of great strength and stature, that these Sophista Henriciani 
were elder and bigger than others. The truth is this : in the 
reign of king Henry the Eighth, after the destruction of monas- 
teries, learning was at a loss, and the university (thanks be unto 
God ! more scared than hurt) stood at a gaze what would be- 
come of her. Hereupon many students staid themselves, two, 
three, some four years, as who would see, how their degrees 
(before they took them) should be rewarded and maintained. 

* Br. Twin. Ant. Acad. Oxon. p. 333. f Gulielmus Zcon. 

Q 2 



WILLIAM FLOWER was born at Snowhill* in 

this county bred first a monk in Ely, till, relinquishing his ha- 
bit, he became a secular priest and a Protestant ; and, after 
many removals, fixed at last at Lambeth. 

Wonder not, reader, to see a long black line prefixed before 
his name, which he well deserved, to distinguish him from such 
men who had an unquestionable title of martyrdom ; whereas 
this Flower dangerously wounded a Popish priest with a wood- 
knife (a mischievous weapon) in Saint Margaret's, Westminster, 
just at the ministration of the mass ; so that the blood of the 
priest spurted into the chalice ; a fact so foul, that the greatest 
charity would blush to whisper a syllable in the excuse thereof. 
As for such who, in his defence, plead the precedent of Elijah's 
killing of Baal's priests, they lay a foundation for all impiety in 
a Christian commonwealth. If in the old world giants were the 
product of those marriages, when the sons of God took to wives 
the daughters of men f (a copulation not unlawful because they 
were too near akin, but because they were too far off), what 
monsters will be generated from such mixtures, when extraor- 
dinary actions by immediate commissions from God shall be 
matched unto ordinary persons of mere men, and heaven un- 
justly alleged and urged for the defence of hell itself ? 

However, it plainly appears that Flower afterwards solemnly 
repented of this abominable act, and was put to death for the 
testimony of the truth. Grudge not, reader, to peruse this 
following parallel, as concerning the hands of the martyrs in the 
reign of queen Mary. 

The right hand of Thomas Tomkins was burnt off in effect 
(so as to render it useless^) by Bishop Bonner, some days before 
he was martyred. 

Archbishop Cranmer, at the stake, first thrust his right hand 
into the flame to be burnt, in penance for his subscription to a 

The right hand of William Flower, before he went to the 
stake, was cut off by order of the judges for his barbarous fact. 

Yet, though his right hand suffered as a malefactor, there 
want not those who maintained that martyr belongs to the rest of 
his body. There were but three more martyred in this county, 
w r hereof John Hullier, fellow of King's College, was most re- 


STEPHEN de FULBORN was born at Fulborn (no other of 
that name in England) in this county. Going over into Ire- 
land to seek his providence (commonly nick-named his fortune), 

So Mr. Fox spells it, in his Acts and Monuments, page 1573 ; called Snaile 
Well at this day. f Gen. vi. 2. 


therein he became, anno 1274, bishop of Waterford, and lord 
treasurer of Ireland.* Hence he was preferred archbishop of 
Tuam, and once and again was chief justice of that (allow me a 
profepsis) kingdom.t He is reported to have given to the 
church of Glassenbury in England " indulgences of an hundred 
days ; " J which I cannot understand, except he promised par- 
don of so many days to all in his province who went a pilgrim- 
age to that place : and this also seems an over-papal act of a 
plain archbishop. He died 1288, and was buried in Trinity 
Church in Dublin. 

NICHOLAS of Ely was so called (say some) from being arch- 
deacon thereof; which dignity so dyed his denomination in 
grain, that it kept colour till his death, not fading, for his future 
higher preferments, though others conjecture his birth also at 
Ely. When the bold barons obtruded a chancellor (a king's 
tongue and hands by whom he publicly speaks and acts) anno 
1260, they forced this Nicholas on king Henry the Third for 
that office, till the king some months after displaced him ; yet 
(knowing him a man of much merit) voluntarily chose him lord 
treasurer, 1 1 when ousted of his chancellor's place; so that (it 
seems) he would trust him with his coffers, but not with his 
conscience ; yea, he afterwards preferredjiim bishop of Worces- 
ter, then of Winchester. Here he sat twelve years ; and that 
cathedral may (by a synecdoche of a novel part for the whole) 
challenge his interment, having his heart enclosed in a wall, 
though his body be buried at Waverley in Surrey 

WILLIAM of BOTLESHAM was born at Botlesham (contractly 
Botsam) in this county. This is a small village, which never 
amounted to a market town, some five miles east of Cambridge, 
pleasantly seated in pure air, having rich arable on the one and 
the fair heath of Newmarket on the other side thereof. It hath 
been the nursery of refined wits, affording a 'triumvirate of 
learned men, taking their lives there, and names thence : and to 
prevent mistakes (to which learned pens in this point have been 
too prone), we present them in the ensuing parallels. 

WILLIAM** of Bottlesham, made by the Pope first bishop of 
Bethlehem in Syria; afterwards, anno 13 85, bishop of Llandaff, 
and thence removed to Rochester : a famous preacher, con- 
fessor to king Richard the Second, and learned writer ; but by 

* Sir James Ware, in the Archbishops of Tuam. 

f Ireland properly was no kingdom till the time of king Henry the Eighth. 

j Sir James Ware, ut prius. 

John Philipot, in his Catalogue of Chancellors, p. 23. 

|| Idem, in his Catalogue of Treasurers, p. 16. 

^ Bishop Godwin, in the Bishops of Winchester. 

** Idem, in the Catalogue of Llandaff and Rochester. 


Walsingham and Bale called John by mistake. He died in 
February, anno 1399. Nor must we forget that he was once 
Fellow of Pembroke hall. 

JOHN of Bottlesham was bred in Peter-house in Cambridge, 
whereunto he was a benefactor, as also to the whole university, 
chaplain to Thomas Arundel, archbishop of Canterbury; by 
whose recommendation he was preferred to succeed his towns- 
man in the see of Rochester ; which he never saw (saith my au- 
thor*), as dying in the beginning of the year 1401. 

NICHOLAS of Bottlesham was a Carmelite, bred in Cambridge, 
afterwards removed to Paris, where in Sorbonne he commenced 
Doctor of Divinity. Returning to Cambridge, he became Prior 
of the Carmelites (since Queen's College), where he wrote many 
books, and lies buried in his own convent, anno Domini 1435.f 

Let all England shew me the like of three eminent men (all 
contemporaries at large) which one petty village did produce. 
Let Botlesham hereafter be no more famed for its single beacon, 
but for these three lights it afforded. 

THOMAS of NEWMARKET was born therein; and though 
that town lieth some part in Suffolk, my author assures his na- 
tivity in this county. He was bred in Cambridge, an excellent 
humanist and divine (having left some learned books to poste- 
rity), and at last was advanced to be bishop of Carlisle. { 

Surely then he must be the same with Thomas Merks, con- 
secrated anno 1397 ; consent of time most truly befriending the 
conjecture ; Merks also and Market being the same in effect. 
Neither doth the omission of New in the least degree discom- 
pose their identity, it being usual to leave out the prsenomen of 
a town for brevity sake, by those of the vicinage (amongst whom 
there is no danger of mistake), commonly calling Westchester 
Chester, Southampton Hampton. If the same, he is famous in 
our English histories, because his devotion (in a transposed pos- 
ture to public practice) worshipped the sun-setting king Richard 
the Second ; for which his memory will meet with more to com- 
mend than imitate it.|| Yet was his loyalty shent, but not 
shamed; and king Henry the Fourth being sick of him, not 
daring to let him live, nor put him to death (because a prelate) 
found an expedient for him of a living death, confining him to a 
titular Grecian bishopric.^ He died about 1405, 

THOMAS THIRLBY, Doctor of Laws, was (as I am assured by 
an excellent antiquary)** born in the town, and bred in the uni- 

* Bishop Godwin, in the Bishops of Rochester. f Bale, p. 576. Pits, p. 625. 

J Bale, de Scriptoribus Anglise, Cent. 7, num. 60. 
Bale maketh him to flourish under king Henry the Fourth- 
II See his speech in Parliament, in Speed. 
If Godwin, in the Bishops of Carlisle. 
'* Mr, Martin, beneficed near Northampton. 


versity of Cambridge, most probably in Trinity-hall. He was 
very able in his own faculty, and more than once employed in 
embassies by king Henry the Eighth, who preferred him oishop 
of Westminster. Here, had Thirlby lived long, and continued 
the course he began, he had prevented queen Mary from dis- 
solving that bishopric, as which would have dissolved itself for 
lack of land, sold and wasted by him. And though probably 
he did this to] raise and enrich his own family, yet such the 
success of his sacrilege, his name and alliance is extinct. 

From Westminster he was removed to Norwich, thence to 
Ely. He cannot be followed (as some other of his order) by 
the light of the faggots kindled by him to burn poor martyrs, 
seeing he was given rather to prodigality than cruelty ; it being 
signally observed that he wept at archbishop Cranmer's degra- 
dation. After the death of queen Mary, he was as violent in 
his opinions, but not so virulent in his expressions ; always 
devoted to queen Mary, but never invective against queen Eli- 
zabeth. He lived in free custody ; died, and is buried at Lam- 
beth, 1570. 


GODFREY GOLDSBOROUGH, D. D. was born in the town of 
Cambridge, where some of his sirname and relation remained 
since my memory. He was bred in Trinity College (pupil to 
archbishop Whitgift) ; and became afterwards fellow thereof. 
At last he was consecrated bishop of Gloucester anno Domini 
1598. He was one of the second set of Protestant bishops, 
which were after those so famous for their sufferings in the 
Marian days, and before those who fall under the cognizance of 
our generation ; the true reason that so little can be recovered 
of their character. He gave a hundred marks to Trinity Col- 
lege, and died anno Domini 1604. 

ROBERT TOWNSON, D. D. was born in Saint Botolph's parish 
in Cambridge, and bred a fellow in Queen's College, being 
admitted very young therein, but 12 years of age. He was 
blessed with an happy memory, insomuch that when D. D. he 
could say by art the second book of the JEneid, which he 
.earnt at School, without missing a verse. He was an excellent 
preacher, and becoming a pulpit with his gravity. He attended 
king James his chaplain into Scotland ; and after his return, 
was preferred dean of Westminster, then bishop of Salisbury. 

Hear what the author of a pamphlet, who inscribeth himself 
A. W., saith in a book which is rather a satire than a history, a 
libel than a character, of the " Court of King James ;" for, after 
he had slanderously inveighed against the bribery of those days 
in church and state, hear how he seeks to make amends for all: 

" Some worthy men were preferred gratis to blow up their 


[Buckingham and his party] fames (as Token, a worthy man, 
paid nothing in fine or pension, and so after him Davenant in 
the same bishopric). Yet these were but as music before every 

Now although both these persons here praised were my God- 
fathers and uncles (the one marrying the sister of, the other 
being brother to, my mother), and although such good words 
seem a rarity from so railing a mouth ; yet shall not these con- 
siderations tempt me to accept his praises on such invidious 
terms as the author doth proffer them. 

Oh were these worthy bishops now alive, how highly would 
they disdain to be praised by such a pen, by which king James, 
their lord and master, is causelessly traduced ! How would they 
condemn such uncharitable commendations, which are (if not 
founded on) accompanied with the disgrace of others of their 
order ! Wherefore I their nephew, in behalf of their memories, 
protest against this passage, so far forth as it casteth lustre on 
them, by eclipsing the credit of other prelates their contempo- 
raries. And grant corruption too common in " that kind, yet 
were there besides them at that time many worthy bishops 
raised to their dignity by their deserts, without any simoniacal 

Doctor Townson had a hospitable heart, a generous disposi- 
tion, free from covetousness, and was always confident in God's 
providence, that, if he should die, his children (and those were 
many) would be provided for ; wherein he was not mistaken. 
He lived in his bishopric but a year ; and being appointed at 
very short warning to preach before the parliament, by unsea- 
sonable sitting up to study, contracted a fever, whereof he died, 
and was buried in Westminster abbey, anno Domini 1622. 

THOMAS (son to William) WESTFIELD, D. D. was born anno 
Domini 1573, in the parish of Saint Mary's in Ely, and there 
bred at the Free-school under Master Spight, till he was sent 
to Jesus College in Cambridge, being first scholar, then fellow 
thereof. He was curate or assistant rather, to bishop Felton, 
whilst minister of Saint Mary-le-Bow in Cheapside, afterward 
rector of Hornsey, nigh, and Great Saint Bartholomew's in, 
London, where in his preaching he went through the four Evan- 
gelists. He was afterwards made archdeacon of Saint Alban's, 
and at last bishop of Bristol, a place proffered to and refused 
by him twenty-five years before : for then the bishopric was 
offered to him to maintain him ; which this contented meek 
man, having a self-subsistence, did then decline ; though accept- 
ing of it afterwards, when proffered to him to maintain the 
bishopric, and support the episcopal dignity by his signal devo- 
tion. What good opinion the parliament (though not over-fond 

* King James's Court, pp. 129, 130. 


of bishops) conceived of him, appears by their order ensuing :* 

" The thirteenth of May, 1643, From the Committee of Lords 

and Commons for Sequestration of Delinquents' estates. 
" Upon information in the behalf of the bishop of Bristol, that 
his tenants refuse to pay him his rents ; it is ordered by this 
committee, that all profits of his bishopric be restored to him, 
and a safe conduct be granted him to pass with his family to 
Bristol, being himself of great age, and a person of great learn- 
ing and merit. Jo. WYLDE." 

About the midst of his life he had a terrible sickness, so that 
he thought (to use his own expression in his diary) that " God 
would put out the candle of his life, though he was pleased only 
to snuff it." By his will (the true copy whereof I have) he 
desired to be buried in his cathedral church, near the tomb of 
Paul Bush, the first bishop thereof. " And as for my worldly 
goods," (Reader, they are his own words in his will) " which (as 
the times now are) I know not well where they be, nor what 
they are, I give and bequeath them all to my dear wife Eliza- 
beth, &c." He protested himself on his death-bed " a true 
Pretestant of the Church of England ;" and dying Junii 28, 
1644, lieth buried according to his own desire above men- 
tioned, with this inscription : 

" Hie jacet THOMAS WESTFIELD, S. T. D. 

Episcoporum intimus, peccatorum primus. 

Obitt 25 Junii, anno MDCXLIV, senio et moerore confectus. 

Tu Lector (quisquis es) vale, et resipisce. 

Epitaphium ipse sibi dictavit vivus. 

Monumentum uxor mcestissima ELIZABETHA WESTFIELD 
Marito desideratissimo posuit superstes." 

Thus leaving such as survived him to see more sorrow, and 
feel more misery, he was seasonably taken away from the evil 
to come: and according to the anagram made on him by his 
daughter, "Thomas Westfield, c I dwel the most safe ;"> enjoying 
all happiness, and possessing the reward of his pains, who con- 
verted many, and confirmed more, by his constancy in his calling. 


JOHN TIPTOFT, son and heir of John Lord Tiptoft and 
Joyce his wife (daughter and co-heir of Edward Charlton Lord 
Powis, by his wife Eleanor, sister and co-heir of Edmund 
Holland, Earl of Kent)t was born at Everton,| in this (but in 
the confines of Bedford) shire. He was bred in Baliol College 
in Oxford, where he attained to great learning; and by king 
Henry the Sixth was afterwards created first Viscount, then 

* The particulars of this were procured for me by my worthy friend Mathew 
Gilly. Esquire, from Elizabeth the bishop's sole surviving daughter F. 

f Milles's Catalogue of Honour, p. 1010. J Bale de Script. Brit. c. 8, n. 


Earl of Worcester, and Lord High Constable of England, and 
by king Edward the Fourth Knight of the Garter. 

The skies began now to lower, and threaten civil wars ; and 
the house of York fell sick of a relapse. Meantime this earl 
could not be discourteous to Henry the Sixth, who had so much 
advanced him, nor disloyal to Edward the Fourth, in whom the 
right of the crown lay. Consulting his own safety, he resolved 
on this expedient ; for a time to quit his own, and visit the 
Holy Land. In his passage thither, or thence, he came to 
Rome, where he made a Latin speech before the Pope, Pius the 
Second, and converted the Italians into a better opinion than 
they had formerly of the Englishmen's learning ; insomuch that 
his Holiness wept at the elegancy of the oration. 

He returned from Christ's sepulchre to his own grave in 
England, coming home in a most unhappy juncture of time. If 
sooner, or later, he had found king Edward on that throne, to 
which now Henry the Sixth was restored, and whose restitution 
was only remarkable for the death of this worthy lord. Thus 
those who, when the house of the state is on fire, politicly hope 
to save their own chamber, are sometimes burned therein. 

Treason was charged upon him for secret siding with king 
Edward, who before and afterward de facto, and always de jure, 
was the lawful king of England. On this account he lost his 
life. Then did the axe at one blow cut off more learning in 
England that was left in the heads of all the surviving nobi- 
lity. His death happened on Saint Luke's-day 1470. 

Edward Lord Tiptoft, his son, was restored, by Edward 
the Fourth, Earl of Worcester. But, dying without issue, his 
large inheritance fell to his three aunts, sisters to the learned 
lord aforesaid; viz. first, Phillippa, married to Thomas Lord 
Ross, of Hamlake. Second, Joan, wife of Sir Edmund Ingolds- 
thorp, of Borough-green, in this county. Third, Joyce, married 
unto Sir Edward Sutton, son and heir of John Lord Dudley, 
from whom came Edward Sutton, Lord Dudley, and Knight of 
the Garter.* 

JOHN CHEEKE, Knight, tutor to king Edward the Sixth, 
and Secretary of State, was born over against the Market-cross, 
in Cambridge. What crosses afterwards befel him in his course 
of life, and chiefly before his pious death, are largely related in 
our " Church History. " 


The courage of the men in this county before the Conquest 
plainly appeareth by this authentic passage in a memorable 
author, who reporteth that, when the rest of the East Angles 
cowardly fled away in the field from the Danish army, " homines 

* Milles, ut supra. 


comitatus Cantabrigise viriliter obstiterunt ;" (" the men of the 
county of Cambridge did manfully resist.") Our author addeth 
" unde Anglis regnantibus laus Cantabrigiensis Provincise splen- 
dide florebat ;" ( ic whence it was that, whilst the English did rule, 
the praise of the people of Cambridgeshire did most eminently 

Nor lost they their reputation for their manhood, at the 
coming in of the Normans ; who, partly by the valour of their 
persons, partly by the advantage of their fens, made so stout 
resistance, that the conqueror, who did fly into England, was 
glad to creep into. Ely. Yea, I have been credibly informed 
that Cambridgeshire men commonly passed for a current pro- 
verb, though now, like old coin, almost grown out of request. 

Indeed the common people have most robustious bodies; 
insomuch that quarter- sacks were here first used, men com- 
monly carrying on their backs (for some short space) eight 
bushels of barley ; whereas four are found a sufficient load for 
those in other counties. Let none say that active valour is ill 
inferred from passive strength ; for I do not doubt but (if just 
occasion were given) they would find as good hands and arms as 
they do backs and shoulders. 


[AMP.] MATTHEW PARIS is acknowledged an Englishman 
by all (save such who mistake Parisius for Parisiensis), and may 
probably be presumed born in this (as bred in the next) county, 
where the name and family of Paris is right ancient, even long 
before they were settled therein at Hildersham, which accrued 
unto them by their marriage with the daughter and heir of the 
Buslers.f Sure I am, were he now alive, the Parises would 
account themselves credited with his, and he would not be 
ashamed of their affinity. 

He was bred a monk of Saint Alban^s, skilled not only in 
poetry, oratory, and divinity, but also in such manual as lie in 
the suburbs of liberal sciences, painting, graving, &c. But his 
genius chiefly disposed him for the writing of histories, wherein 
he wrote a large Chronicle, from the Conquest unto the year of 
our Lord 1250, where he concludes with this distich : 

Sisle tui metas studii, Matth&e, quietas : 
Nee Ventura petas, quce postera prqferat (Bias. 

" Matthew, here cease thy pen in peace, and study on no more ; 
Nor do thou roam at things to come, what next age hath in store." 

However, he, afterwards resuming that work, continued it 
until the year 1259. This I observe, not to condemn him, but 
excuse myself from inconstancy ; it being, it seems, a catching 
disease with authors, to obey the importunity of others, con- 
trary to their own resolution. 

* Chronicon Jo. Brompton, p. 887. 

f Camdens Britannia, in Cambridgeshire. 


His history is impartially and judiciously written (save where 
he indulgeth too much to monkish miracles and visions) ; and 
no writer so plainly discovereth the pride, avarice, and rapine of 
the court of Rome ; so that he seldom " kisseth the pope's toe 
without biting it. 3 ' Nor have the Papists any way to waive his 
true jeers, but by suggesting, hac non ab ipso script a, sed ab 
aliis falso illi ascripta ;* insinuating a suspicion of forgery, in 
his last edition : understand them in what some eighty years 
since was set forth by Matthew Parker ; whereas it was done 
with all integrity, according to the best and most ancient 
manuscripts ; wherein all those anti-papal passages plainly ap- 
pear, as since in a latter and exacter edition, by the care 
and industry of Doctor William Watts. This Matthew left off 
living and writing at the same time, viz. anno 1259. I will only 
add, that though he had sharp nails, he had clean hands ; strict 
in his' own as well as striking at the loose conversations of 
others ; and, for his eminent austerity, was employed by Pope 
Innocent the Fourth, not only to visit the monks in the diocese 
of Norwich, but also was sent by him into Norway, to reform 
the discipline in Holui, a fair convent therein, but much cor- 

H ELI AS RUBEUS was born at Triplowf in this county, bred 
D.D. in Cambridge. Leland acquainteth us that he was a 
great courtier, and gracious with the king; not informing us 
what king it was, nor what time he lived in ; only we learn 
from him, that this Rubeus (conceive his English name Rouse, 
or Red), seeing many who were nobilitatis portenta (so that as 
in a tympany their very greatness was their disease) boasted (if 
not causelessly) immoderately of their high extraction, wrote a 
book contra nobilitatem inanem. He is conjectured to have 
flourished about the year 1266. 

JOHN EVERSDEN was born at one of the Eversdens, in this 
county, bred a monk in Bury Abbey, and the cellerar thereof; 
an officer higher in sense than sound, being by his place to 
provide diet for the whole convent, assigning particular persons 
their portions thereof. But our Eversden's mind, mounted 
above such mean matters, busied himself in poetry, law, his- 
tory, whereof he wrote a fair volume from the beginning of the 
world, according to the humour of the historians of that age ; 
starting all thence, though they run to several marks. J Being 
a monk, he was not over-fond of friars ; and observeth that 
when the Franciscans first entered Bury, anno 1336, there hap- 
pened a hideous hurricane, levelling trees and towers, and 
whatsoever it met with. The best was, though they came in 

* Pits, de illustribus Angliae Scriptoribus, p. 338. 
Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 4, num. 48. 
J Idem, Cent. 5, num. 40. 


with a tempest, they went out with a calm, at the time of the 
dissolution. This John nourished under king Edward the 
Third, and died about the year 1338. 

[S. N.] RICHARD WETHERSET, commonly called of Cam- 
bridge (saith Bale), because he was Chancellor thereof. But 
there must be more in it to give him that denomination, seeing 
many had that office besides himself. He was a great scholar 
and deep divine ; it being reported to his no small praise, " that 
he conformed his divinity to Scripture, and not to the rules of 
philosophy."* He flourished under king Edward the Third, 
anno 1350. 

WILLIAM CAXTON, born in that town (a noted stage betwixt 
Royston and Huntingdon). Bale beginneth very coldly in his 
commendation, by whom he is charactered, ff vir non omnino 
stupidus, aut ignavia torpens;"f but we understand the lan- 
guage of his liptote y the rather because he proceedeth to praise 
his diligence and learning. He had most of his education be- 
yond the seas, living thirty years in the court of Margaret, 
duchess of Burgundy, sister to king Edward the Fourth, whence 
I conclude him an anti-Lancastrian in his affection. He con- 
tinued " Polychronicon " (beginning where Trevisa ended) unto 
the end of king Edward the Fourth, with good judgment and 
fidelity. And yet, when he writeth that king Richard the 
Second left in his treasury money and jewels to the value of 
seven hundred thousand pounds, J I cannot credit him ; it is so 
contrary to the received character of that king's riotous pro- 
digality. Caxton carefully collected and printed all Chaucer's 
works ; and on many accounts deserved well of posterity when 
he died, about the year I486. 


RICHARD HULOET was born at Wisbeach, in this county, 
and brought up in good learning. He wrote a book called 
" The English and Latin ABC;" and dedicated the same to 
Thomas Goodrich, Bishop of Ely, and Chancellor of England. 
Some will condemn him of indiscretion, in presenting so low a 
subject to so high a person, 'as if he would teach the greatest 
statesman in the land to spell aright. Others will excuse him, 
his book being, though of low, of general use for the common 
people, who then began to betake themselves to reading (long 
neglected in the land), so that many who had one foot in their 
grave, had their hand on their primer. But I believe that his 
book (whereof I could never recover a sight), though entitled 
an A B C, related not to literal reading, but rather to some 

* Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 5, num. 88. 

f Idem, Cent. 8, num. 43. t Polychronicon, lib. ult. cap. 10. 

Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 9, num. 67. 


elemental grounds of religion. He flourished anno Domini 

JOHN RICHARDSON was born of honest parentage, at Linton, 
in this county ; bred first fellow of Emanuel, then master of 
Saint Peter's, and at last of Trinity College in Cambridge,, and 
was Regius Professor in that university. Such who represent 
him a dull and heavy man in his parts, may be confuted with 
this instance : 

An extraordinary act in divinity was kept at Cambridge be- 
fore king James, wherein doctor John Davenant was answerer, 
and doctor Richardson amongst others the opposers. The 
question was maintained in the negative, concerning " the excom- 
municating of kings." Doctor Richardson vigorously pressed 
the practice of Saint Ambrose excommunicating of the em- 
peror Theodosius ; insomuch that the king, in some passion, 
returned, " Profecto fuit hoc ab Ambrosio insolentissime fac- 
tum." To whom Doctor Richardson rejoined, " Responsum 
vere Regium, et Alexandro dignum. Hoc non est argumenta 
dissolvere, sed desecare." And so, sitting down, he desisted 
from any further dispute. 

He was employed one of the translators of the Bible ; and 
was a most excellent linguist; whose death happened anno 
Domini 1621. 

ANDREW WILLET, D.D. was born at Ely, in this county, 
bred fellow of Christ's College in Cambridge. He afterwards 
succeeded his father in the parsonage of Barley, in Hertfordshire, 
and became prebendary of Ely. He confuted their cavil who 
make children the cause of covetousness in clergymen, being 
bountiful above his ability, notwithstanding his numerous 
issue. No less admirable his industry, appearing in his " Sy- 
nopsis," " Comments/' and " Commentaries ;" insomuch that 
one, considering his polygraphy, said merrily, ee that he must 
write whilst he slept, it being impossible that he should do so 
much when waking." Sure I am, he wrote not sleepily nor 
oscitanter, but what was solid in itself, and profitable for others. 

A casual fall from his horse in the highway near Hodsden, 
breaking his leg, accelerated his de'ath. It seems that God's pro- 
mise to his children, " to keep them in all their ways, that they 
dash not their foot against the stone,"* is (as other temporal 
promises) to be taken with a tacit cause of revocation, viz. if 
God's wisdom doth not discover the contrary more for his 
glory and his children's good. This doctor died anno Domini 

Sir THOMAS RIDLEY, Knight, Doctor of the Laws, was born 

* Psalm xci. 11, 12. 


at Ely, in this county, bred first a scholar in Eton, then fellow 
of King's College in Cambridge. He was a general scholar in 
all kind of learning, especially in that which we call melior lite- 
rat ur a. He afterwards was Chancellor of Winchester, and the 
Vicar-general to the Archbishop of Canterbury. His memory will 
never die whilst his book called the " View of the Ecclesiastical 
Laws " is living ; a book of so much merit, that the common 
lawyers (notwithstanding the difference betwixt the professions) 
will ingeniously allow a due commendation to his learned per- 
formance in that subject. He died anno Domini 1629, on the 
two and twentieth day of January. 

ARTHUR HILDERSHAM was born at Strechworth in this 
county, descended by his mother's side from the blood- royal, 
being great-great-grandchild to George Duke of Clarence, bro- 
ther to Edward the Fourth. Yet was he not like the proud 
nobles of Tecoa, who counted themselves "too good to put 
their hands to God's work.' 7 But, being bred in Christ's Col- 
lege, in Cambridge, he entered into the ministry. How this 
worthy divine was first run aground with poverty, and after- 
wards set afloat by God's providence ; how he often alternately 
lost and recovered his voice, being silenced and restored by the 
bishops ; how, after many intermediate afflictions, this just and 
upright man had peace at the last ; is largely reported in my 
" Ecclesiastical History," to which (except I add to the truth) I 
can add nothing on my knowledge remarkable. He died anno 
Domini 1631. 

R. PARKER, for so is his Christian name defectively written 
in my book, born in Ely, (therefore place-naming himself Eli- 
ensis), was son (as I am confident) to Master Parker, Arch- 
deacon of Ely, to whom that bishopric in the long vacancy 
(after the death of Bishop Cox) was proffered, and by him re- 
fused, (i tantum opurn usuram iniquis conditionibus sibi oblatam 
respuens." Our Parker was bred in, and became a fellow of, 
Caius College, an excellent herald, historian, and antiquary, 
author of a short, plain, true, and brief manuscript, called 
" Sceletos Cantabrigiensis ;" and yet the bare bones thereof are 
fleshed with much matter, and hath furnished me with the na- 
tivities of several bishops who were masters of colleges. 

I am not of the mind of the Italian (from whose envy God 
deliver us !) Polidore Vergil, who, having first served his own 
turn with them, burnt all the rare English manuscripts of his- 
tory he could procure, so to raise the valuation of his own 
works. But from my heart I wish some ingenious person 
would print Mr. Parker's book, for the use of posterity. He 
was a melancholy man, neglecting all preferment to enjoy him- 
self; and died in the place of his nativity, as I conjecture, 
about 1624. 


MICHAEL DALTON, Esquire. He was bred in the study of 
our municipal law in Lincoln's Inn, and attained great skill in 
his own profession. His gravity graced the bench of justices 
in this county, where his judgment deservedly passed for an 
oracle in the law : having enriched the world with two excellent 
treatises, the one of the office of the sheriffs, the other of the 
justices of peace. Out of the dedicatory epistle of the latter I 
learnt this (which I knew not before), that king James was so 
highly affected with our English government by justices of peace, 
that he was the first who settled the same in his native country 
of Scotland. Mr. Dalton died before the beginning of our civil 

THOMAS GOAD, D.D. was son to Dr. Roger Goad (for more 
than forty years Provost of King's College) ; but whether born 
in the Provost's lodgings in Cambridge, or at Milton in this 
county, I am not fully informed. He was bred a Fellow under 
his father; afterwards chaplain to archbishop Abbot, rector of 
Hadley in Suffolk, prebendary of Canterbury, &c. ; a great and 
general scholar, exact critic, historian, poet, (delighting in making 
of verses till the day of his death) school-man, divine. He was 
substituted by king James in the place of Doctor Hall (indis- 
posed in health), and sent'over to the synod of Dort. f He had 
a commanding presence, an uncontrollable spirit, impatient to 
be opposed, and loving to steer the discourse (being a good pi- 
lot to that purpose) of all the company he came in. I collect 
him to have died about the year 1635. 

ANDREW MARVAIL, was born at Mildred in this county,* and 
bred a Master of Arts in Trinity College in Cambridge. 

He afterwards became minister in Hull, where for his life-time 
he was well beloved : most facetious in his discourse, yet grave 
in his carriage ; a most excellent preacher, who, like a good hus- 
band, never broached what he had new brewed, but preached 
what he had pre-studied some competent time before; inso- 
much that he was wont to say, that he would cross the common 
proverb, which called " Saturday the working day, and Monday 
the holiday of preachers." It happened that, anno Domini 
1640, Jan. 23, crossing Humber in_a barrow-boat, the same was 
sand-warped, and he drowned therein, by the carelesness, not 
to say drunkenness, of the boatmen, to^ the great grief of all 
good men.f His excellent " Comment upon Saint Peter " is 
daily desired and expected, if the envy and covetousness of pri- 
vate persons for their own use, deprive not the publie of the 
benefit thereof. 

* So his son-in-law informed me. F. 

t With Mrs. Skinner (daughter to Sir Edward Coke), a very religious gentle- 
woman F. 



HUGO de BALSHAM (for so is he truly written) was born in 
this county, as may easily be spelled out of the four following 
probabilities put together : first, it was fashionable for clergy- 
men in that age to assume their surnames from the place of their 
nativity : secondly, Balsham is an eminent village in this county, 
whereof an ancient author taketh notice, naming thence the 
neighbouring around " fcmcenissima Montana de Balsham: 5 '* 
thirdly, there is no other village of that name throughout the 
dominions of England : fourthly, it is certain this Hugh was 
bred in this county, where he attained to be sub-prior, and after- 
wards bishop, of Ely. 

This Hugh was he who founded Peter-house in the university 
of Cambridge, the first built (though not first endowed) college 
in England. This foundation he finished anno 1284, bestowing 
some lands upon it, since much augmented by bountiful bene- 
factors. He sat 28 years in his see, and died June the 6th, 1286. 

Sir WILLIAM HORN, Salter, son to Thomas Horn, was born 
at Snailwell in this county. He was knighted by king Henry 
the Seventh ; and, anno 148 7> was Lord Mayor of London. 
He gave bountifully to the preachers at Saint Paul's Cross, and 
bestowed five hundred marks to the mending of the highways 
betwixt Cambridge, the county town where he had his first life, 
and London, the city where he got his best livelihood.f 

Know, in that age, Horn's five hundred marks had in them 
the intrinsic value of our five hundred pounds, which in those 
days would go very far in the wages of labourers. 

Sir WILLIAM (son of John) PURCASE was born at Gamling- 
gay in this county, bred a mercer in London, and Lord Mayor 
thereof anno 1497. He caused Moorfields, under the walls, 
to be made plain ground, then to the great pleasure, since to 
the greater profit, of the city. 

Sir THOMAS (son of John) KNEISWORTH was born at Kneis- 
worth in this county, bred a fishmonger in London, whereof 
he was Lord Mayor anno 1505. He appointed the water-con- 
duit at Bishopsgate to be built, to the great convenience of the 
city, formerly much wanting that useful element. Be it here 
observed, for the encouragement of the industry of Cambridge- 
shire apprentices, that by the premises it doth appear that this 
small county, in the compass of eighteen years, afforded three 
Lord Mayors and benefactors, which no other shire of equal or 
greater quantity ever produced, 

* Henry of Huntingdon. f Stow's Survey of London, p. 575. 

VOL. I. R 



JOHN CRANE was born in Wisbeach in this county, bred an 
apothecary in Cambridge, so diligent a youth, that some judi- 
cious persons prognosticated that he would be a rich man. Dr. 
Butler took so great a fancy unto him, that he lived and died 
in his family ; yea, and left the main body of his rich estate 
unto him. 

This Mr. Crane had a large heart to entertain his friends, and 
annually very nobly treated all the Oxford men at the Com- 
mencement. He gave at his death no less than three thousand 
pounds to charitable uses, bestowing the house he lived in (and 
that a very fair one), after his wife's death, on the public profes- 
sor of physic ; and, in settlement of his other benefactions, dis- 
creetly reflected on Wisbeach, where he was born (to which he 
gave 1001. to build a town hall) ; Cambridge, where he lived ; 
Lynn, where he was well acquainted ; Ipswich, where Dr. Butler 
(the first founder of his estate) was born : and Kingston, where 
his lands lay. He in some sort gives preventing physic to the 
scholars now he is dead, by giving 1001. to be lent gratis to an 
honest man, the better to enable him to buy good fish and fowl 
for the University, having observed much sickness occasioned 
by unwholesome food in that kind. He bequeathed to Dr. 
Wren bishop of Ely, and Dr. Brounrigg bishop of Exeter, one 
hundred pounds a-piece by his will, and as much by a codicil 
annexed thereunto. Besides his concealed charities, his hand 
was always open to all the distressed Royalists. He died in 
May 1650. 


WILLIAM COLLET was born at Over in this county, bred a 
clerk in London, till at last he attained to be Keeper of the Re- 
cords in the Tower, none equalling him in his dexterity in that 
office. He went the same path with his predecessor in that 
place, Master Augustine Vincent ; but out-went him as survivor. 
And because method is the mother of memory, he orderly di- 
gested all Records, that they were to be found in an instant. 
He abominated their course, who by a water would refresh a 
record, to make it useful for the present, and useless ever after. 
He detested, under the pretence of mending it, to practise with 
a pen on any old writing, preserving it in the pure nature there- 
of. Indeed Master Selden and others, in their works, have pre- 
sented posterity with a plentiful feast of English rarities ; but 
let me say that Collet may be called their caterer, who furnished 
them with provision on reasonable rates. He died, to the great 
grief of all antiquaries, anno Domini 1644. 

EDWARD NORGATE, son to Robert Norgate, D.D., master of 
Bene't College, was born in Cambridge, bred by his father-in- 
law (who married his mother) Nicholas Felton bishop of Ely, 


who, finding him inclined to limning and heraldry, permitted 
him to follow his fancy therein ; for parents who cross the cur- 
rent of their children's genius (if running in no vicious channels) 
tempt them to take worse courses to themselves. 

He was very judicious in pictures, to which purpose he was 
employed into Italy to purchase them for the Earl of Arundel. 
Returning by Marseilles, he missed the money he expected ; and 
being there unknowing of and unknown to any, he was observed 
by a French gentleman (so deservedly styled) to walk in the 
Exchange (as I may call it) of that city, many hours every 
morning and evening, with swift feet and sad face, forwards and 
backwards. To him the civil Monsieur addressed himself, 
desiring to know the cause of his discontent ; and if it came 
within the compass of his power, he promised to help him with 
his best advice. Norgate communicated his condition ; to 
whom the other returned, fe Take, I pray, my counsel ; I have 
taken notice of your walking more than twenty miles a- day in 
one furlong, upwards and downwards ; and what is spent in 
needless going and returning, if laid out in progressive motion, 
would bring you into your own country. I will suit you (if so 
pleased) with a light habit, and furnish you with competent 
money for a footman/' Norgate very cheerfully consented, 
and footed it (being accommodated accordingly) through the 
body of France (being more than five hundred English miles) ; 
and so, leisurely, with ease, safety, and health, returned into 

He became the best illuminer or limner of our age, employed 
generally to make the initial letters in the patents of peers, 
and commissions of ambassadors, having left few heirs to the 
kind, none to the degree, of his art therein. He was an excel- 
lent herald, by the title of ,t and, which was the crown 

of all, a right honest man. Exemplary his patience in his 
sickness (whereof I was an eye-witness), though a complication 
of diseases, stone, ulcer in the bladder, &c., seized on him. He 
died at the Herald's office, anno Domini 1649. 


1. Robert Clopton, son of Thomas Clopton, of Clopton, Draper, 


2. William Horn, son of Thomas Horn, of Snaylewell, Salter, 


3. William Purchase, son of John Purchase, of Gamelinghey, 

Mercer, 1497- 

4. Thomas Kneisworth, son of John Kneisworth, of Kneis- 

worth, Fishmonger, 1505. 

5. Thomas Mirfine, son of George Mirfine, of Ely, Skinner, 1518. 

* This story is of his own relation. F. f Windsor Herald ED. 

R 2 



(>. William Bowyer, son of William Bowyer, of Harstone, 1543. 
7. Richard Mallory, son of Anthony Mallory, of Papworthamus, 
Mercer, 1564, 


THE SIXTH, 1433. 

John bishop of Ely, and John de Tiptoft, Chivaler ; William 
Allington, and John Burgoin, Miles, Knights for the Shire ; 
Commissioners to take the oaths. 

Willielmi Pole, mil. 

Johannis Colvyle, mil. 

Willielmi Hazenhull, mil. 

Willielmi Malory, mil. 

Johannis Argenton, mil. 

Willielmi Alyngton, senioris, 
de Horseth. 

Laurencii Cheyne de Ditton. 

Henrici Somer de Grancotre. 

Joh. Cheyne de Longstanton. 

Tho. Dischalers de Whaddon. 

Willielmi Frevill de Shelford. 

Johannis Hore de Childerle. 

Johannis St. George de Haclee. 

Williel. St. George de eadem. 

Robertus Bernard de Iselham. 

Robertas Alyngton de Horseth . 

Walt. Clovile de Pampisworth. 

Walteri Cotton de Ladevade. 

Williel. Burgoyne de Caxton. 

Johannis Moris de Trumpiton. 

Johannis Pigot de Aviton. 

Thomee Cotton de Lanwade. 

Sim. Brunne de Wenelingham. 

Edm. Seyntlowe de Malketon. 

Alexandri Child de Horton 

Johannis Keterich de Beche. 

Nicholai Caldecote de Melreth. 

Walteri Huntydon de Trum- 

Radulph. Sanston de Sanston. 

Williel. Fulburne de Fulburn. 

Robert. Kingston de Berklow. 

Richard. Stotevil de Brinkelee. 

Rich. Foster de Bodekisham. 

Johan. Ansty, senioris ,de Ovye. 

Johan. Totehill de Swafham. 

Joh. Chirche de Bassingburn. 

Edm. Bendisch de Barenton. 
Johannis Ansty, junioris, de 


Radul. Hamelin de Sanston. 
Johannis Fulburn de Fulburn. 
Johannis Borlee de Iselham. 
Johannis Bury de Stretelee. 
Magistri de Chepenham de 


Nich. Hamond de Swofham. 
Tho, Cantyes de Littillington. 
Johannis Walter de Cranden. 
Johannis West de Croxton. 
Joh.Knesworthde Knesworth. 
Warini Ingrith de Melreth. 
Johannis Wilford, senioris, de 

Johannis Wilford, junioris, de 


Sim. Hokington de Hokington. 
Johannis Clopton de Clop ton. 
Johannis Bungeye de Fulburn. 
Johannis Mars de Abiton. 
Thomse Danseth de Conyton. 
Tho. Haneheech de Shelford. 
Henrici Calbech de Balsham. 
Will. Sternede de Stapileford. 
Joh. Wizhton de Hokington. 
Roberti Anfleys de Eltislee. 
Will. Eremilond de Iselham. 
Johannis Vescey de Swanesey, 
Galf. Clopton de Clopton. 
Willielmi Baily de Saham. 
Thomse Parker de Kertelenge. 
Thomas Bulseham de Chenele. 
Johannis Bate de Reche. 
Johannis Taillour de Brinkle. 
Johannis Cotisford de Weston. 



Roger! Hunte de Balseham. 
Johannis How de Sanston. 
Thomee Paris de eadem. 
Johan. Trope de Dokisworth. 
Jacob! Russil de Skelington. 
Ric. Hoggepound de Wrotting. 
Johannis Palgrave de eadem. 
Tho. Cokeparker de Campis. 
Johannis Petzt. de eadem. 
Stephani Petiz de eadem. 
Johannis Lambard de eadem. 
Johannis Smith de eadem. 
Johan. Britsale de Berkelow. 
Willielmi Fuller de Lintone. 
Johannis Plukerose de eadem. 
Thomee Hamont de eadem. 
Johannis Person de eadem. 
Johannis Haberd de Onye. 
Johannis Orveye de Ditton. 
Philippus Grome de Hinton. 
Edm. Preston de Botisham. 
Thomae Bunte de eadem. 
Joh. Wilkin de Wilburgham. 
Willielmi Thornton Warnier 

de Saham. 

Th. Stapleton de Badburgham. 
Johan. Ray de Novo Mercato. 
Henrici Attelane de Beche. 
Johannis Knith de eadem. 
Walteri Fote de Middilton. 
Joh. Andrew de Waterbeche. 
Roberti Bertelot de eadem. 
Johannis Tylly de eadem. 
Henrici Clerke de eadem. 
Johannis Annfleys de Critton. 
Johannis Fox de eadem. 
Richardi Mably de Howis. 
Johan. Attechercke de eadem. 
Johannis Mably de eadem. 
Will. Colyn de Maddyngle. 
Johannis Custance de eadem. 
Thomae Mesynger de eadem. 
Willielmi Reynolt de eadem. 
Will. Knight de Chesterton. 
Johannis Bacon de eadem. 
Johannis Bernard de eadem. 
Henrici Speed de Hyston. 
Willielmi Page de eadem. 
Johannis Smith, sen. de eadem. 

Walter. Spernd de Cotenham. 

Henrici Mey de eadem. 

Hugonis Bernard de eadem. 

Williel. Burbage de Dray ton. 

Johannis Gifford de eadem. 

Roberti Salman de eadem. 

Henrici Roys de Lolworth. 

Johannis Asplen de eadem. 

Johannis Ganelock de Over. 

Jo. Sampson Bocher de eadem. 

Johannis Barby de eadem. 

Henrici Okeham de eadem. 

Wil. Shetere de Wenelingham. 

Johannis de Botre de eadem. 

Johannis Shetere de eadem. 

Willielmi Bakere de Swansey. 

Simonis Hurlpeny de eadem. 

Richardi Wright de eadem. 

Johannis Halton de eadem. 

Joh. Howesson de Ellysworth. 

Johannis Bole de eadem. 

Willielmi Fermour de eadem. 

Johannis Wareyan de eadem. 

Johannis Annfleys de Pap- 
worth Everard. 

Jo. Kent de Papworth Anneys. 

Johannis Dantre de Granele. 

Johannis Annfleys de Cony ton. 

Thomse Crispe de eadem. 

Williel. Beton de Fendrayton e 

Willielmi Pecard de eadem. 

Johanni Grewere de eadem. 

Richardi Remington de Long- 

Henrici Rede de eadem. 

Johannis Page, jun. de eadem. 

Willielmi Driffeld de eadem. 

Johannis Hawkyn de eadem. 

Willielmi Attelow de eadem. 

Thomae Pelle de Hokington, 

Johannis Fulham de eadem. 

Johan. Williem. de Westwyk. 

Thomee Herward de eadem. 

Henrici Page de Rampton. 

WiUielmi Page de eadem. 

Johannis Watesson de eadem. 

Johannis Bette de Herdewyk. 

Thomae Newman de Toft. 

Thomec Basely de eadem, 



Thomse Crispe de Caldecote. 
Johannis Faceby de eadem. 
Thomse Adam de Everisdon 


Henrici Bocher de eadem. 
Tho. Tant de Everisdon Parva. 
Willielmi Baron de eadem. 
Williel. Parnell de Kingston. 
Richardi Madingle de eadem. 
Johannis Couper de eadem 
Simonis Lavenham de Brunne. 
Galfridi Norman de eadem. 
Simon Wareyn de Stowe. 
Willielmi Semer de eadem. 
Thomse Bette de eadem. 
Johan. Freman de Esthatbee. 
Johannis Bradfeld de eadem. 
Tho. Fysher de Gamelingey. 
Jonannis Brampston de eadem. 
Walteri Aydrok de eadem. 
Johannis Smith de eadem. 
Johannis Draper de eadem. 
Johannis Goneld de Croxton. 
Willielmi Redford de eadem. 
Johannis Michell de Eltislee. 
Johannis Gylmyri de eadem. 
Thomee Bernard de eadem. 
Thomse Burgoyne de Caxton. 
Johannis Noris de eadem. 
Johannis Pachat de eadem. 
Willielmi Mold de Whaddon. 
Richardi Lylye de eadem. 
Johannis Oradle de eadem. 
Willielmi Adam de Melreth. 
Thomse Cosyn de eadem. 
Willielmi Lylye de eadem. 
Johannis Gentyng de eadem. 
Joh. Zokesle de Meldeburn. 
Johannis Turnere de eadem. 
Thomse Gentyng de eadem. 
Johannis Bayly de eadem. 
Nicholai Pulter de eadem. 
Will. Turpin de Knesworth. 
Johannis Street de eadem. 
Williel. Willwys de Royston. 
Thomee Mellman de eadem. 
Wai. King, jun, de Hungrihatle. 
Guidonis Moyn de eadem. 
Johannis Pynk de eadem. 

Joh Malbern de Stepilmorden. 

Johan. Crystmasse de eadem. 

Johannis Busshe de eadem. 

Will. Frost de Gyldemyorden. 

Johannis Lyly de eadem. 

Richardi Pern de eadem. 

Rich. Wolleys de Bassingburn. 

Johannis Parlet de eadem. 

Johannis Reymond de eadem. 

Johannis Bettele de eadem. 

Richardi Batte de Abiton. 

Thomse Lorkin de eadem. 

Johan. Gibbe de Litillington. 

Johannis Benizch de eadem. 

Willielmi Baker de Tadlow. 

Thomse Pelle de eadem. 

Johannis Goslin de Cranden. 

Willielmi Ward de eadem. 

Johan. Derby, sen. de Copton. 

Richardi Derby de eadem. 

Thomse Sherlee de Shengey. 

Johannis Smith de eadem. 

Willielmi Pink de Wendy. 

Prioris de Bernwell. 

Prioris de Angleseye. 

Prioris de Speneye. 

Prioris de Fordham. 

Willielmi Lasselys persone 
Ecclesiee de Over. 

Thomse Attewode persone Ec- 
clesiee de Ellisworth. 

Johannis Terinton persone Ec- 
clesise de Lolworth. 

Johannis Deping persone Ec- 
clesise de Critton. 

Nicholai Holey persone Ec- 
clesise de Swansey. 

Johannis Garaway persone Ec- 
clesise de Fulburn. 

Radulphi Wathe persone Ec- 
clesiee deWillburghamparva. 

Willielmi Lavender persone 
Ecclesiee de Middilton. 

Richardi Drayton persone Ec- 
clesiee de Kingston, 

Thomee Lawngham persone 
Ecclesiee de Eltyslee. 

Roberti Dixon persone Eccle- 
sise de Shelford Magna. 



Adami persone Ecclesise de 

Willielmi Midleton persone 
Ecclesiee de Clopton. 

Johannis Blak persone Eccle- 
sise de Hungrihatlee. 

Willielmi Mows vicarii Eccle- 
siae de Brunne. 

Johannis Camisby persone Ec- 
clesiae de Sneyleswell. 

Johannis Smith persone Ec- 
clesiae de Brynkle. 

Johannis Bocher vicarii Eccle- 
siee de Longstanton. 

Johannis Gotobed vicarii Ec- 
clesiee de Swafham. 

Rectoris de Chenele vicarii de 
Dittons Valens. 

Persone Ecclesiae de Fiditton. 




1 Richardus Basset, Alberi- 

cus de Veer. 

2 Paganus, vie. et Rob. 


3 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

7 Idem. 

8 Idem. 

9 Nicholai de Chenet. 

10 Hamo Petom, vie. 

11 Hamo Petom, vie. 

12 Hamo Petom, et Phil, de 


13 Phil, de Daventre, for 

three years. 

16 Ebrar. de Beach,, et War. 

de Basingborn. 

17 Idem. 

18 Ebrardus de Beach, for 

six years. 

24 Walt, films Hugonis, for 
three years. 

27 Walt, filius Hugonis, et 
Will, filius Stephani. 

28 Walt, filius Hugonis. 

29 Rad. de Bardulff. 

30 Idem. 

31 Nich. filius Roberti, for 

three years. 


1 Nich. filius Roberti. 

2 Will. Muschet. 

3 Idem. 


4 Rich. Anglicus. 

5 Richard. Anglicus. 

6 Reginaldus de Argentuen. 

7 Idem. 

8 Tho. de Huntsdon. 

9 Merric. de Marignes. 
10 Rob. de Insula. 


1 Rob. de Insula. 

2 Idem. 

3 Hamo de Valoignes, et 
Rail, de Valoigne. 

4 Walt, de Stuieclea. 

5 Idem. 

6 Rob. de TateshalL, et 
Magister Aristoteles. 

7 Idem. 

8 Josteli. de Stuieclea. 

9 Idem. 

10 Fulco filius Theobald 
for six years, 

16 Will. Comes Sarisb. et 
Wer. de Marigny. 

17 Will. Comes Sarisb. 


2 Fulco de Breante, et 
Radul. de Bray. 

3 Idem. 

4 Idem. 

5 Fulkesius de Breante, et 
Joh. de Ulicot, for four 

9 Galf. de Hacfield sive 




Hadfield, for eight 

17 Geremias de Caxton, for 

four years. 
21 Henri, de Colvel, for six 


27 Hugo de Hodeng. 

28 Rad. de Hereford, for 

three years. 

31 Phil, de Staunton, for 
three years. 

34 Henr. Colvile. 

35 Idem. 

36 Simon de Horton. 

37 Idem. 

38 Joh. de Moyne. 

39 Joh. de Moyne, et 
Joh. de Marines. 

40 Idem. 

41 Will, de la Stow. 

42 Idem. 

43 Will, le Moyne. 

44 Joh. de Scalarus. 

45 Joh. de Scalarus, et 
Joh. Lovell. 

46 Saer de Frivile. 

47 Johan. Lovell, for five 


52 Almaricus Pech. 

53 Saerus de Frivile. 

54 Idem. 

55 Rob. del Estre. 

56 Idem. 


1 Rob. del Estre. 

2 Rob. del Estre. 

3 Walt. Shelfhanger. 

4 Will, le Moyne, for three 


7 Bal. de S to Georgio. 

8 Will, de Rothing. 

9 Idem. 

10 Tho. de Belhus, for seven 

17 Hugo de Babington, for 

eight years. 

25 Will, de Mortuo Mari. 

26 Will, de Sutton. 


27 Tho. de Gardinor. 

28 Idem. 

29 Rob. Hereward. 

30 Rob. de Bajose, for five 



1 Joh. Crekes, et 

Rob. de Hoo. for three 


4 Joh. de Crekes, for three 

7 Tho. do Stolarus. 

8 Idem. 

9 Radul. Gifiard, for three 


12 Math, de Bassingborne. 

13 Joh. de Crekes. 

14 Almaricus de Zouch, for 

five years. 


. 1 Math, de Bassingborne. 

2 Idem. 

3 Almar. la Zouch. 

4 Idem. 

5 Will, de Moyne. 

6 Will, filius Joh. Muchett. 

7 Rich, de Bajocis, et 
Warr. de Bassing. 


9 Joh. de Lymbery, et 
Will. Muschetts. 

10 Tho. de Lacy. 

11 Will, de Muschett. 

12 Idem. 

13 Warrin. de Basingborn. 

14 Idem. 

15 Joh. de Papworth, et 
Joh. de Lacy. 

16 Warr. de Bassingborn, 

for four years. 

20 Rob. de Engane. 

21 Idem. 

22 Guido de S to Cler, for 

four years. 

26 Johan. Lisle de Rubeo. 


27 Gui. de St. Clere. 


Anno Anno 

28 Gui. de St. Clerc. 46 Will, de Pappeworth. 

29 Tho. de Scalar. 47 Rog. Harlaston. 

30 Joh. de Harewdon. 48 Tho. Sewalle. 

31 Nich. Stanell, for four years. 49 Tho. Torell. 

35 Joh. Furneux, et 50 Bald. St. George. 
Tho. Cheyne. 51 Joh. Deugayne. 

36 N. Suyvecle, for ten years. 


Anno Name and Arms. Place. 

1 Joh. Avenel .... Gamlinggay. 

Arms ; Arg. a fess between six annulets G. 

2 Will. Moygne. 

Az. cresuly, a fess dansette Arg. 

3 Radu. Wykes. 

4 Hen. English. 

5 Tho. Sewale. 

6 Will. Moygne . . . ut prius. 

7 Phil. TiUney. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three griffins' heads erased G. 

8 Hen. English. 

9 Joh. Heningford. 

G. three unicorns' heads cooped Or. 

10 Rob. Paris .... Hildersham. 

11 Will. Pappeworth. 

12 Will. Chenye. 

Az. a fess inter three leopards' faces Or. 

13 Edw. de la Pole. 

14 Rob. de Paris . . . ut prius. 

15 Nice. Steucle .... Stivele, H. 

16 Joh. Kinost. 

17 Will. Chenye, mil. 

18 Nich. Paris .... ut prius. 

19 Joh. Lakynghech. 

20 Joh. Harlington. 

21 Andr. Newport. 

Arg. a chevron G. betwixt three leopards' heads S. 

22 Idem ...... ut prius. 


1 Tho. Hasdden. 

2 Will. Rees and 
Jo. Howard. 

G. a bend betwixt six cross crosslets fitchee Arg. 

3 Idem. 

4 Joh. Hobildon . . . ut prius. 

5 Idem. 


Anno Name. Place. 

6 Rob. Scotte. 

7 Joh. Bernakes. 

8 Joh. Hobildon. 

9 Joh. Paniel. 

10 Bald. St. George . . . Hatley, C. 

Arg. a chief Az. ; over all a lion rampart G. crown- 
ed O. 

11 Will. Allein. 

12 Rob. Scotte. 


1 Rob. Hockshecho. 

2 Will. Alington \. . . Horsheath. 

S. a bend betwixt six billets Arg. 

3 Tho. Reviles. 

4 RoB. Scott. 

5 Walt. Pole, mil. . . ut prius. 

6 Will. AsconhaU. 

7 Tho. Reviles. 

8 Rob. Scott. 

9 Idem ut prius. 

10 Idem ut prius. 


1 Rob. Scott, and 

Will. Alington . . . ut prius. 

2 Wai. de la Pole, mil. . ut prius. 

3 Nich. Slyvebley. 

4 Joh. Hore .... Childerley. 

5 Tho. Dischalers . . . Whaddon. 

G. six scallops, 3, 2, 1, Arg. 

6 Nich. Alington . . . ut prius. 

7 Walt, de la Pole . . . ut prius. 

8 [AMP.] Lavi. Cheyney Ditton, C. 

9 Jo. Austey. 

10 Jo. Shardelow, mil. 
Joh. Clopton. 

S. a bend Arg. between two cotisses dancette O. 

11 Rob. Stonham. 

Arg. on a cross S. five escallops O. 

12 Rog. Hunt. 

13 Idem. 

14 Rob. Stonham . . . ut prius. 

15 Idem. 

16 Will. Alington . . . ut prius. 

17 Gilb. Hore .... ut prius. 

18 Hen. Langley. 

19 Idem. 

20 Will. Lee. 


Anno Name. Place. 

21 Tho. Peyton .... Isleham. 

S. a cross engrailed O. in the first quarter a mullet Arg. 

22 WiL St. George, mil. . ut prius. 

23 Idem ut prius, 

24 Joh. dialers .... ut prius. 

25 Idem. 

26 Tho. Bernard. 

Arg. a bear rampant, and border engrailed S. 

27 Wai. Trumpington . . Trumpington. 

Az. cresulee two trumpets O. 

28 Joh. Harlaston. 

Arg. a fess E. erased S. 

29 Will. Alington . . . ut prius. 

30 Tho. Tresham . . . Northampton. 

Partie per saltire, S. and O. six trefoils of the first. 

31 Tho. Peyton .... ut prius. 

32 Will, Hasdden. 

33 Hen Paris, arm. . . . ut prius. 


36 Tho. Tresham, arm. . ut prius, 

37 Joh. Colvill, mil. 

Az. a lion rampant Arg. ; over all a label G. 

38 Tho. Findefn, mil. 


1 Joh. Alington, arm. . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Stuke, arm. 

3 Idem. 

4 Joh. Cheyne. 

5 Joh. Boughton, jun. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three mullets G. 

6 Joh. Berleley, mil. 

G. a chevron betwixt ten crosses, form six and four, Arg. 

7 Joh. Forster, arm. 

S. a chevron betwixt three arrows Arg. 

8 Will. St. George . . . ut prius. 

9 Rich. Sapcote, mil. . . Elton. 

S. three dove-coats Arg. 

10 Tho. Gray, arm. 

Barry of six Arg. and Az. ; three torteaux in chief. 

11 Tho. Gray, mil. . . . ut prius. 

12 Joh. Austy. 

13 Tho. Pigott .... Abingdon, C. 

S. three pickaxes Arg. 

14 Jo. Broughton, mil. . ut prius. 

15 Joh. Cheyne, mil. 

16 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . Ladwade, C. 

S. a chevron betwixt three griffins' heads erased Arg. 


Anno Name. Place. 

17 Will. Alington, jun. . ut prius. 

18 Will. Frevill, arm. . . Sheford, Camb. 

G. three crescents Erm. 

19 Rob. Paris, arm. . . . ut prius. 

20 Tho. Huntingdon. 

21 Gal. Bloodwell. 

22 Rob. Tilney . . . . ut prius. 


1 Rob. Tanfield. 

2 Job. Wake, arm. . . . Salston, C. 

O. two bars G. three torteaux in chief. 

3 Jo. Hudleston, mil. 

G. fretty Arg. 


1 Will. Finden. 

2 Tho. Oxenburgg. 

G. a lion rampant queuee forche Arg. within a border V. 
charged en entour of eight escallops O. 

3 Will. Taillard. 

Quarterly, Arg. and S. a cross patonce quarterly pierced 

4 Joh. Hafilden. 

5 Will. Wentworth. 

S. a chevron, betwixt three leopards' heads O. 

6 Tho. Cheyney, mil, 

7 Will. Cheyney, arm. 

8 Joh. Burgoyne . . . Caxton, Camb. 

Az. a talbot passant Arg. 

9 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

10 Gerrard Steukly. 

11 Tho. Cheney, mil. 

12 Chri. Peyton, arm. . . ut prius. 

13 Rich. Stutvill, arm. . . Brynklo, Camb. 

Barruly Arg. and G. a lion rampant S. 

14 Rob. Peiton, mil. . . . ut prius. 

15 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

16 Jo. Clarevax 

17 Edw. Lucy, arm. 

G. crusuly O. three lucies (or pkes) hauriant Arg. 

18 Tho. Cheyne, mil. 

19 Chri. Druell, arm. 

20 Joh. Frevile, arm . . . ut prius. 

21 Anth. Mallory, arm. 

O. a lion rampant G. collared of the first. 

22 Idem ut prius. 

23 Will. Findern, mil. 

24 Tho. Gery. 



Anno Name. Place. 

1 Fra Halisden, arm. 

2 Joh. Paris, arm. 

3 Egid. Alington, mil. . . it t prius. 

4 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . Connington. 

Az. an eagle displayed Arg. 

5 Tho. Throsby. 

6 Ra. Chamberlein. 

O. fretty S. on a chief of second three bezants. 

7 Joh. Paris, arm. . . . ut prius. 

8 Joh. Cutte, mil. . . . Childerley, Camb. 

Arg. on a bend engrailed S. three plates 

9 Will. Tanfeld, arm. 

10 Anth. Malory, arm. . ut prius. 

11 Egid. Alenton, mil. . . ut prius. 

12 Fran. Alisdon, arm. 

13 Joh. Moor, arm. 

14 Joh. Huddleston . . . ut prius. 

15 Anth. Hansard, 

G. three mullets Arg. 

16 Joh. Huddleston . . . ut prius. 

17 Rob. Payton, arm. . . ut prius. 

18 Tho. Piggot, arm. . . ut prius. 

19 Rob. Aprice, arm. . . Washingly, Ha. 

S. three spears' heads Arg. 

20 Joh. Paris, arm. . . . ut prius. 

21 Anth. Hansard, arm. . ut prius. 

22 Egi. Alington, mil. . . ut prius. 

23 Anth. Malory, arm. . , ut prius. 

24 Tho. Eliot, mil. . . . Carlton, Camb. 

25 Rich. Sapcotte, mil. . . ut prius. 

26 Tho. Chichele, arm. 

O. a chevron betwixt three cinqfoils G. 

27 Rob. Peyton, mil. . . ut prius. 

28 Tho. Crumwell, arm. 

[See our Notes in this year. F.] 

29 Tho. Megges, arm. 

30 Tho. Hutton, arm. 

31 Phu. Paris, arm. . . . ut prius. 

32 Rich. Crumwell . . . Hinchinbrook, H. 

S. a lion rampant Arg. 

33 Oliv. Leder, arm. 

34 Edw. North, mil. . . Catlidge. 

Az. a lion passant O. between three flowers-de-luce Arg. 

35 Rob. Aprice, arm. . . ut prius. 

36 Tho. Eliot, mil. ut prius. 

37 Egid. Alington, mil. . . ut prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

38 Law. Tailard, mil. . . utprius. 


1 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Hudleston . . . ut prius. 

3 Joh. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Bolles, arm. 

Arg. on a chevron betwixt three boars' heads couped S. 
as many scallops O. a border V. bezantee. 

5 Joh. Cutte, mil. 

6 Egi. Alington, mil. . . ut prius. 


1 Rob. Peyton, arm. . . ut prius. 


2 Oliv. Leaden, mil. 

3 Law. Taylard, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Joh. Cotton, mil. . . ut prius. 

5 Rob. Tirwhite, mil. . . LINCOLNSHIRE. 

G. three pewets O. 

6 Will. Laurence, arm. . St. Ives. 

Arg. a cross ragule G. on a chief of the second a lion pas- 
sant gardant O. 


1 Joh. Hutton, arm. 

Arg. a chief V. charged with an eagle displayed, within a 
border engrailed G. 

2 Tho. Cotton, mil. . . ut prius. 

3 Fran. Hynde, arm. . . Madenly, C. 

Arg. on a chev. G. three lozenges O. betwixt as many 
goats' heads grazed Az. armed and collared of the third ; 
on a chief S. a lion passant guardant Erm. 

4 Hen. Darcy, arm. . . Leighton, H. 

Az. three cinq-foils betwixt nine crosses crosslets Arg. 

5 Cle. Chichiley, arm. . . ut prius. 

6 Will. Mallpry, arm. . . 

7 Hen. Williams, alias 

Cromwell, mil. . . . 

8 Wil. Worthington. 

9 Rob. Peyton, arm. . . ut prius. 

10 Tho. Revell, arm. 

11 Hen. Longe, arm. . . Shengey, C. 

S. a lion ramp, betwixt eight crosses crossed Arg. 

12 Fran. Hynde, arm. . . ut prius. 

13 Hen. Crumwell . . ut prius. 

14 Joh. Cutts, mil. . . utprius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

15 Tho. Wendy . . Hastinfield, Cam. 

Az. a chevron betwixt three lions 5 heads erased within a 
border engrailed O. 

16 Joh Hutton, arm. . . ut prius. 

17 Will. Mallory, arm. . ut prius. 

18 Rob. Bevill, arm. . . Chasterton. 

G. a chevron O. betwixt three bezants. 

19 Tho. Reu, arm. 

20 Fitz Rad Chamberlaine ut prius. 

21 Tho. Holmes, arm. 

22 Henry Crumwell, mil. . ut prius. 

23 Rob. Taylor. 

24 Tho. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

25 Hen. Darcy, mil. . . ut prius. 

26 Anth. Cage, mil. 

Partie per Pale Az. and G. ; over all a saltire O. 

27 Tho. Wendy, arm. . . ut prius. 

28 Rob. Peiton, arm. . . ut prius. 

29 Fran. Crumwell . . ut prius. 

30 Rad. Bevill, arm. . . ut prius. 

31 Fran. Hynde, mil. . . ut prius. 

32 Thomas Chichley, arm. ut prius. 

33 Joh. Cotton, arm. . . ut prius. 

34 Hen. Crumwell . . ut prius. 

35 Joh. Peyton, arm. . . ut prius. 

36 Tho. March, arm. . . Waresley, H. 

O. three pales A. ; on a chief G. three talbots' heads erazed 
of the first. 

37 Rob. Brudenell . . Diddington, H. 

Arg. a chevron G. betwixt three caps Az. 

38 Anth. Cage, arm. . . ut prius. 

39 Jar. Clifton, mil. . . Leigh ton, H. 

S. semee de cinqfoils, a lion rampant Arg. 

40 Oli. Crumwell, mil. . ut prius. 

41 Egi. Allington, arm. . ut prius. 

42 Will. Hind, arm. . ut prius. 

43 Joh. Cutts, mil. . . ut prius. 

44 Tho. Wendy, arm. . . ut prius. 

45 Joh' Bedell, mil. pri. 

Jaco Hamarton, Hunt. 

G. a chev. engrailed betwixt three scollops Arg. 


1 Joh. Bedell, mil. . . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Peyton, mil. . . ut prius. 

3 Rob. Bevill, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Jermy, mil. . . Teversham, C. 

Arg. a lion rampant guardant G. 


Anno Name. Place. 

5 Rob. Payne, mil. . . Medlow, H. 

Az. a bend trunked ragulee betwixt six etoiles O. 

6 Joh. Cage, arm. . . ut prius. 

7 Oliv. Cheney, mil. . . Steukley, H. 

8 Reg. Millicent, mil. 

9 Sim. Steward, mil. . . Sturney, C. 

Quarterly : first, France on a border G., eight fer malauxes 
O. ; the second, O. a fess cheeky Arg. and Az. a border 
engrailed G. 

10 Edw. Hind, arm. . . ut prius. 

11 Tho. Baldwyn, arm. 

12 Edw. Aldred, arm. 

13 Mi. Sands, mil. et bar. Wilburham. 

O. a fess indented betwixt three crosses-crosslets fitche G. 

14 Fran. Brown, arm. 

15 Will. Wendy, arm. . ut prius. 

16 Tho. Steward, mil. . . ut prius. 

17 Joh. Cutts, mil. . . ut prius. 
IS Tho. Maples, arm. . . Stow. 

Az. a chevron quarterly O. and Arg. between three 
flowers-de-luce, of the second. 

19 Rob. Symonds . . Wichford, C. 

20 Ed. Peiton, mil. etbar. ut prius. 

21 Rob. Audley, arm. . . St. Ives. 

22 Jac. Reynold, mil. 


1 Mart. Peirce, arm. . . CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

G. a chevron Erm. betwixt three dragons 5 heads erased 

2 Joh. Goldsburgh . . Godmanchester A. 

3 Rob. Hagar, arm. . . Buyne-cast, Ca. 

Arg. on a bend S. three lions passant on the first. 

4 Tho. Parker, arm. 

5 Jacob Pedley, arm. 

6 Tho. Terrell, arm. . . Fulborn C. 

Arg. two chevrons Az. within a border engrailed G. 

7 Rich. Covil, arm. 

Az. a lion rampant Arg. a file of three lambeaux G. 

8 Capel. Bedell, arm. . ut prius. 

9 An th. Cage, arm. . . ut prius. 

10 Rob. Ballam, arm. 

11 Ludo. Dyer, bar. . . Gr. Stourton, Hu. 

O. a chief indented G. 


12 Joh. Carleton, bar. . . Chevely. 

Arg. on a bend S. three mascats of the first. 


Anno Name. Place. 

13 Tho. Chichesley . . ut f/riits. 

14 Tho. Wendy, arm. . . ut prius. 

G. a fess betwixt three escallops O. 

15 Tho. Pichard . . Trumpington. 

Arg. a fess betwixt three crosses fitchee G. 

16 Joh. Crane, arm. . . Kingston. 

S. a chevron betwixt three griffins 5 heads crazed Arg. 
1? Joh. Cotton, mil. Landwad. 



18 Tho. Martin, mil. . . Barton. 

Arg. an eagle displayed G. 

19 Idem .... ut prius. 

20 Onslo. Winch, arm. 

21 Tris. Diumond .... Wei. 


16. THOMAS COTTON, Arm. This Thomas Cotton (different 
in arms and descent from the Cottons of Huntingdonshire) was 
of Cambridgeshire, the same person who in the gentry of that 
county [Henrici VI. 12.] was returned the twenty-second in 


24. THOMAS ELIOT, Mil. He was son to Sir Richard 
Eliot, and born (some say) in Suffolk ; but his house and chief 
estate lay in this county.* After his long sailing into foreign 
parts, he at last cast anchor at home ; and being well skilled in 
Greek and Latin, was the author of many excellent works. Of 
these, one in Latin was styled, " Defensorium bonarum mulie- 
rum," or " The defence of good women ;f " though some will 
say that such are hardly found, and easily defended. 

He wrote also an excellent dictionary of Latin and English, 
if not the first, the best of that kind in that age ; and England 
then abounding with so many learned clergymen, I know not 
which more to wonder at, that they missed, or he hit on so 
necessary a subject. Let me add, Bishop Cooper grafted his 
dictionary on the stock of Sir Thomas Eliot ; which worthy 
knight deceased 1546, and was buried at Carlton in this 

28. THOMAS CROMWELL, Arm. Here, reader, I am at a 
perfect loss, and do desire thy charitable hand to lead me. No 
Cromwell Thomas can I find at this time in this county, and 
can hardly suspect him to be the Cromwell of that age, because 
only additioned Armiger. Indeed, I find him this very year 

* Bale, Descript. Brit. Cent. 8. num. 77. 
f Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 8. num. 77. 
VOL. I. S 


created Baron of Okeham ; but cannot believe that he was un- 
knighted so long, besides the improbability that he would con- 
descend to such an office, having no interest I ever met with in 
Cambridgeshire, though (which may signify somewhat) he was 
at this time chancellor of the university of Cambridge. Thus 
I have started the doubt, which others may hunt down to their 
own satisfaction. 

34. EDWARD NORTH, Mil. He was a prudent person, and 
in. managing matters of importance of great despatch ; not un- 
skilled in the law, and eminently employed in the Court of 
Augmentation ; a court though short-lived (erected in the end 
of king Henry the Eighth, dissolved in the beginning of king 
Edward the Sixth's reign ), yet very beneficial to the officers 
therein. This Sir Edward was made, by queen Mary, Baron of 
Catlidge, in this county ; and was a considerable benefactor to 
Peter-house, in Cambridge, where he is remembered in their 
parlour, with this distich under his picture : 

" Nobilis hie ver fuerat si nobilis ullus, 
Qui sibi principium nobilitatis erat." 

He was father to Roger Lord North, and great-grandfather to 
Dudley Lord North, now surviving.* 


2. JOHN HuDDLESTON.f- He was highly honoured after- 
wards by queen Mary, and deservedly. Such the trust she re- 
posed in him, that (when Jane Grey was proclaimed queen) she 
came privately to him to Salston, and rid thence behind his ser- 
vant (the better to disguise herself from discovery) to Framling- 
ham Castle. She afterwards made him (as I have heard) her 
privy- councillor, and (besides other great boons) bestowed the 
bigger part of Cambridge castle (then much ruined) upon him, 
with the stones whereof he built his fair house in this county. 
I behold his family as branched from the Huddlestones in 


14. JOHN CUTS, Mil. He was a most bountiful house- 
keeper, as any of his estate ; insomuch that queen Elizabeth, in 
the beginning of her reign (whilst as yet she had peace with 
Spain), the sickness being at London, consigned the Spanish 
ambassador to this knight's house in this county. The ambas- 
sador coming thither, and understanding his name to be John 
Cuts, conceived himself disparaged to be sent to one of so short 
a name ; the Spanish gentleman generally having voluminous 
surnames (though not so long as the deity in New Spain, called 
Yoca huvaovamaorocoti) , usually adding the place of their habi- 

Who died June 4, 1677 ; and was the immediate ancestor of the present Earl 

of Guildford ED. 

f Misprinted Sir Robert, in my " Ecclesiastical History." F. 


tation for the elongation thereof.* But soon after the Don 
found that what the knight lacked in length of name, he made 
up in the largeness of his entertainment. 

34. HENRY CROMWELL,, Mil. This was the fourth time he 
was sheriff in the reign of the queen. He was son to Richard 
Cromwell., Esquire, sheriff in the thirty-second of king Henry 
the Eighth ; to whom his valour and activity so endeared him, 
that he bestowed on him so much abbey-land in this county, 
as at that day, at a reasonable rate, was worth twenty thousand 
pounds a year, and upwards. He was no whit at all allied to 
(though intimately acquainted with) Thomas Lord Cromwell 
(the mauler of monasteries ) ; which I knowingly affirm, though 
the contrary be generally believed : for, when Doctor Goodman, 
late Bishop of Gloucester, presented a printed paper to Oliver 
Cromwell (grandchild to this our sheriff), mentioning therein 
his near affinity to the said Lord Cromwell, the pretended pro- 
tector, desirous to confute a vulgar error, in some passion 
returned, " that lord was not related to my family in the least 

39. JARVASIUS CLIFTON, Mil. He had a fair estate at 
Barrington, in Somersetshire, whence he removed to Hunting- 
donshire, on his match with the sole daughter and heir of Sir 
Henry Darcy of Leightonbromswold, in that county. This Sir 
Jarvase was by king James created Baron of Leighton aforesaid ; 
and there began a beautiful house, which he lived not to finish. 
His sole daughter Katherine was married to Esme Steward, Duke 
of Lenox, to whom she bare the truly illustrious (by virtues and 
high extraction) James Duke of Richmond. 


9. SIMON STEWARD, Mil. I remember he lived (after he 
was knighted) a fellow- commoner in Trinity-hall, where these 
his arms are fairly depicted in his chamber with this distich 
over them : 

Francorum Carohis voluit sic Stemmata ferri, 
Singula cum valeant sunt meliora simid. 

11 French Charles would have these Coats to be thus worn ; 
When singly good, they're better jointly borne." 

But how the royal name of Steward came first into this county, 
consult, I pray, the ensuing epitaph in Ely Minster (as my son 
hath informed me) by himself, exactly from his monument : 

" Premendo sustulit : Ferendo vicit. 

" Secundum Redemptoris mundi adventum expectat hie Mar- 
cus Steward, miles, films hseresque Simionis Steward, armig. 

* Lord Herbert, in the Life of king Henry the Eighth, p. 181. 
s 2 


Nicholao Steward, armig. geniti, qui patrem habuit Richardum 
Steward, armig. quern genuit Thomas Steward, armig. Johannis 
Steward, militis, films, cujus pater erat Johannes Steward, miles, 
ejus nominis in Anglia primus, qui cum Jacobo Roberti Scotise 
regis filio in Franciam transfretans (regnante tune Henrico 
quarto) vento eorum propositis opposite, in Anglicano littore 
applicuerunt, ubi diu post pro obsidibus custodiebantur : Sed 
hie Johannes in amorem cujusdam virginis Anglicanae, nomine 
Talmach, incidens, obtentaque Johannae Reginae venia, cui 
ancilla inserviebat, earn in conjugem cepit, infidemque regis Hen- 
rici dum vixisset solenniter est juratus. Hujus pater erat Alex- 
ander, quern genuit Andreas Steward, miles, Alexandri cogno- 
minati Ferocis filiorum natu minimus, cujus pater erat Wal- 
terus Steward, a Dundevale in Scotia dictus. Sed primus in 
genealogia hac summonitus, et hie sepultus, ex Anna una fili- 
arum et haeredum Roberti Huicke, armig. reginse Elizabethan 
medici primarii, varies habuit liberos, quos omnes inadultos 
Fata rapuere, praeter duos, Mariam scilicet Gulielmo Forster in 
corn. Berke. militi nuptam, et Simionem Steward, militem, 
haeredem filiumque suum moestissimum, qui pii officii, singula 
risque erga patrem amoris gratia, hoc posuit monumentum, ubi 
inscriptum legas, quod cum multos annos, et bello et pace, pro 
patria feliciter egisset, aetate tandem confectus militari singulo, 
et auratis calcaribus a Jacobo Rege Serinissimo ornatus, senex 
pene octogenarius fatali necessitati concessit, 28 Februarii, 
anno Salutis 1603." 


It is hard for a physician to prescribe proper physic to such 
a patient, who hath a hot liver and a cold stomach, because 
what is good for the one is bad for the other. As hard it is, for 
weather to please the concernments of this county, whose 
northern part, being moist and fenny, desires fair weather ; 
south and south-eastern, dry and heathy, delighteth so much 
rain, that it can well digest (save in harvest-time) one shower 
every day, and two every Sunday. But the God of heaven, 
(i who can make it rain on one place, and not on another,"* can 
fit the necessity of both ; and I remit them both to his provi- 

* Amos iv. 7. 


Edward BENTHAM, professor of divinity at Oxford; born at 
Ely 1707; died 1776. 


James BENTHAM, divine and architectural historian of Ely Ca- 
thedral; born at Ely 1708; died 1794. 

Edmund CASTE LL, orientalist, author of ee Lexicon Heptaglot- 
ton," or dictionary of seven tongues; born at Hatley 1606; 
died 1685. 

William COLE, antiquarian collector; born at Little Abington 
1714; died 1782. 

Richard CUMBERLAND, dramatic and miscellaneous writer, the 
Terence of England; born at Cambridge 1?32 ; died 1811. 

James DRAKE, physician, political writer, and translator of He- 
rodotus; born at Cambridge 1667; died 1707- 

James DUPORT, Master of Magdalen College, Dean of Peterbo- 
rough, Greek professor, and critic ; bom at Cambridge ; died 

William GODWIN, author of " Political Justice," and numerous 
other works ; bom at Wisbeach 1756; died 183G . 

Israel LYONS, son of a Polish Jew, mathematician and botanist ; 
born at Cambridge 1739; died 1784. 

Lady Damaris MASHAM, amiable and learned ; born at Cam- 
bridge 1658; died 1708. 

Catherine PEPYS, foundress of Cottenham School ; born at Cot- 
tenham ; died 1707. 

Thomas RUTHERFORTH, divine and philosopher ; born at Pap- 
worth St. Everard 1?12. 

Robert SHERRINGHAM, antiquary and Hebrew scholar ; born at 
Cambridge; died 1677- 

Sir Robert TABOR, physician, the first who used bark with 
success in fevers ; died 1681. 

Thomas TENISON, learned and pious Archbishop of Canterbury; 
born at Cottenham 1636; died 1715. 

William WHITEHEAD, poet laureat and dramatist; born at 
Cambridge 1715; died 1785. 

%* Cambridgeshire is comparatively without a county historian, Carter's His- 
tory being contained in a single volume ; and Blomefield's Collectanea Cantabri- 
giensia consisting of mere church notes. Several accounts and descriptions, how- 
ever, of the University have been given to the world by different authors ; viz. 
Masters, Parker, Carter, Wall, Kilner, Dyer, &c. ; and the Magna Britannia and 
Beauties of England treat of the county generally. 


CHESHIRE lieth in form of an axe, Wirral being the handle 
thereof, having Lancashire (parted with the river Mersey) on 
the north ; a corner of Yorkshire on the north-east ; Derby and 
Stafford-shires (severed with mountains) on the east ; Shropshire 
on the south ; Denbigh, Flintshire, and the Irish Ocean, on the 
west thereof. The longest part (advantaged with excursions) is 
four and forty, the broadest twenty-five miles. 

This county was reputed a Palatinate before the Conquest, and 
since continued in the same dignity. It is much senior to Lan- 
cashire in that honour, which relateth to Cheshire as the copy 
to the original, being Palatinated but by king Edward the Third, 
referring the duke of Lancaster to have his regal jurisdiction, 
"adeo integre et libere sicut comes Cestriee," &c. And 
whereas records are written in the common law, "contra coro- 
nam et dignitatem Regis," in this county they run thus, " con- 
tra dignitatem gladii Cestrifle." 

It aboundeth with all things necessary to man's life ; and it is 
observable that all the rivers and rivulets therein rise in, or run 
through, some meer or pool, as Cumber-meer, Bag-meer, Pick- 
meer, Ridley-pool, Petty-pool, &c. ; so that Cheshire hath more 
lakes in this kind, than all the neighbouring counties, affording 
plenty of carps, tenches, trouts, eels, &c. therein. 

The gentry of this county are remarkable upon a four-fold 
account: 1. For their numerousness, not to be paralelled in 
England in the like extent of ground. 2. Their antiquity, many 
of their ancestors being fixed here before the Norman Conquest. 
3. Their loyalty, especially against a northern enemy, heartily 
hating a Scot ;* understand it before the union of the two king- 
doms. 4. Hospitality, no county keeping better houses, which, 
because all grows on their own, may be the better afforded. 

One said pleasantly, " that it appeared to all people that the 
Cheshire gentry were good house-keepers, because they gave so 
many wheat sheaves, bread being the staff of hospitality, 
wheaten the best of bread in their coats of arms." Indeed, I 
have told no fewer than six and twenty, called garbs in heraldry, 

* Vale Royal of England, page 19. 


which are borne in the several coat-armours of the gentry of this 
county ; the original whereof is sufficiently known to be out of 
conformity to Hugh Kivelioc, the fifth Earl-Palatine of Chester, 
who gave Azure, six garbs Or. And many of the gentry of the 
county, being his dependants, had assigned them, or did assume 
in their shields, something in allusion thereunto. 


This is most essential to man's livelihood, without which nei- 
ther sacrifice was acceptable to God, nor meat is savory to man. 
It is placed on the board with bread, to shew that they are 
equally necessary to man's sustenance. 

A general in our late wars soundly chid a captain for his so 
soon surrendering of a castle, seeing he had store of powder 
therein. " I had/' returned the captain, e( plenty of black but 
no white powder at all." 

And here it is remarkable to observe the defects which sun- 
dry places have herein : 

1. Some countries have salt without flesh within many miles; 
as in the south part of Africa. 

2. Some have plenty of flesh, but no salt to make use thereof; 
as in many parts of Tartary. 

3. Some have flesh and salt, but the flesh utterly incapable 
of seasoning ; as about Nombre de Dios and other places near 
the meridian in America. 

4. Some have flesh, salt, and flesh capable thereof, but so 
unconscionably dear, that common people have little comfort 
therein ; as in France, no country having salt more plentiful, 
and (for reason of State) most excessive in the rate thereof. 

These things considered, we, who have flesh, salt, salt at rea- 
sonable prices, and flesh capable thereof, have cause to profess, 

" O fortunati nimium bona si sua norint 

The manner of making of salt in this county is so largely and 
exactly described by Mr. Camden, that nothing can be added 


Poor men do eat it for hunger, rich for digestion. It seems 
that the ancient British had no skill in the making thereof, till 
taught by the Romans, and now the Romans may even learn 
of us more exactness therein .* This county doth afford the 
best for quantity and quality; and yet their cows are not (as in 
other shires) housed in the winter; so that it may seem strange 

* Camden's Britannia, in Cheshire. 


that the hardiest kine should yield the tenderest cheese.* Some 
essayed in vain to make the like in other places, though hence 
they fetched both their kine and dairy-maids. It seems they 
should have fetched their ground too (wherein surely some 
occult excellency in this kind), or else so good cheese will not 
be made. I hear not the like commendation of the butter in 
this county : and perchance these two commodities are like 
stars of a different horizon, so that the elevatiou of the one to 
emmency is the depression of the other. 


Stones, they are natural; as fitted for that purpose, artificial. 
Very great and good are digged up at Mowcop-hill in this 
county, though one moiety thereof be in Staffordshire, out of 
which the river Trent doth arise. How necessary these are for 
man's sustenance, is proved by the painful experience of such 
aged persons, who wanting their molare teeth must make use 
of their gums for grinders ; and such bad shifts should men be 
put to, if wanting mills where stones turn corn into bread. 

Manufactures considerable I meet with none in this county, 
and therefore proceed. 


Beestone Castle, situated on a steep hill, carried away the 
credit of this county for building ; it was erected by Raynulf 
the third earl of Chester, when he returned victorious from the 
Holy Land. I am much taken with the neatness of the struc- 
ture, though, I confess, my eye never did, and now never shall, 
behold it. 

When some justly quarrel at VirgiFs fiction, making Dido fall 
in love with Eneas, who indeed was dead many years before 
her cradle was made ; others have sought ingeniously to salve 
the anticronism in history, by the plea that she fell in love 
with his picture, which she saw in tapestry : yet I may truly 
allege for myself, that I was affected with the delight of this 
castle, though by me never seen, and now levelled to the ground 
(since the late wars), beholding the delineation thereof cut by 
the charge of John Savage, Esquire. 

Veraque cum desunt momia pictajuvant. 

" When real walls are vanish' d quite, 
Painted ones do us delight/' 

I confess, learned Leland is very confident that this castle 
shall see better times, deriving his intelligence from ancient 
predictions : 

Tempus erit quando rursus caput exeret attum, 
Vutibus antiquis si vas mihi credere vati. 

" Beestone in time its head aloft shall heave, 
If I, a prophet, prophets may believe. '' 

* William Smith, in his Vale Royal, page 18. 


But I give credit to Leland's history, when he tells what is 
past, more than to his prophecy when he foretels what is to 


It is reported by credible and believed by discreet persons, 
that there is a pool adjoining to Brereton, the seat of the ho- 
nourable family of the Breretons, wherein bodies of trees are 
seen to swim for certain days together before the death of any 
heir of that house. If so, let not all men look for so solemn 
summons to pay their debts to Nature. God grant us that 
grey hairs, dimness of sight, dulness of other senses, decay in 
general of strength, death of our dearest relations (especially 
when far younger than ourselves) before our eyes, &c. may 
serve us (instead of swimming logs), and be sanctified unto us, 
for sufficient and effectual monitors of our mortality ! 

We must not forget the many fir trees found here buried 
under ground, whereof largely hereafter in a more proper place.* 
The people of this county cut such pieces of wood very small, 
and use them instead of candles, which give a good light. My 
author adds, that " such wooden candles have long snuffs ; and 
yet," saith he, which to me amounts to a wonder, "in faUing 
do no harm, though they light into tow, flax, or the like.f" 
Strange that the least fire should be so dead as not to be reviv- 
ed with such cordials. Let not this encourage careless servants 
to tempt Providence with such combustible conjunctions : no 
county being more sadly sensible of casualties by fire; Nant- 
wich, a fair market therein, being twice burnt down to the 
ground within the compass of one hundred and fifty years. J 


'< Cheshire chief of men."] 

Say not that this proverb carries a challenge in it, and our 
men of Kent will undertake these chief of men, for engrossing 
manhood to themselves. And some will oppose to this nar- 
row county-proverb, an English one of greater latitude, viz. 
" No man so good, but another may be as good as he/' For, 
rather than any difference shall arise, by wise and peaceable 
men, many chiefs will be allowed. 

Indeed, the Cestrians have always demeaned themselves 
right valiantly in their undertakings. This was well known 
to king Richard the Second, who in dangerous times sent for 
two thousand Cheshire men, all archers, to attend him;|| 
which number, in time of a suspicious parliament, was doubled 

* In the Wonders of Anglesea. 

| W. Smith, in his Vale Royal of England, p. 17. 

J Once anno 14..., and again anno 1583. 

See our Proverbs in Kent. II Holinshed's Chronicle, p. 489. 


by him, all having bouche of court, (bread and beer) and six- 
pence a day,* large wages in that age. 

Pity it was that the valour of these Cheshire men was once 
wasted against themselves, in a terrible battle betwixt king 
Henry the Fourth, and Henry Percy surnamed Hotspur, not 
ill described by our author: 

" There Dutton, Button kills ; a Done doth kill a Done ; 
A Booth, a Booth ; and Leigh by Leigh is overthrown ; 
A Venables against a Venables doth stand ; 
And Troutbeck fighteth with a Troutbeck hand to hand ; 
There Molineux doth make a Molineux to die ; 
And Egerton the strength of Egerton doth try ; 
O Cheshire, wert thou mad, of thine own native gore, 
So much until this day thou never shedst before !"f 

Nor doth this abate our former commendation of their loyalty, 
the cause they maintained being so intricate and perplexed; 
one side fighting for Mortimer, who should be king by right ; 
the other for Henry the Fourth, who actually was so ; and po- 
' litic men, who know the one were loyal, will be loth to say that 
the other were traitors. 

Let no ill-natured wit urge, in opposition to the manhood of 
Cheshire men, their late miscarriage under a worthy knight, 
whom I forbear to name; partly because he nameth himself 
(though I say nothing of him) ; partly because, before my pains 
pass the press, he will probably be honourably additioned. For, 
had other counties seasonably contributed their promised assist- 
ance, what now proved an abortive birth would have been a 
vital infant. Besides, better things were provided for our gra- 
cious sovereign, that he the copy, as God the original, might not 
come in the tempestuous wind of war, fire of fury, or earthquake 
of open enmity, but in the still voice J of a peaceable composi- 
tion. And, to shew that this should not be man's work, God 
suffered both the men of Kent, and Cheshire chief of men, to 
fail in their loyal endeavours, that it might only be God's work, 
and justly marvellous in our eyes. 

" Better wed over the Mixon than over the Moor."] 

Over the Mixon ; that is, hard by or at home, Mixon being 
that heap of compost which lieth in the yards of good husbands. 

Than over the Moor : that is, far off or from London ; the 
road from Chester leading to London over some part of the 
moor-lands in Staffordshire. The meaning is, the gentry in 
Cheshire find it more profitable to match within their county, 
than to bring a bride out of other shires. 1. Because better 
acquainted with her birth and breeding. 2. Because (though 
her portion perchance may be less) the expense will be less to 
maintain her. 

Such intermarriages in this county have been observed, both 

* Stowe's Survey of London, p. 522. 

f Drayton's Polyolbion, Song 22. J Kings xix. 12. 


a prolonger of worshipful families., and the preserver of amity 
betwixt them; seeing what Mr. Camden reported of the citi- 
zens of Cork* is verified of the Cheshire gentry they are all of 
an alliance. 


WILLIAM MAKILESPIELD was, saith my author,t patria Co- 
ventriemis. Bishop Godwin goeth a little further, natus [fer- 
tur] in civitate Coventriensi.% However, I conceive him born in 
this county, finding a fair market-town and forest therein so 
named ; though he was reputed a Coventrian, because Cheshire 
in that age was in the diocese of Coventry and Lichfield. But, 
because I dare not swim against the stream, I remit the reader 
to his character in Warwickshire. 


WILLIAM BOOTH was first bred in Gray's Inn in London, in 
the study of our Municipal Laws, till he quitted that profession 
on the proffer of a chancellor's place in Saint Paul's, and took 
orders upon him. It was not long before he was consecrated 
bishop of Lichfield, and six years after translated to York. 
He expended much money in repairing and enlarging his palace 
at York ; and, after twelve years, died, and was buried in Saint 
Mary's Chapel in Southwell 1464. 

LAURENCE BOOTH, brother (but by another mother) to Wil- 
liam aforesaid, was bred and became master of Pembroke-hall in 
Cambridge, and was chancellor of that university. He made 
the composition betwixt the university and King's College to 
their mutual advantage ; and was an eminent benefactor to his 
own college, bestowing thereon all the tenements (since alienat- 
ed) betwixt it and St. Botolph's Church, amongst which was St. 
Thomas Hostle. He exonerated the college of a pension of five 
pounds which he redeemed, and conferred thereon the manor 
and patronage of Overton Waterfield in Huntingdonshire. 

As it is God's, so it is all good men's method > in advancing 
their servants, " Be faithful in a little, and thou shalt rule over 
much." Doctor Booth, well performing his chanceUor's place 
in Cambridge, was thence preferred chancellor to Margaret 
queen to Henry the Sixth. Well discharging that office, he was, 
in the 13th of king Edward the Fourth, made lord high chancel- 
lor (it seems his public spirit was neither for York nor Lan- 
caster, but England), having first been bishop of Durham, after- 
wards archbishop of York, and deserving well of both sees ; for 
he built in the first the gate of Aukland-college, and bought for 
the latter the manor of Battersea nigh London. 

It must not be forgotten that this archbishop kept the master- 
ship of Pembroke-hall till the day of his death, and so did his 

* In his Britannia, in Ireland. f Pits, de Ang. Script, p. 388. 

J In his Catalogue of Cardinals. 


successors in the same college, Bishop Fox, and Bishop Ridley ; 
not that they were covetous (what is a molehill to those that 
have mountains ?) of the place, but the place ambitious of them, 
to be guarded and graced with them, as it is this day by the 
right reverend father in God Benjamin Lany lord bishop of Pe- 
terborough. This archbishop died anno Domini 1480. 

JOHN BOOTH, brother to Laurence aforesaid, bachelor of laws, 
was consecrated bishop of Exeter in the sixth of king Edward 
the Fourth, 1466. He built the bishop's chair, or seat, in his 
cathedral, which, in the judicious eye of Bishop Godwin, hath 
not his equal in England.* Let me add, that though this be 
the fairest chair, the soft cushion thereof was taken away, when 
Bishop Vescy alienated the lands thereof. The worst was, when 
Bishop Booth had finished this chair, he could not quietly sit 
down therein, so troublesome the times of the civil wars betwixt 
York and Lancaster ; so that, preferring his privacy, he retired 
to a little place of his own purchasing at Horsley in Hampshire, 
where he died April the first, 1478 ; and was buried in Saint 
Clement Danes, London. 

We must remember that these three prelates had a fourth and 
eldest brother, Sir Roger Booth, knight, of Barton in Lanca- 
shire, father of Margaret, wife of Ralph Nevili third Earl of 
Westmoreland. And may the reader take notice, that though 
we have entered these bishops (according to our best inform- 
ation) in Cheshire, yet is it done with due reservation of the 
right of Lancashire, in case that county shall produce better 
evidence for their nativities. 

THOMAS SAVAGE was born at Macclesfield in this county.f 
His father, being a knight, bred him a doctor of the law in the 
university of Cambridge. Hence was he preferred bishop 
of Rochester, and at last archbishop of York. He was a greater 
courtier than clerk, and most dexterous in managing secular mat- 
ters, a mighty Nimrod, and more given to hunting than 
did consist with the gravity of his profession. J 

No doubt, there wanted not those which taxed him 
with that passage in Saint Jerome, " Penitus non invenimus in 
scripturis sanctis sanctum aliquem Venatorem, Piscatores inve- 
nimus sanctos."|| But all would not wean him from that sport, 
to which he was so much addicted. 

His provident precedent spared his successors in that see 
many pounds of needless expenses, by declining a costly installa- 
tion, being the first who privately was installed by his vicar. 
Yet was he not covetous in the least degree, maintaining a most 

* In his Catalogue of Bishops of Exeter. 

f Bishop Godwin, in the Archbishops of York. 

t " Venationibus immodice delectatus est." Idem, ibidem, 

II In his Comment on the 90th Psalm. 


numerous family, and building much, both at Scroby and Ca- 
wood. Having sate seven years in his see, he died, 1508, 
his body being buried at York," his heart at Macclesfield, where he 
was born, in a chapel of his own erection, intending to have add- 
ed a college thereunto, had not death prevented him. 


WILLIAM CHADERTON, D. D. Here I solemnly tender 
deserved thanks to my manuscript author, charitably guiding 
me in the dark, assuring that this doctor was " ex preeclaro 
Chadertonorum Cestrensis comitatus stemmate prognatus."* 
And although this doubtful direction doth not cleave the pin, 
it doth not hit the white ; so that his nativity may with most 
probability (not prejudicing the right to Lancashire when pro- 
duced) here be fixed. He was bred first fellow, then master of 
Queen's, and never of Magdalen College, in Cambridge (as the 
Reverend Bishop Godwinf mistaketh), and chosen first the 
Lady Margaret's, then King's, professor in divinity ; and doctor 
Whitacre succeeded him immediately in the chair. He was, 
anno 15 79, made bishop of Chester, then of Lincoln 1594 ; 
demeaning himself in both to his great commendation. He 
departed this life in April 1608. 

His grandchild, a virtuous gentlewoman of rare accomplish- 
ments,, married to Joceline, Esquire, being big with child, 
wrote a book of advice, since printed, and entitled, " The 
Mother's Legacy to her unborn Infant ;" of whom she died in 

WILLIAM JAMES, D. D., was born in this county, bred a 
scholar in Christchurch, in Oxford, and afterwards president of 
the university college. He succeeded Bishop Mathews in the 
deanery and bishopric of Durham. J 

He had been chaplain to Robert Dudly, earl of Leicester; 
and (I hope) I may lawfully transcribe what I read : " This 
hope of comfort came to his lordship thereby, that if it pleased 
God to impart any mercy to him (as ' his mercy endureth for 
ever'), it was by the especial ministry of this man, who was the 
last of his coat that was with him in his sickness." 

He was a principal means of recovering Durham-house unto 
his see. This house was granted by king Edward the Sixth to 
the lady (afterwards queen) Elizabeth (only for term of life) ; 
and lay long neglected during her reign, till Bishop James, 
about the sixth of king James, regained it, and repaired the 

* R. Parker, in Seel. Cant, in the Masters of Queen's College, 
f In his Catalogue of the Bishop of Lincoln, printed 1616. 
j " In Comitatu Cestriensi natus." Bishop Godwin, in the Bishops 

Sir J. Harrington, View of the Church of England, p. 204. 


chapel (which he found not only profaned,, but even defaced), 
to his great cost, and furnished it very decently. 

He once made so complete an entertainment for queen Eliza- 
beth., that her majesty commended the order and manner 
thereof for many years after.* This maketh me the more to 
admire at what I have heard reported,, that, when king James, 
in his progress to Scotland, anno 1617, passed through the 
bishopric of Durham, some neglect was committed by this 
bishop's officers, for which the king secretly and sharply 
checked this bishop, who laid it so to heart, that he survived 
the same reproof not a full twelvemonth. 

JOHN RICHARDSON, of a family of good worship and great 
antiquity therein, was (as he told me) born in this county. 
After his hopeful education in countiy schools, he was bred in 
the university of Dublin, where he was graduated Doctor in 
Divinity, and afterwards was made bishop of Ardagh, in Ire- 
land. In the late rebellion he came over into England, con- 
tinuing for many years therein. Episcopal gravity was written 
in his countenance, and he was a good divine according to the 
rule, " Bonus Textuarius, bonus Theologus," no man being 
more exact in knowledge of Scripture, carrying a Concordance 
in his memory. Great was his pains in the larger annotations, 
especially on Ezekiel. For let not the cloaks carry away the 
credit from the gowns and rochet in that work, seeing this 
bishop might say, " Pars ego magna fui ;" and Doctor Featley, 
with others of the episcopal party, bare a great share therein. 
Our Saviour, we know, lived on the charity of such good people 
as " ministered " unto him ;t and yet it may be collected that 
it was his constant custom (especially about the feast of " the 
Passover ")J to give some alms to the poor. So our bishop, 
who was relieved by some, had his bounty to bestow on others ; 
and by his will (as I am informed) he bequeathed no inconsider- 
able legacy to the college in Dublin. He died anno 1653, in 
the 74th year of his age. 


Sir THOMAS EGERTON, knight, was extracted from the 
ancient family of the Egertons, of Ridley, in this county ; bred 
in the study of the Municipal Laws of our land, wherein he 
attained to such eminency, that queen Elizabeth made him her 
Solicitor, then Master of the Rolls, and at last Keeper of the 
Great Seal, May 6, in the thirty-eighth year of the reign, 1596. 

Olaus Magnus reporteth, that the emperor of Muscovia, at 
the audience of ambassadors, sendeth for the gravest and seem- 
liest men in Musco and the vicinage, whom he apparelleth in 

* Sir J. Harrington, View of the Church of England, p. 206. 
f Luke viiL 3. :t John xiii. 19. 


rich vests, and, placing them in his presence, pretendeth to 
foreigners, that these are of his privy council, who cannot hut 
be much affected with so many reverend aspects. But surely 
all Christendom afforded not a person which carried more gra- 
vity in his countenance and behaviour, than Sir Thomas Eger- 
ton, insomuch that many have gone to the chancery on purpose 
only to see his venerable garb (happy they who had no other 
business !) and were highly pleased at so acceptable a spectacle. 

Yet was his outward case nothing in comparison of his in- 
ward abilities, quick wit, solid judgment, ready utterance. I 
confess Master Camden saith he entered his office " magna 
expectatione et integritatis opinione," (" with a great expecta- 
tion and opinion of integrity/ 3 )* But, no doubt, had he revised 
his work in a second edition, he would have afforded him a full- 
faced commendation, when this lord had turned his expectation 
into performance. 

In the first of king "James, of lord keeper he was made lord 
chancellor, which is only another name for the same office ; and 
on Thursday the 7th of November, 1616, of Lord Ellesmere he 
was created Viscount Brackley. 

It is given to courts whose jurisdictions do border, to fall out 
about their bounds ; and the contest betwixt them is the hotter, 
the higher the spirits and parts of the respective judges. Great 
the contention for many years together betwixt this Lord of 
Equity and Sir Edward Coke, the oracle of Justice, at West- 
minster-hall. I know not which of them got the better : sure 
I am such another victory would (if this did not) have undone 
the conqueror. 

He was attended on with servants of most able parts, and 
was the sole chancellor since the Reformation who had a chap- 
lain,t which (though not immediately) succeeded him in his 
place. He gave over his office, which he held full twenty years, 
some few days before his death ; and, by his own appointment, 
his body was brought down and buried at Duddleston in this 
county, leaving a fair estate to his son, who was afterwards 
created Earl of Bridgwater. 

When he saw king James so profuse to the Scots, with the 
grave fidelity of a statesman, he sticked not often to tell him, 
that as he held it necessary for his majesty amply to remu- 
nerate those his countrymen, so he desired him carefully to pre- 
serve his crown lands for his own support, seeing he or his suc- 
cessors might meet with parliaments which would not supply 
his occasions but on such conditions as would not be very ac- 
ceptable unto him. 

It was an ordinary speech in his mouth to say, "frost and 
fraud both end in fM."% His death happened anno Domini 

* In his Elizabeth, anno 1596. f Bishop Williams. 

J Alleged by Sir Francis Bacon, in his censure on the Earl of Somerset. 



[AMP.] Sir HUMPHREY STARKEY was born, with most pro- 
bability, in this county, where his name is in good, hath been 
in a better, esteem and estate. He in the study of our laws so 
profited, that (after some intermediate dignities) he was pre- 
ferred chief baron of the Exchequer. I cannot with certainty 
fix his admission into that office (confused times causing con- 
fused dates) ; but with as much certainty as we can collect, we 
conclude him preferred to that place 1 Henrici VII.* 

We need inquire no farther into his ability, finding him, by 
so wise and frugal a king, employed in a place belonging to his 
coffers ; who, though he was sometimes pleased to be remiss in 
matters which concerned his subjects, was ever careful in things 
wherein his own emolument was interested. Wonder not that 
we have so little left of this judge's actions, because Empsom 
and Dudley (loaders grinding more than the chief miller) were 
such instruments whose over-activity made all others seem 
slugs in that court. It doth sound not a little to the praise of 
our Starkey, that, whereas that age was justly complaining of 
the extortions of the king's officers, nothing of that nature (no 
/tearing, best hearing in this kind) is laid to his charge. He 
was buried in Leonard, Shoreditch, where this remains of his 
epitaph : " Orate pro animabus Humphredi Starkey, militis, 
nuper Capitalis Baronis de Scaccario domini regis Henrici 
Septimi, et Isabellse uxoris ejus, et omnium amicorum suorum, 

The date of his death, defaced on his tomb, appeareth elsewhere f 
to be at the end of the reign of king Henry the Seventh ; so that 
his on the bench was parallel with his sovereign's sitting on the 
throne, begun in the first and ended in the last of his reign. 

Sir HENRY BRADSHAW, knight. This surname being dif- 
fused in Derbyshire and Lancashire, as well as in this county, 
his nativity, advantaged by the alphabet (first come first served) 
is fixed herein. He became so noted for his skill in our Com- 
mon Law, that in the sixth of king Edward the Sixth, in Hilary 
Term, he was made chief baron of the Exchequer, demeaning 
himself therein to his great commendation. 

Pity it is that Demetrius, who is " well reported of all men J " 
should suffer for his namesake Demetrius' the silversmith, who 
made the shrines for Diana, and raised persecution against 
Saint Paul. And as unjust it is, that this good judge, of whom 
nothing ill is reported, should fare the worse for one of the 
same surname of execrable memory, of whom nothing good is 

* Sir Henry Spelman, in his Glossary, under the article " Justiciarius," seems to 

assign him 1 Edward V. 1 Richard III. and 1 Henry VII F. Sir H. Starkey 

was appointed chief baron June 26, 1484, and resigned Oct. 29, 1487 ED 

f In Sir Henry Spelman, ut prius. J 3 John xii. Acts xix. 24. 

JUDGES. 273 

remembered. I have cause to conceive, that this judge was 
ousted of his place, for Protestant inclination, 1 Marite, finding 
no more mention of him. 

Sir RANDAL CREW was born in this county, bred in the 
study of our Municipal Law ; wherein such his proficiency, that 
(after some steps in his way thereunto), in the twenty-second of 
king James, he was made Lord Chief Justice of the Upper 
Bench, and therein served two kings (though scarce two years 
in his office) with great integrity. 

King Charles's occasions calling for speedy supplies of money, 
some great-ones adjudged it unsafe to adventure on a parlia- 
ment (for fear, in those distempered times, the physic would 
side with the disease), and put the king to furnish his neces- 
sities by way of loan. Sir Randal being demanded his judg- 
ment of that design, and the consequence thereof (the impri- 
soning of recusants to pay it), openly manifested his dislike of 
such preter-legal courses; and thereupon, November 9, 1626, 
was commanded to forbear his sitting in the court, and the 
next day was by writ discharged from his office ; whereat he 
discovered no more discontentment than the weary traveller is 
offended when told that he is arrived at his journey's end. 

The country hath constantly a smile for him for whom the 
court hath a frown. This knight was out of his office, not out 
of honour, living long after at his house in Westminster, much 
praised for his hospitality. 

Indeed, he may the better put off his gown (though before he 
goeth to bed) who hath a warm suit under it ; and this learned 
judge, by God's blessing on his endeavours, had purchased a fair 
estate, and particularly Crew-hall in Cheshire (for some ages for- 
merly the possession of the Falshursts), but which probably was 
the inheritance of his ancestors. , Nor must it be forgotten, that 
Sir Randal first brought the model of excellent building into 
these remoter parts ; yea, brought London into Cheshire, in the 
loftiness, sightliness, and pleasantness of their structures. 

One word of his lady ; a virtuous wife being very essential to 
the integrity of a married judge, lest, what Westminster Hall 
doth conclude, Westminster Bed-chamber doth revoke. He 
married Julian, daughter and co-heir of John Clipsby, of 
Clipsby, in Norfolk, Esq. with whom he had a fair inheritance. 
She died at Kew, in Surrey, 1623; and lieth buried in the 
chancel of Richmond, with this epitaph : 

" Antiqua fuit orta domo, pia vixit, inivit 

Virgo pudiea thorum, sponsa pudica polum." 

I saw this worthy judge in health 1642 ; but he survived not 
long after. And be it remembered he had a younger brother, 
Sir Thomas Crew, a most honest and learned sergeant in the 
same profession ; whose son, John Crew, esquire (of his Ma- 
jesty's privy council), having been so instrumental to the happy 

VOL. I. T 


change in our nation, is in general report (which no doubt will 
be effected before these my pains be public) designed for some 
title of honour.* 

Sir HUMFREY DAVENPORT. His surname is sufficient to 
entitle this county unto him ; but I will not be peremptory till 
better information. He was bred in the Temple, had the repu- 
tation of a studied lawyer, and upright person ; qualities which 
commended him to be chosen chief baron of the Exchequer. 
How he behaved himself in the case of the ship-money, is fresh 
in many men's memories. The reader cannot be more angry 
with me, than I am grieved in myself, that, for want of intel- 
ligence, I cannot do the right which I would and ought, to this 
worthy judge's memory, who died about the beginning of our 
civil distempers. 


Sir HUGH CALVELY, born at Calvely, in this county. Tra- 
dition makes him a man of teeth and hands, who would" feed as 
much as two, and fight as much as ten men.t His quick and 
strong appetite could digest any thing but an injury ; so that 
killing a man is reported the cause of his quitting this county, 
making hence for London, then for France. Here he became 
a most eminent soldier, answering the character our great anti- 
quary hath given him, (( Arte militari ita in Galli inclaruit, ut 
vividae ejus virtuti ninil fuit impervium/'J 

I find five of his principal achievements: 1. When he was 
one of the thirty English in France, who in a duel encountered 
as many Britons. 2. When, in the last of king Edward the 
Third, being governor of Calais, he looked on (his hands being 
tied behind him by a truce yet in force for a month), and saw 
the English slain before his eyes ; whose blood he soon after 
revenged. 3. When, in the first of king Richard the Second, 
after an unfortunate voyage of our English nobility, beaten 
home with a tempest, he took Bark-bulloigne, and five-and- 
twenty other French ships, besides the castle of Mark, lately 
lost by negligence, which he recovered. 4. When, in the next 
year, he spoiled Estaples, at a fair-time, bringing thence so 
much plunder as enriched the Calicians for many years after. 
5. When he married the queen of Arragon ; which is most 
certain, her arms being quartered on his tomb, though I cannot 
satisfy the reader in the particularities thereof. 

The certain date of his death is unknown, which by propor- 
tion may be collected about the year 1388 ; after which time, 
no mention of him : and it was as impossible for such a spirit 
not to be, as not to be active. 

Sir ROBERT KNOWLES, Knight, was born of mean paren- 

* He was created Baron Crew, of Stene, co. Northampton, in 1661. ED. 
f Camden's Britannia, in Cheshire. % Camden, ibidem. 


, in this count}- ;* yet did not the weight of his low extrac- 
tion depress the wings of his martial mind, who by his valour 
wrought his own advancement. He was another of the thirty 
English, who, for the honour of the nation, undertook to duel 
with as many Britons,f and came off with great reputation. 

He was afterwards a commander in the French war under 
king Edward the Third, where, in despite of their power, he 
drove the people before him like sheep, destroying towns, cas- 
tles, and cities, in such manner and number, that, many years 
after, the sharp points and gable-ends of overthrown houses 
(cloven asunder with instruments of war) were commonly called 
Knowles's Mitres. J 

The last piece of his service was performed in suppressing 
Wat Tyler and his rebels. Then I behold aged Sir Robert, 
buckling on his armour, as old Priam at the taking of Troy, but 
with far better success, as proving very victorious; and the 
citizens of London enfranchised him a member thereof, in 
expression of their thankfulness. 

His charity was as great as his valour ; and he rendered him- 
self no less loved by the English, than feared of the French. 
He gave bountifully to the building of Rochester bridge, found- 
ing a chapel and chantry at the east end thereof, with a college 
at Pontefract in Yorkshire, where Constance, his lady, was born, 
endowing it with one hundred and eighty pounds per annum. 

He died at his manor of Scone-Thorp in Norfolk, in peace 
and honour, whereas martialists generally set in a cloud, being 
at least ninety years of age (for he must be allowed no less than 
thirty years old when, anno 1352, he was a general under king 
Edward the Third, and he survived until the 15th of August 
1407), being buried in Whitefriars in London, to which he had 
been a great benefactor. 

JOHN SMITH, Captain, was born in this county, as Master 
Arthur Smith, his kinsman and my school-master, did inform 
me. But whether or no related unto the worshipful family of 
the Smiths at Hatherton, I know not. 

He spent the most of his life in foreign parts. First in Hun- 
gary, under the emperor, fighting against the Turks ; three of 
which he himself killed in single duels ; and therefore was 
authorized by Sigismund king of Hungary to bear three Turks' 
heads, as an augmentation to his arms.|| Here he gave intel- 
ligence to a besieged city in the night, by significant fire-works 
formed in the air, in legible characters, with many strange per- 

* Weever's Funeral Monuments, p. 436. 

f Sir Walter Raleigh, History of the World, lib. v. p. 545. 

J Lambarde's Perambulation of Kent. 

Camden's Britannia, in this county. 

|| So it is writ in the table over his tomb. 

T 2 


formances, the scene whereof is laid at such a distance, they are 
cheaper credited than confuted. 

From the Turks in Europe he passed to the pagans in Ame- 
rica, where, towards the latter end of the reign of queen Eliza- 
beth, such his perils, preservations, dangers, deliverances, they 
seem to most men above belief, to some beyond truth. Yet have 
we two witnesses to attest them, the prose and the pictures, 
both in his own book ; and it soundeth much to the diminution 
of his deeds, that he alone is the herald to publish and pro- 
claim them. 

Two captains being at dinner, one of them fell into a large 
relation of his own achievements, concluding his discourse with 
this question to his fellow, e( And pray, Sir/ 5 said he, " what 
service have you done ?" To whom he answered, ee Other men 
can tell that/ 5 And surely such reports from strangers carry 
with them the greater reputation. However, moderate men 
must allow Captain Smith to have been very instrumental in 
settling the plantation in Virginia, whereof he was governor, 
as also admiral, of New England. 

He led his old age in London, where his having a prince's 
mind imprisoned in a poor man's purse rendered him to the 
contempt of such who were not ingenuous. Yet he efforted his 
spirits with the remembrance and relation of what formerly he 
had been, and what he had done. He was buried in Sepul- 
chre's Church choir, on the south side thereof, having a rant- 
ing epitaph inscribed in a table over him, too long to transcribe. 
Only we will insert the first and last verses, the rather because 
the one may fit Alexander's life for his valour, the other his 
death for his religion ; 

" Here lies one conquer'd that hath conquer'd kings !" 
" Oh, may his soul in sweet Elysium sleep." 

The orthography, poetry, history, and divinity in this epi- 
taph, are much alike. He died on the 21st of June 1 631. 


If this county hath bred no writers in that faculty, the won- 
der is the less, if it be true what I read, that if any here be 
sick, " they make him a posset, and tie a kerchief on his head ; 
and if that will not mend him, then God be merciful to him !' ; 
But be this understood of the common people, the gentry hav- 
ing the help (no doubt) of the learned in that profession. 


THOMAS ECLESTONE (a village in Broxton hundred) was 
born in this county, bred a Franciscan in Oxford. Leland saith 
of him, that, under the conduct of prudence and experience, he 
contended with many paces to pierce into the penetrales of 

* William Smith, Vale Royal, p. 16. 


learning; He wrote a book of the succession of Franciscans in 
England, with their works and wonders, from their first coming- 
in to his own time, dedicating the same to (not G. Notingham, 
the provincial of his order, but to) his friend and fellow-friar ; 
his mortified mind (it seems) not aiming at honour therein. He 
wrote another book, intituled, " De Impugnatione Ordinis sui 
per Dominicanos," ("Of the assaults which the Dominicans 
made on his order;")* these two sorts of friars whipping each 
other with their cords or knotted girdles, to the mutual wound- 
ing of their reputations. He died anno Domini 1340. 


RALPH RADCLIFFE was born in this county, who, travelling 
southward, fixed himself at Hitching in Hertfordshire, where he 
converted a demolished house of the Carmelites into a public 
grammar-school.t He here erected a fair stage, whereon, partly 
to entertain his neighbours, and partly to embolden his scholars 
in pronunciation, many interludes were acted by them. Pits 
praiseth him, being a school-master, that he confined himself 
to his own profession, not meddling with divinity ; J and yet, 
amongst his books, he reckoned up a treatise of " The Burning 
of Sodome ;" and another of "The Afflictions of Job." 

Nor must we forget his book entitled " De triplici Memoria," 
(Of the threefold Memory,) which (though I never met with any 
that saw it) may probably be presumed, of the 

He flourished under the reign of king Edward the Sixth, anno 
Domini 1552 ; and it is likely he died before the reign of queen 

JOHN SPEED was born at Farrington in this county, as his 
own daughter hath informed me. He was first bred to a han- 
dicraft, and as I take it to a tailor. I write not this for his but 
my own disgrace, when I consider how far his industry hath 
outstript my ingenious education. Sir Fulk Grevill, a great 
favourer of learning, perceiving how his wide soul was stuffed 
with two narrow an occupation, first wrought his enlargement, 
as the said author doth ingenuously confess : 

" Whose merits to me-ward I do acknowledge, in setting this 
hand free from the daily employments of a manual trade, 
and giving it his liberty thus to express the inclination of 
my mind, himself being the procurer of my present 
estate." || 

This is he who afterwards designed the maps and composed 

* Pits, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, anno 1340. 

t Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 8, n. 98. 

I Anglise Scriptores, num. 992. 

Mrs. Blackmore, a stationer's wife in Paul's Church-yard. 

|| In his description of Warwickshire. 


the history of England,, though much helped in both (no shame 
to crave aid in a work too weighty for any one's back to bear) 
by Sir Robert Cotton, Master Camden, Master Barkham, and 
others. He also made the useful genealogies preposed formerly 
to English Bibles in all volumes, having a patent granted him 
from king James, in reward of his great labours, to receive the 
benefit thereof to him and his. This was very beneficial unto 
them, by composition .with the Company of Stationers, until 
this licentious age, neglecting all such ingenious helps to under- 
stand Scripture, and almost levelling (if not prevented) the pro- 
priety of all authors of books. He died in London, anno 1629 : 
and was buried in Saint Giles without Cripplegate, in the same 
parish with Master John Fox ; so that no one church in Eng- 
land containeth the corpse of two such useful and voluminous 
historians. Master Josias Shute preached his funeral sermon : 
and thus we take our leaves of Father Speed, truly answering 
his name, in both the acceptions thereof, for celerity and 

JOHN DOD was born at Shottliege, in this county (where his 
parents had a competent estate) ; bred in Jesus College in 
Cambridge, by nature a witty, by industry a learned, by grace a 
godly divine ; successively minister of Hanwell in Oxford, 
Fenny-Compton in Warwick, Canpns-Ashby and Fawsley in 
Northamptonshire, though for a time silenced in each of them. 

A father (who shall pass nameless) is censured by some for his 
over-curiosity in his conceit, rather than comment, Matt. v. 2. 
" And he opened his mouth, and taught them." " For Christ/ 5 
saith he, (e taught them often, when he opened not his mouth, by 
his example, miracles, &c." Here I am sure, accordingly, Master 
Dod, when "his mouth was shut" (prohibiting preaching), in- 
structed almost as much as before, by his holy demeanor and 
pious discourse ; a good chemist, who could extract gold out of 
other men's lead ; and how loose soever the premises of other 
men's discourse, piety was always his natural and unforced con- 
clusion inferred thereupon. 

For the rest, I refer the reader to Master Samuel Clark, by 
whom his life is written, wherein are many remarkable pas- 
sages : I say Master Samuel Clark, with- whose pen mine never 
did or shall interfere. Indeed, as the flocks of Jacob were 
distanced "three days' journeys" from those of Laban,* so 
(to prevent voluntary or casual commixtures) our styles are set 
more than a month's journey asunder. 

The Jewish Rabbins have a fond and a false conceit, that 
Methusalem, who indeed died in the very year (and his death a 
sad prognostic) of the deluge, had a cabin built him in the out- 
side of Noah's ark, where he was preserved by himself, t But 
most true it is, that good Father Dod, though he lived to see 

* Genesis xxx. 36. f See Archbishop Usher's Chronicle. 


the flood of our late civil wars, made to himself a cabin in his 
own contented conscience ; and though his clothes were wetted 
with the waves (when plundered) he was dry in the deluge, such 
his self-solace in his holy meditations. He died, being eighty- 
six years of age, anno 1645. 

When thieves break in a house and steal, the owner thereof 
knows for the present that he is robbed, but not of what or how 
much, till some days after he finds out by the want of such 
things which were taken from him. The vicinage of Fawsley, 
where Mr. Dod died, knew then they were bereft of a worthy 
treasure, though ignorant in the particulars of their losses, till 
daily discovery hath by this time made them sensible thereof. 


Sir RICHARD SUTTON was born at Presbury, in this county;* 
he is generally believed a knight, though some have suspected 
the same, but suppose him but esquire. He was one of a 
plentiful estate and bountiful hand. 

It happened that William Smith, bishop of Lincoln, began 
Brasen-nose College, but died before he had finished one nos- 
tril thereof, leaving this Sutton his executor, who over-per- 
formed the bishop's will, and completed the foundation with his 
own liberal additions thereunto. When the following verses 
were composed, in the person of Brasen-nose College, the Mu- 
ses seemed neither to smile nor frown, but kept their wonted 
countenance. But take them as they are : 

" Begun by one, but nnish'd by anpther, 

Sutton he was my nurse, but Smith my mother : 
Or, if the phrase more proper seem, say rather, 
That Sutton was my guardian, Smith my father ; 
'Cause equal kindness they to me exprest, 
Better I neither love, love both the best ; 
If both they may be call'd, who had one will, 
What one design'd, the other did fulfil. 
May such testators live who good intend ; 
But, if they die, heaven such exec' tors send ! " 

This worthy knight, being born in this county, deservedly 
reflected upon his own countrymen, making them (and those of 
Lancashire) most capable of preferment. I collect his death to 
have happened about the middle of the reign of king Henry the 


ROBERT BRASSY was born at Bunbury (contracted for Boni- 
face-Bury) in this county ; bred D. D. in King's College in 
Cambridge, whereof he was elected the thirteenth provost.f 
He, being a learned and stout man, publicly protested against 
the visitors of the university in the reign of queen Mary, as to 

* So my good friend Dr. Yates, principal of Brasen-nose, hath informed me F. 
t Mr. Hatcher, in hia Manuscript Catalogue of the Fellows of King's College. 


his own college.* Say not he only opposed superstition with 
superstition, pleading popish exemptions : for, considering the 
times, he " drove the nail which would best go ;" and thereby 
took off the edge of those persecuting commissioners. 

But let none envy him a place under this title, who deserved 
so well of Cambridge : for, when many doctors therein, whose 
purblind souls saw only what was next them for the present, 
and either could not or would not look far forward to posterity, 
had resolved to sell their rights in Sturbridge-fair for a trifle to 
the towns-men (which if done, the vice-chancellor might even 
have held the stirrup to the mayor), he only opposed it, and 
dashed the designs.f He died anno Domini 1558 ; and lies 
buried on the south side of the chapel. 

GEORGE PALIN was (as I have cogent presumptions) born at 
Wrenbury, in this county ; bred a merchant in London, free of 
the company of Girdlers. Indeed, we may call his benefactions 
aureum cingulum charitatis, "the golden girdle of charity." 
With our Saviour he (e went about doing good/' J completing 
the circuit of his bounty, continuing till he ended where he 
began : 

1. To Wrenbury (where we believe him born), two hundred 
pounds to purchase lands for the relief of the poor. 2. Nine 
hundred pounds for the building of alms-houses in or about 
London. 3. To Trinity College in Cambridge, three hundred 
pounds. 4. To the college of Saint John the Evangelist in 
Cambridge, three hundred pounds. 5. To the hospital of Saint 
Thomas in Southwark, fifty pounds. 6. To the preachers at 
Paul's Cross, towards the bearing of their charges, two hundred 
pounds. 7- Toward the making of a sweet chime in Bow 
Church, one hundred pounds. 8. To six prisons in and about 
London, sixty pounds. 9. To Brasen-nose College in Oxford, 
two scholarships, to each yearly four pounds. 10. To the col- 
lege of Saint John Baptist in Oxford, two scholarships of the 
same value. 11. To Christchurch hospital, three hundred 
pounds. 12. To the church and poor (to buy them gowns) of 
Wrenbury, seventy pounds. With other benefactions. 

Verily, I say unto you, I have not met a more universal and 
impartial charity to all objects of want and worth. He died 
about the beginning of the reign of king James. 

JOHN BREWERTON, Knight, a branch of that well-spread 
tree in this county, was bred one of the first scholars of the 
foundation in Sidney College; and afterwards, being brought 
up in the study of the Common Law, he went over into Ireland, 
and at last became the king's Serjeant therein. I say at last, 
for at his coming thither (in the tumults of Tyrone) neither rex 

* Fox, Acts and Monuments, page 1958. f Mr. Hatcher, ut prius. 

1 Acts x. 38. 


nor lex, neither king nor serjeant, were acknowledged, till 
loyalty and civility were by degrees distilled into that nation. 

He obtained a plentiful estate, and thereof gave well nigh 
three thousand pounds to Sidney College. Now as it is re- 
ported of Ulysses, returning from his long travel in foreign 
lands, that all his family had forgot him ; so when the news of 
this legacy first arrived at the college, none then extant therein 
ever heard of his name (so much may the sponge of forty years 
blot out in this kind) ; only the written register of the college 
faithfully retained his name therein. 

This his gift was a gift indeed, purely bestowed on the college, 
as loaded with no detrimental conditions in the acceptance 
thereof. We read in the Prophet, " Thou hast increased the 
nation, and not multiplied their joy." * In proportion where- 
unto, we know r it is possible that the comfortable condition of 
a college may not be increased, though the number of the fel- 
lows and scholars therein be augmented, superadded branches 
sucking out the sap of the root ; whereas the legacy of this wor- 
thy knight ponebatur in lucro, being pure gain and improve- 
ment to the college. His death happened about the year 1633. 

JOHN BARXSTOX, D.D. was born of an ancient family in 
this county ; bred fellow of Brasen-nose College, in Oxford ; 
afterwards chaplain to Chancellor Egerton, and residentiary of 
Salisbury ; a bountiful housekeeper, of a cheerful spirit and 
peaceable disposition, whereof take this eminent instance : He 
sat judge in the Consistory, when a church-warden, out of 
whose house a chalice was stolen, was sued by the parish to 
make it good to them, because not taken out of the church- 
chest (where it ought to have been reposited), but out of 
his private house. The church-warden pleaded that he took 
it home only to scour it ; which proving ineffectual, he retained 
it till next morning, to boil out the in-laid rust thereof. 

"Well/ 5 said the doctor, "I am sorry that the cup of union 
and communion should be the cause of difference and discord 
between you. Go home, and live lovingly together; and I 
doubt not but that either the thief out of remorse will restore 
the same ; or some other as good will be sent unto you f 9 which, 
by the doctor's secret charity, came to pass accordingly. He 
founded an Hebrew lecture in Brasen-nose College ; and de- 
parted in peace, in the beginning of our wars, about the year 


WILLIAM SMITH was born in this county, wherein his sur- 
name hath been of signal note for many ages. His genius in- 
clined him to the study of heraldry, wherein he so profited, 
that anno .... he was made Pursuivant of Anns, by the name 

Isaiah ix. 3. 


of Rouge-dragon. He wrote a description, geographical and his- 
torical, of this county, left (it seems) in the hands of Raynulph 
Crew, knight, sometime lord chief justice of the King's 
Bench, and lately set forth by the favour of Mr. Raynulph 
Crew, grand-child to that worthy knight. The time of his 
death is to me unknown. 

WILLIAM WEBB, a native of this county, was bred a mas- 
ter in arts, and afterwards betook himself to be a clerk of the 
Mayor's court in Chester. It appeareth also he was under- 
sheriff to Sir Richard Lee, high-sheriff of this county, in the 
thirteenth year of king James. He compiled a description of 
Cheshire and Chester, lately printed by procurement of that no 
less communicative than judicious antiquary Sir Simon Archer, 
of Tamworth in Warwickshire. I cannot attain the certain date 
of his death. 

RANDAL CREW, Esquire, second son to Sir Clipsby, grand- 
child to Judge Crew. He drew a map of Cheshire so exactly 
with his pen, that a judicious eye would mistake it for printing, 
and the graver's skill and industry could little improve it. 
This map I have seen ; and, reader, when my eye directs my 
hand, I may write with confidence. This hopeful gentleman 
went beyond the seas, out of design to render himself by his 
travels, more useful for his country ; where he was barbarously 
assassinated by some Frenchmen, and honourably buried, with 
general lamentation of the English, at Paris, 1656. 


1. Hugh Witch, son of Richard Witch, of Nantwich, Mercer, 


2. Thomas Oldgrave, son of William Oldgrave, of Knotysford, 

Skinner, 1467. 

3. Edmund Shaw, son of John Shaw, of Donkenfield, Gold- 

smith, 1482. 

4. James Spencer, son of Robert Spencer, of Congleton, Vint- 

ner, 1527. 

5. Thomas Offley, son of William Offley, of Chester, Merchant 

Tailor, 1556. 

6. Humfrey Weld, son of John Weld, of Eton, Grocer, 1608. 

7. Thomas Moulson, 1634. 

I am certainly informed that this Thomas Moulson founded a 
fair school in the town where he was born ; but am not in- 
structed where this is, or what salary is settled thereon.* 

Reader, know this, that I must confess myself advantaged in 
the description of this county by Daniel King, a native of this 
county, whence it seems he travelled beyond the seas, where he 

* He founded a chapel at Hargrave-Stubbs, and endowed it with 40/. a-year. 
He also endowed a school adjoining, with 20/. Lysons's Cheshire, p. 798. ED. 



got the mystery both of surveying and engraving ; so that he 
hath both drawn and graven the portraiture of many ancient 
structures now decayed. 

I hope in process of time this Daniel King will outstrip king 
Edgar, erecting more abbeys in brass, than he did in stone, 
though he be said to have built one for every day in the year. 
But Cheshire is chiefly beholding to his pains, seeing he hath 
not only set forth two descriptions thereof (named " The Vale 
Royal of England ") with the praise to the dead persons the 
authors thereof duly acknowledged, but also hath enlivened the 
same with several cuts of heraldry and topography, on whom we 
will bestow this distich : 

Kingus Cestrensi, Cestrensis Patria Kingo, 
Lucem alternatim debet uterque suam, 

' ' Cheshire to King, and King to Cheshire owes 
His light; each doth receive what each bestows." 

What is amiss in my poetry, shall be amended in my prayers 
for a blessing on his and all ingenious men's undertakings. 

CHESHIRE is one of the twelve pretermitted counties, the 
names of whose gentry were not returned into the Tower, in the 
twelfth of king Henry the Sixth. 



30 Gilbert. Pipehard. 
35 Rich, de Pierpoint. 


1 (Recorda manca.J 


1 Liulphus. 

Ric. de Burham. 
(anni incerti.) 


15 Rich, de Sonbach. 

23 Rich, de Wrenbury. 

52 Jordan, de Peulesdon, 

56 Hugh de Hatton. 


4 Patrick de Heselwall. 
9 Will, de Spurstow. 


15 Rich, de Wilbraham. 
26 Will, de Prayers. 

33 Robert, de Bressey. 


2 Philip, de Egerton. 

5 David, de Egerton. 

13 Will, de Mobberley. 

16 Rich. Filhurst. 


1 Joh. de Wrenbury. 

10 Adam, de Parker. 

19 Rich, de Oulton. 

22 Jacob. Audley, mil. 

24 Tho. Daniers. 

33 Tho. le Young. 

41 Johan. Scolehall. 

44 Lauren, de Dutton, mil. 



Anno Name and Arms. Place. 

1 Hu. de Venables . . . Kinderton. 
Arms : Az. two bars Arg. 

8 Tho. del. Wood. 

9 Hu. E. of Stafford. 

O. a chevron G. 

10 Idem ut prius. 

1 1 Job. Massy, mil. 

Quarterly, counterchanged G. and O. in the first a lion 

12 Rob. Gravenour . . . Eton. 

Az. a garb O. 

17 Rob. Leigh .... High-leigh. 
Arg. five fusils bend-wise S. 


1 Joh. Massy .... Puddington. 

ut prius, save that in the first quarter three flower-de-luces 

2 Idem. 

3 Hen. Ravenscroft. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three ravens' heads crazed S. 
10 Will. Bruerton, mil. . Bruerton. 
Arg. two bars S. 


3 Tho. Leigh .... Adlington. 

Az. two bars Arg. a bend componee O. and G. 
10 Hugh Button .... Dutton. 

Quarterly, counterchanged Arg. and G. in the 2d and 3d 
quarters a fret O. 


5 Rich. Warberton . . . Arley. 

Arg. two chevrons and a canton G. ; a mullet O. 
8 Ran. Bruerton, mil. . . ut prius. 

16 Joh. Troutbeck * 

Az. three trouts fretted in triangle, tete a la queue Arg. 

17 Rob. Booth, mil. . . Dunham. 

Arg. three boars' heads erased and erected S. 

18 Rob. Booth, mil. 

(prioris filius.) . . . ut prius. 


2 Will. Stanly .... Howton. 

Arg. on a bend Az. three stags' heads cabossed O. 



Anno Name, Place. 

1 Will. Stanly .... ut prim. 


1 Idem ut prim. 

10 Job. Warberton . . . ut prius. 
21 Ralp. Birkenhead. 

S. three garbs O. within a border engrailed Arg. 


1 Idem ut prius. 

17 Will. Stanly, mil. . . ut prius. 

18 Geo. Holford .... Holford. 

Arg. a grey-hound passant S. 

19 Tho, Venables . . . ut prius. 

20 Idem ut prius. 

21 Job. Done. 

Az. two bars Arg. on a bend G. three arrows. 

22 Idem ut prius. 

23 Edw. Fitton .... Gowsworth. 

Arg. on a bend Az. three garbs O. 
33 Job. Holford . . ... ut prius. 


1 Idem ut prius. 


1 Wil, Brereton, knt. . . ut prius. 

PHIL, et MAR. 

2. 1 Pet. Leigh, knt. . . . ut prius. 

3. 2 Hu. Cholmley, esq. 

G. in chief two helmets Arg. ; in base a garb O. 
4,3Ri. Wilbraham, esq. . Wodey. 

Az. two bars Arg. on a canton S. a wolfs* head erased of 

the second. 

5, 4 Tho. Venables, esq. . . ut prius. 
6, 5 Phil. Egerton, esq. . . Ridley. 

Arg. a lion rampant G. betwixt three pheons S. 


fcjhw. mtiMLMiA* 

1 Will. Cholmley, esq. . ut prius. 

2 Job. Savage, esq. . . Rocksavage. 

Arg. six lions rampant S. 

3 Ral. Egerton, esq. . . ut prius. 

4 Jo. Warberton, esq. . ut prius. 

5 Rich. Brook, esq. 

Checquee O. and S. 

6 Will. Massey, esq. . . ut prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

7 Joh. Savage, esq. . . itt prius. 

8 Hu. Cholmly, esq. . . ut prius. 

9 Lau. Smith, esq. . . . Hough. 

Az. two bars wavee E. on a chief O. a demi-lion issuant S. 

10 Ral. Done, esq. 

Az. two bars Arg. on a bend G. three arrows of the second. 

11 Geo. Calveley, esq. 

Arg. a fess G. betwixt three calves S. 

12 Joh. Savage, esq. . . ut prius. 

13 Will. Booth, knt. . . Dunham Massey. 

Arg. three boars' heads erected S. 

14 Tho. Stanley, esq. 

Arg. on a bend Az. three . . . 

15 Joh. Savage, knt. . . ut prius. 

16 Joh. Savage, mil. . . ut prius. 

17 Hen. Manwaring. 

Arg. two bars G. 

18 Row. Stanley, esq. . . ut prius. 

19 Joh. Warren, esq. 

Checquee Az. and O. on a canton G. a lion rampant Arg. 

20 Tho. Brook, esq. . . . ut prius. 

21 Joh. Savage, knt. . . ut prius. 

22 Ral. Egerton, esq. . . ut prius. 

23 Geo. Calveley, knt. . . ut prius. 

24 Will. Brereton, knt. . ut prius. 

25 Pet. Warberton, esq. . ut prius. 

26 Will. Leversage, esq. . Whelock. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three plow-shares S. 

27 Tho. Wilbraham . . . ut prius. 

28 Hug. Calveley, esq. . . ut prius. 

29 Ran. Davenport, esq. . Damport. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three cross crosslets fitchee S. 

30 Tho. Leigh, esq. . . . ut prius. 

31 Hu. Cholmley, knt. . . ut prius. 

32 Wil. Brereton, knt. . . ut prius. 

33 Joh. Savage, knt. . . ut prius. 

34 Tho. Brook, esq. . . ut priu. 

35 Tho. Venables, esq. . . ut prius. 

36 Pet. Warberton, esq. . ut prius. 

37 Per. Leigh, esq. . . . ut prius. 

38 Joh. Done, esq. . . . ut prius. 

39 Geo. Booth, knt. . . ut prius. 

40 Edw. Warren, knt. . . ut prius. 

41 Tho. Holcroft, knt. 

Arg. a cross and border engrailed S. 

42 Tho. Smith, knt. . . ut prius. 

43 Tho. Ashton, knt. . . Ashton. 

Per chevron S. and Arg. 

44 Ric. Gravenor, knt. . . ut prius. 




Anno Name. Place. 

1 Geo. Leicester . . Toft. 

Az. a fess Arg. frettee G. betwixt three flower-de-luces O. 

2 Wil. Davenport, knt. . ut prius. 

3 Ra. Man-waring, knt. . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Vernon, knt. . Hasting. 

O. on a fret Az. three garbs of the first. 

5 Joh. Savage, knt. . ut prius. 

6 Hen. Bunbury, knt. . Staney. 

Arg. on a bend S. three chest-rooks of the first. 

7 Will. Brereton, esq. . . ut prius. 

8 Geff. Shakerly, esq. 

Arg. three molehills V. 

9 Tho. Button, esq. . . ut prius. 

10 Will. Brereton, knt. . ut prius. 

11 Urian. Leigh, knt. . . ut prius. 

12 Geo. Calveley, knt. . ut prius. 

13 Rich. Lea, knt. . . . Lea. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three leopards' heads S. 

14 Ric. Wilbraham, knt. ut prius. 

15 Joh. Davenport . . ut prius. 

16 Ralp. Calveley, esq. . ut prius. 

17 Ran. Manwaring . . ut prius. 

18 Rob. Cholmondely . ut prius. 

19 Tho. Marbury, esq. . Marbury. 

O. on a fess engrailed Az. three garbs of the first. 

20 Geo. Booth, bart. . ut prius. 

21 Tho. Smith, knt. . ut prius. 

22 Ric. Gravenor, bart. . ut prius. 


1 Tho. Brereton, knt. . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Done, knt. . . ut prius. 

3 Joh. Calveley, esq. . ut prius. 

4 Edw. Stanley, bart. . ut prius. 

5 Tho. Leigh, esq. . . ut prius. 

6 Pet. Dutton, esq. . . ut prius. 

7 Tho. Stanley, esq. . . ut prius. 

8 Rich. Brereton, esq, . ut prius. 

9 Edw. Fitton, esq. . . ut prius. 

10 Pet. Venables . . . ut prius. 

11 Tho. Ashton, bart. . . ut prius. 

12 Will. Leigh, esq. . . ut prius. 

13 Tho. Delves, bart. . . Duddington. 

Arg. a chevron G. frettee O. betwixt three gadds ot steel H, 

14 Tho. Cholmley. . . . ut prius. 

15 Phil. Manwaring. . . ut prius. 

16 Tho. Powell, bart. . . Berkenhead. 


Anno Name. Place. 

17 Joh. Billot, esq. 

Arg. on a chief G. three cinquefoils of the field. 

18 Hug. Calvely, knt. . . ut prius. 

19 Tho. Leigh, esq. . . ut prius. 

20 Ri. Gravenor, bart. . ut prius. 

21 Rob. Totton, esq. . . Winthaw. 

Quarterly Arg. and G. four crescents counterchanged. 

22 Hen. Brood, esq. 

Reader, if thou discoverest any difference in the method be- 
twixt this and the other catalogue of sheriffs, impute it to this 
cause ; that whilst I fetched the rest from the fountain in the 
Exchequer, I took these out of the cistern-, I mean, the 
printed book of " Vale Royal/' I presume that the sheriff who 
is last named continued in that office all that interval of years, 
till his successor here nominated entered thereon. 

The reader may with the more confidence rely on their arms, 
imparted unto me by Mr. Daniel King, who to me really veri- 
fieth his own anagram, DANIEL KING, "i KIND ANGEL." And 
indeed he hath been a tutelar one to me, gratifying me with 
whatsoever I had need to use, and he had ability to bestow. 


56. HUGH de HATTON. King William the Conqueror be- 
stowed lands on one of his name and ancestors at Hatton in 
this county. From him is lineally descended that learned and 
religious (witness his pious meditations on the Psalms) Sir 
Christopher Hatton, Knight of the Bath, created, by king Charles 
the First, Baron Hatton of Kerby in Northamptonshire. The 
original of this grant of the Conqueror is still in this lord's pos- 
session, preserved in our civil wars, with great care and diffi- 
culty, by his virtuous lady ; on the same token that her lord 
patiently digested the plundering of his library and other rari- 
ties, when hearing the welcome tidings from his lady that the 
said record was safely secured. 


thy person bought his knighthood in the field at Leigh in Scot- 
land. He was five times high sheriff of this county (and some- 
times of Flintshire), and for many years one of the two sole de- 
puties lieutenants thereof. For a good space he was vice-pre- 
sident of the marches of Wales under the Right Honourable 
Sir Henry Sidney, knight ; conceive it during his absence in 
Ireland. For fifty years together he was esteemed a father of 
his country; and, dying anno 157 . . *, was buried in the church 

* He died 1596, set. 83. Lysons's Cheshire, p. 451.- ED. 


of Malpasse, under a tomb of alabaster, with great lamen- 
tation of all sorts of people, had it not mitigated their mourn- 
ing, that he left a son of his own name, heir to his virtues and 

2. JOHN SAVAGE, Arm. I behold him as the direct ancestor 
unto Sir Thomas Savage, knight and baronet, created by king 
Charles the first Baron Savage, of Rock- savage in this county. 
This lord (a very prudent statesman) married Elizabeth, eldest 
daughter and co-heir of Thomas Lord Darcy of Chich, Viscount 
Colchester, and Earl of Rivers, honours entailed on his poste- 
rity, and now enjoyed by the Right Honourable Thomas Savage 
Earl Rivers. 


ROWTON HEATH, 1645, Sept. 24. His Majesty, being in- 
formed that colonel Jones had seized the suburbs and strong 
church of St. John's in Chester, advanced north ward for the re- 
lief thereof. Poins, one of the parliament's generals, pursued 
his majesty. At Rowton-heath, within three miles of Chester, 
the king's army made an halt, whilst his majesty, with some 
prime persons, marched into the city. 

Next day a fierce fight happened on the heath, betwixt the 
king's and Poins's forces, the latter going off with the greater 
loss. Judicious persons conceive that, had the royalists pur- 
sued this single enemy, as yet unrecruited with additional 
strength, they had finally worsted him ; which fatal omission 
(opportunities admit of no after-games) proved their overthrow. 
For next day colonel Jones drew out his men into the field ; 
so that the royalists, being charged on the heath in front and 
rear, were put to the worst, the whole hody of whose army had 
wings without legs, horse without foot, whilst the parliament 
was powerful in both. 

Immediately after, a considerable party of horse (the Lord 
Byron governor of the city being loth to part with any foot, as 
kept to secure the king's person,) came out of Chester, too late 
to succour their defeated friends, and too soon to engage them- 
selves. Here fell the youngest of the three noble brethren, who 
lost their lives in the king^s service, Bernard Stuart Earl of 
Lichfield, never sufficiently to be lamented. 


To take my leave of Cheshire, I could wish that some of their 
hospitality were planted in the south, that it might bring forth 
fruit therein ; and in exchange I could desire, that some of ou* 
southern delicacies might prosperously grow in their gardens, 
and quinces particularly, being not more pleasant to the palate 
than restorative of the health, as accounted a great cordial ; the 

VOL. i. u 


rather, because a native of this county, in his description thereof, 
could not remember he ever saw a quince growing therein.* 


CHESTER is a fair city on the north-east side of the river 
Dee, so ancient that the first founder thereof is forgotten ; much 
beholding to the Earls of Chester and others for increase and 
ornaments. The walls thereof were lately in good repair, espe- 
cially betwixt the New-tower and the Water-gate : for I find how 
(anno 1569) there was a personal fight in this city betwixt the 
two sheriffs thereof, viz. Richard Massey and Peter Lycher- 
band (who shall keep peace, if aged officers break it ?) ; who 
deservedly were fined, for the forfeiting of their gravity, to re- 
pair that part of the wall.t It seems it is more honour to be 
keeper of a gate in Chester, than a whole city elsewhere, seeing 
East-gate therein was committed to the custody formerly of the 
Earl of Oxford, Bridge-gate to the Earl of Shrewsbury, Water- 
gate to the Earl of Derby, and North-gate to the mayor of the 

It is built in the form of a quadrant, and is almost a just 
square, the four cardinal streets thereof (as I may call them) 
meeting in the middle of the city, at a place called The Pentise, 
which affordeth a pleasant prospect at once into all four. Here 
is a property of building peculiar to the city, called the Rows, 
being galleries, wherein passengers go dry without coming into 
the streets, having shops on both sides and underneath ; the 
fashion whereof is somewhat hard to conceive. It is therefore 
worth their pains, who have money and leisure, to make their 
own eyes the expounders of the manner thereof; the like being 
said not to be seen in all England ; no, nor in all Europe again. 


Saint Werburg's church is a fair structure, and had been 
more beautiful if the tower thereof (intended some say for a 
steeple, the first stone whereof was laid 1508) had been finished. 
It was built long before the Conquest ; and, being much ruined, 
was afterward repaired by Hugh Lupus, first 'Earl of Chester. 
It was afterwards made by king Henry the Eighth one of his 
five royal bishoprics ; Oxford, Gloucester, Bristol, and Peter- 
borough, being the other four. I say royal bishoprics, as whose 
ecclesiastical jurisdictions were never confirmed by the Pope, 
nor baronies by the parliament- 

The first is plain ; king Henry the Eighth erecting them after 
he had disclaimed the Pope's supremacy ; and in the days of 

* William Smith, in his Vale Royal, p. 18. 
| The Yale Royal of England, pp. 86. 199. 


queen Mary, when England was in some sort reconciled to 
Rome, the Pope thought not fit to contest with the queen about 
that criticism, because these five bishoprics were erected with- 
out his consent, but suffered them to be even as he found them. 
Their baronies also were not (though their bishoprics were) 
ever confirmed by act of parliament ; so that they owed their 
beings solely to the king's prerogative, who might as well create 
spiritual as temporal peers by his own authority ; and therefore, 
when some anti-prelatists, in the late Long Parliament, 1641, 
endeavoured to overthrow their baronies (as an essay and pre- 
ludium to the rest of the bishoprics) for want of parliamentary 
confirmation, they desisted from that design, as fond and un- 
feasable, on better consideration. 


*' When the daughter is stolen, shut Pepper-gate." *] 

Pepper-gate was a postern of this city, on the east side (as I 
take it) thereof; but in times past closed up and shut upon this 
occasion. The mayor of the city had his daughter (as she was 
playing at ball with other maidens in Pepper- street) stolen away 
by a young man, through the same gate ; whereupon, in revenge, 
he caused it to be shut up, though I see not why the city should 
suffer in her conveniences, for the mayor's want of care, or his 
daughter's lack of obedience. But what shall we say ? love will 
make the whole wall a gate, to procure its own escape. Pa- 
rallel to this proverb is the Latin, Sero sapiunt Phryges, when 
men, instead of preventing, postvide against dangers. 


GEORGE MARSH was condemned by Bishop Coats, and cru- 
elly burnt without this city, near unto Spittle Boughton ; but, 
because he was born elsewhere, see his character in Lancashire. 


GEORGE DOUNHAM, D.D. son to John Dounham bishop of 
Chester, was born in this city, as by proportion of time may 
jmost probably be collected. He was bred in Christ's College in 
Cambridge, elected fellow thereof 1585, and chosen Logic pro- 
fessor in the university .f No man was then and there better 
skilled in Aristotle, or a greater follower of Ramus, so that he 
may be termed the top-twig of that branch. 

It is seldom seen, that the clunch-fist of logic (good to knock 
down a man at a blow) can so open itself as to smooth and 
stroke one with the palm thereof. Our Dounham could do 
both ; witness the oration made by him at Cambridge (preposed 
to his book of Logic) full of flowers of the choicest eloquence. 
He preached the sermon, April 17, 1608, at the consecration 

* Vale Royal of England, written by William Webb, p. 22. 
f Christ's College Register. 

u 2 


of James Montague, bishop of Bath and Wells, irrefragably 
proving therein episcopacy jure divino. 

i( He that receiveth a bishop in the name of a bishop, shall 
receive a bishop's reward." * It was not long before Doctor 
Dounham was made bishop of Deny, in Ireland, then newly 
augmented with the addition of Londonderry ; because so 
planted with English, it was easy to find London in Derry, but 
not Derry in Derry, so much disguised from itself with new 
buildings. But this learned bishop was the greatest beauty 
thereof, endeavouring by gentleness to cicurate and civilize the 
wild Irish, and proved very successful therein. The certain date 
of his death I cannot attain. 


DAVID MIDDLETON was born in this city, as his kinsmanf 
and my friend hath informed me. He was one of those who 
effectually contributed his assistance to the making of through 
lights in the world ; I mean, new discoveries in the East and West 
Indies, as we may read at large in his own printed relation. J 

The tender-hearted reader, whose affections go along with his 
eye, will sadly sympathize with his sufferings, so many and great 
his dangers, with cannibals and Portuguese, crocodiles and Hol- 
landers, till at last he accomplished his intentions, and settled 
the English trade at Bantam : I meet with no mention of him 
after 1610. 

Sir HENRY MIDDLETON, Knight, was younger brother (as I 
take it) to the former, deservedly knighted for his great pains 
and perils in advancing the English trade. Amongst many, 
most remarkable is his voyage into the Red Sea, which had like 
to have proved the Dead Sea unto him ; I mean, cost him his 
life. Here he was told to land at Moha, by the treacherous 
Aga, and then had eight of his men barbarously slain, himself 
and seven more chained up by the necks. The pretence was, 
because that port was the door of the holy city, which (though 
it be Jerusalem in the language of the Scripture) is Mecca in 
the phrase of the Alcoran, and it is capital for any Christian to 
come so near thereunto. Then was he sent eight-score miles and 
upwards to the bashaw at Zenan in Arabia, in the month 
of January 1611. This city of Zenan lieth but sixteen degrees 
and fifteen minutes of northern latitude from the equator ; and 
yet was so cold, that there was ice of a finger's thickness in one 
night, as the said Sir Henry did relate. || This confuteth the 
character of these countries, misapprehended by antiquity not to 
be habitable for the excess of heat therein. 

At last the Turkish bashaw gave him leave to depart ; and, 

* Matt. x. 41. f Master John Spencer, library keeper of Zion College. 

J Purchas's Pilgrims, part I. p. 226, et seq. Matthew iv. 5. 

|| Purchas's Pilgrims, lib. iii. p. 255. 


sailing eastwards, he repaired himself, by a gainful composition 
with the Indians, for the losses he had sustained by the Turks. 
His ship., called "The Trade's Increase/ 5 well answered the 
name thereof, until it pleased God to visit his men therein with 
a strange disease, whereof one hundred English deceased ; the 
grief whereat was conceived the cause of this worthy knight's 
death, May 24, 1613, whose name will ever survive whilst Mid- 
dleton's Bay (from him so called) appeareth in the Dutch cards. 


ROGER of CHESTER was born and bred therein, a Bene- 
dictine monk in Saint Werburg's. In obedience to the bishop 
of Chester, he wrote " A British Chronicle from the beginning 
of the world/' This was the fashion of all historians of that 
age, running to take a long rise [from the creation itself], 
that so (it seems) they might leap the further with the greater 
force. Our Roger's Chronicle was like a ship with double 
decks ; first only continuing it to the year 1314 ; and then, re- 
suming his subject, he superadded five and twenty years more 
thereunto, entitling it " Polycratica Temporum." 

Both Bale and Pitts praise him for pure Latin (a rarity 
in that age) ; and assign 1339 the time of his death, Chester the 
place of his burial. 

RANDAL or RANULPH HYGDEN (commonly called Ranulph 
of Chester) was bred a Benedictine in Saint Werburg. He not 
only vamped the history of Roger aforesaid ; but made a large 
one of his own, from the beginning of the world, commendable 
for his method and modesty therein. 

Method ; assigning in the margent the date of each action. 
We read, Genesis i. that light was made on the first and 
the sun on the fourth day of the creation; when the light 
(formerly diffused and dispersed in the heavens) was contracted, 
united, and fixed in one full body thereof. Thus the notation of 
times confusedly scattered in many ancient authors (as to 
our English actions) are by our Ranulphus reduced into 
an entire bulk of chronology. 

.Modesty ; who, to his great commendation, " unicuique su- 
orum authorum honorem integrum servans,"* confesseth him- 
self (to use his own expression), with Ruth the Moabite, " to 
have gleaned after other reapers." He calleth his book " Poly- 

He continued sixty-four years a monk, and, dying very aged, 
1363, was buried in Chester. 

HENRY BRADSHAW was born in this city, and lived a Bene- 
dictine therein; a diligent historian, having written no bad 

* Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 6. n. 11. 


chronicle, and another book of the life of Saint Werburg 
in verse. Take a taste at once, both of his poetry and the 
original building of the city, both for beauty alike : 

" The founder of this city, as saith Polychronicon, 

Was Leon Gawer, a mighty strong giant, 
Which builded caves and dungeons many a one, 
No goodly building, ne proper, ne pleasant." 

These his verses might have passed with praise, had he lived 
(as Arnoldus Vion doth erroneously insinuate*) anno 1346 ; but, 
flourishing more than a century since [viz. 1513], they are hardly 
to be excused. However, Balef informeth us that he was (the 
diamond in the ring) " pro ea ipsa setate, admodum pius ;" and 
so we dismiss his memory with commendation. 


EDWARD BRIERWOOD was, as I am informed, born in this 
city, bred in Brazen-nose College in Oxford. Being candidate 
for a fellowship, he lost it without loss of credit ; for, where pre- 
ferment goes more by favour than merit, the rejected have more 
honour than the elected. 

This ill success did him no more hurt than a rub doth to an 
over-thrown bowl, bringing it the nearer to the mark. He was 
not the more sullen, but the more serious in his studies, retiring 
himself to Saint Mary Hall, till he became a most accomplished 
scholar in logic ; witness his worthy work thereof, Mathematics ; 
being afterwards a lecturer thereof in Gresham College ; all 
learned and many modern languages, hereof he wrote a learned 
book, called his "Enquiries." No sacrilegious inquiries, 
whereof our age doth surfeit ; " it is a snare after vows to make 
inquiries ; W J but judicious disquisitions of the original and ex- 
tent of languages. 

A little before his death, pens were brandished betwixt 
Master Byfield and him, about the keeping of the sabbath; 
Master Brierwood learnedly maintaining that the other exacted 
more strictness therein than God enjoined. Let me contribute 
my symbol on this subject. Our Saviour is said to be made 
" under the law," and yet he saith of himself, "The Son of 
man is Lord even of the sabbath." || Indeed he was 
made under the Fourth commandment, as under the rest of the 
law, to observe the dominion, not tyranny thereof usurped, 
partly by the misinterpretation of the priests, partly by the mis- 
apprehension of the people ; and therefore, both by his life and 
doctrine, did manumiss men from that vassalage, that the day 
instituted for rest and repose should not be abused for self af- 
fliction and torment. 

To return to our brierwood. I have heard a great scholar in 

* Pits, de Angliae Scriptoribus, p. 690. 

t De Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. 9. n. 17. | Prov. xx. 25. 

Gal. iv. 4. || Matth. xii. 8. 


England say, " That he was the fittest man whom he knew in 
England, to sit at the elbow of a professor to prompt him." 
But, in my opinion, he was a very proper person to discharge 
the place himself. I conjecture his death about 1613. 

JOHN DOWNHAM, younger son of William Downham bishop 
of Chester, was, as far as my best inquiry can recover, born in 
this city ; bred in Cambridge, B. D. and afterwards became a 
painful and profitable preacher in London. He was the first 
who commendably discharged that eminent lecture, plentifully 
endowed by Master Jones of Monmouth ;* and is memorable 
to posterity for his worthy work of " The Christian Warfare." 
Well had it been for England, had no other war been used 
therein for this last twenty years, all pious persons being com- 
fortably concerned in the prosecution thereof; seriously consi- 
dering that their armour is of proof, their quarrel is lawful, their 
fight is long, their foes are fierce, their company are saints, their 
captain is Christ, their conquest is certain, their crown is 
Heaven. This grave divine died, very aged, about the year 


WILLIAM ALDERSEY, a pious and godly man, was mayor of 
the city 1560, demeaning himself in his place with much gravity 
and discretion. He caused, with much cost and industry, the 
catalogue of the mayors of Chester to be completed ; and that on 
this occasion. He found by authentic evidences, that one Alan 
de Whetly had been four times mayor of Chester, and yet his 
name was never mentioned in the ordinary Book of Mayors. 
This put this good magistrate on the employment (detection of 
faults informs little without correction of them) to amend and 
complete that lame list out of their records. Thus imperfections 
may occasion perfection ; which makes me to hope that here- 
after the defects of this my book (without prejudice to my pro- 
fit or credit) will be judiciously discovered, and industriously 
amended by others. This William died the twelfth of October, 
anno 1577 j and lieth buried in the chancel of Saint Oswald's, 
under a fair stone of alabaster. 

SIR THOMAS OFFLEY, son to William Oifley, was born in the 
city of Chester ;f and bred a merchant-tailor in London, 
whereof he became lord mayor anno 1556. The useful custom 
of the night-bellman (preventing many fires and more felonies) 
began in his mayoralty. He was the Zacchaeus of London, not 
for his low stature, but his high charity, bequeathing the half of 
his estate (computed by a reverend divine to amount to five 

* In the church behind the Exchange. f Stow's Survey of London, p. 585. 


thousand pounds*) unto the poor, although he had children of 
his own. Yea, he appointed that two hundred pounds should 
be taken out of the other half (left to his son Henry), and em- 
ployed to charitable uses. He died 1560 : and was buried in 
the church of Saint Andrew's Undershaft. I am heartily sorry 
to meet with this passage in my author : t 

" Sir Thomas Offley bequeatheth one half of all his goods to 
charitable actions. But the parish (meaning St. Andrew's 
Undershaft) received little benefit thereby. 5 ' 

If the testator's will were not justly performed, it soundeth 
to the shame and blame of his executors. But if the charity of 
Sir Thomas acted eminiis not comminiis, I mean at some dis- 
tance, and not at his own habitation, it was no injury for any 
to dispose of his own at his own pleasure. I find also two other 
of the same surname, not mutually more allied in blood, than in 
charitable dispositions : 

Master Hugh Offley, leather-seller, sheriff of London in the 
year 1588, buried also in Saint Andrew's aforesaid. Besides 
many other benefactions, J he gave six hundred pounds to this 
city, to put forth young men. 

Mr. Robert Offley, bred in London, and (as I take it) brother 
to the aforesaid Hugh Offley, did, in the year of our Lord 1596, 
bestow six hundred pounds on twenty-four young men in Ches- 
ter, whereof twelve were apprentices. || I know not the exact 
date of his departure. 

It is hard to instance, in a lease, of kinsmen, born so far/rom, 
bred in London, meeting together in such bountiful perform- 

I believe it was the first of these three Offleys on whom the 
rhythm was made, 

" Offley three dishes had of daily roast ; 
An egg, an apple, and (the third) a toast." 

This I behold neither sin nor shame in him, feeding himself 
on plain and wholesome repast, that he might feast others by 
his bounty, and thereby deserving rather praise than a jeer from 

JOHN TERER, Gentleman, and a member of this city. He 
erected a seemly water-work, built steeple-wise, at the Bridge- 
gate, by his own ingenious industry and charge. This since 
hath served for the conveying of river water from the cistern, in 
the top of that work, through pipes of lead and wood, to the 
citizens' houses, to their great conveniences. I could wish all 
designs in the like nature hopefully begun may as happily be 
completed. My industry cannot attain the exact time of his 

* Dr. Willett, in his " Catalogue of Good Works since the Reformation," p. 1226. 
f Stow's Survey of London, p, 152. I Ibidem, p. 154.- 

Vale Royal of England, p. 207. II Ibid. 


death ; only I find that his son of the same name endeavoured 
the like, to bring water from a fine spring to the midst of this 
city, which, I believe, was effected. 


And now being to take our leave of this ancient and honour- 
able city, the worst that I wish it is, that the distance betwixt 
Dee and the New-tower may be made up; all obstructions 
being removed, which cause or occasion the same. That the 
rings on the New-tower (now only for sight) may be restor- 
ed to the service for which they were first intended, to fasten 
vessels thereunto. That the vessels on that river (lately dege- 
nerated from ships into barks) may grow up again to their 
former strength and stature. 


Sir John BIRKENHEAD, M. P., loyal poet; born at Rudheath 
1615 ; died 1679. 

Thomas BRERETON, dramatic writer; died about 1721. 

William BROOME, poet, translator of Homer, associate of 
Pope ; died 1745. 

William BURGAYNIE, author; born at Pulford 1620 ; died 1689. 

Hugh CHOLMONDELEY, dean of Chester, antiquary and gene- 
alogist ; born at Vale Royal 1772; died 1815. 

William COWPER, physician and antiquary ; born at Chester ; 
died 176?. 

Randle HOLMES, four antiquaries and collectors of the same 
name, father, son, grandson, and great grandson; born at 
Chester; the eldest died 1655, his son 1659, grandson 1699, 
and great grandson 1707- 

Samuel JOHNSON, dancing master, dramatist, and author of 
" Hurlothrumbo ;" died about 1773. 

Daniel KING, author of " Vale Royal ;" l?th century. 

Nathaniel LANCASTER, divine, author of an " Essay on Deli- 
cacy; 1700. 

Theophilus LINDSEY, Unitarian divine, born at Middlewich 
1723; died 1803. 

Samuel MOLYNEUX, astronomer, born at Chester, 1689. 

William SHIPPEN, " honest Shippen," leader of the Tories, 
born at Stockport; died 1741. 

John SWLNTON, learned antiquary; born at Bexton 1703 ; died 


James UPTON, divine and critic; born 1670. 
Sir John VANBURGH, architect and dramatist ; born at Chester 

1672; died 1?26. 


John WATSON, historian of Halifax in Yorkshire ; born at 

Lyme-cum-Hanley 1 724. 
John WHITEHURST, watchmaker, engineer, and philosopher ; 

born at Congleton 1713 ; died 1788. 
Thomas WILSON, learned bishop of Sodor and Man; born at 

Burton-in-Wirral 1663; died 1755. 

%* The county of Chester has been fortunate in its historians. Even so early as 
the year 1656, a work entitled the " Vale Royal of England, or the County Pala- 
tine of Chester illustrated, &c." was published in a folio volume by Messrs. Smith 
and Webb ; and in 1673, Sir Peter Leycester produced his " Historical Antiquities." 
In 1817, Mr. J. H. Hanshall brought out a history of the county in one 
volume 4to ; but the history of the county and city of Chester, by Mr. Geo. Orme- 
rod, in 3 vols. folio (1819), is one of the most splendid topographical works of 
modern times, and contains all the information that could be desired. Numerous 
local histories have also been published, at different times ; viz. of Lyme, by the 
Rev. W. Marriott (1810) ; of Macclesfield (1817) ; of Nantwich, by J. W. Platt 
(1818) ; of Congleton, by S. Yates (1819) ; of Chester (l830), &c ED. 


IT hath its name partly from the form, partly from the inha- 
bitants thereof. From the former it is so called, because narrow 
in fashion of a horn., which (by the way) is a word of all others 
passing through both^ learned and modern languages with the 
least variation : 1. Keren, Hebrew; 2. Keras, Greek; 3. Cornu, 
Latin; 4. Corn, French; 5. Cuerno, Spanish ; 6. Corno, Italian ; 
7. Horn, English ; 8. Home, Dutch ; 9. Kerne, Welsh. 

The latter, Wale, signifies strangers, for such were the inhabi- 
tants of this county reputed by their neighbours. 

It hath Devonshire on the west, divided from it generally with 
the river Tamer, encompassed with the sea on all other sides, 
affording plenty of harbours ; so that foreigners, in their passage 
to or from Spain, Ireland, the Levant, East or West Indies, 
sometimes touch herewith ; sometimes are driven hither against 
their will, but never without the profit of the inhabitants, ac- 
cording to the common proverb, " Where the horse lieth down, 
there some hairs will be found." 

The language of the natives is a different tongue from the 
English, and dialect from the Welsh, as more easy to be pro- 
nounced ; and is sufficiently copious to express the conceits of 
a good wit, both in prose and verse. Some have avouched it 
derived from the Greek, producing for the proof thereof many 
words of one sense in both : as kentron, a spur ; schaphe, a boat ; 
ronchi, snoring, &c. But the judicious behold these as no re- 
gular congruities, but casual coincidences, the like to which may 
be found in languages of the greatest distance, which never met 
together since they parted at the confusion of Babel. Thus one 
would enforce a conformity between the Hebrew and English, 
because one of the three giant's sons of Anak was called Ahiman. 

The Cornish tongue affordeth but two natural oaths, or three 
at most ;* but whether each of them be according to the kinds of 
oaths divided by the schoolmen, one assertory, the other^romw?- 
sory, to which some add a third, comminatory, is to me unknown. 
The worst is, the common Cornish supply this (I will not say 
defect) not only with swearing the same often over, but also by 
borrowing other oaths of the English. 

* Carew's Survey of Cornwall, page 55. 



These of themselves sound high, till the addition of Cornish 
subtracteth from their valuation. In blackness and hardness 
they are far short of the Indian : yet, set with a good foil 
(advantaged hypocrisy passeth often for sincerity) may at the first 
sight deceive no unskilful lapidary. As their lustre is less than 
Orient diamonds, so herein they exceed them, that nature hath 
made both their face and their dressing, by whom they are 
pointed and polished. But enough hereof, the rather because 
some, from the Latin names of jewels, Jocalia, "things to be 
jested and played with," and Baubelke, " things which are trifles 
and baubles," spitefully collect that stones, accounted precious, 
are more beholding to the consent of fancy, than their own in- 
trinsic worth, for their high valuation. 


I confess this precious commodity is fixed to no place in the 
world, as too great a treasure for any one country to engross ; 
and therefore it is only fluctuating, and casually found by small 
parcels, sometimes in one place, and sometimes in another ; yet 
because the last, greatest, and best quantity thereof, that 
ever this age did behold, was found on the coasts of this county, 
we will here insert a little of the name, nature, and use thereof. 

It is called Ambra-gresia, that is, grey amber, from the co- 
lour thereof; which modern name, utterly unknown to the 
ancients, doth speak it to be of later invention ; whereof a 
learned Doctor of Physic hath assigned this probable reason, 
because it was never found in the Midland sea (which was in 
effect all the seas to the ancients), but only in the main ocean, 
which was not navigated on till within this last two hundred 
years, since seamen have gotten the use of the chart and com- 

It is almost as hard to know what it is, as where to find it. 
Some will have it the sperm of a fish, or some other unctious 
matter arising from them ; others, that it is the foam of the sea, 
or some excrescency thence, boiled to such a height by the 
heat of the sun ; others, that it is a gum that grows on the 
shore. In a word, no certainty can be collected herein, some 
physicians holding one way, and some another. But this is 
most sure, that apothecaries hold it at five pounds an ounce, 
which some say is dearer than ever it was in the memory of 

It is a rare cordial for the refreshing of the spirits, and sove- 
reign for the strengthening the head, besides the most fragrant 
scent, far stronger in consort when compounded with other 
things than when singly itself. 


A mass of this ambergris was, about the third year of king 
Charles, found in this county, at low water, close to the shore 
of the manor of Anthony, then belonging to Richard Carew, 


Here is a great and sudden fall indeed, from the sweetest of 
gums to the most stinking of roots. Yet is not the distance 
so great, if the worth of the garlic be such as some have avouched 
it. Not to speak of the murmuring Israelites,* who prized it 
before manna itself : some avow it sovereign for men and beasts 
in most maladies. Indeed the scent thereof is somewhat va- 
liant and offensive ; but wise men will be contented to hold their 
noses, on condition they may thereby hold or recover their 
health. Indeed a large book is written de usu allii ; which if it 
hold proportion with truth, one would wonder any man should 
be sick and die, who hath garlic growing in his garden. Sure 
I am our palate people are much pleased therewith, as giving a 
delicious haut-gout to most meats they eat, as tasted and smelt 
in their sauce, though not seen therein. The best garlic is about 
Stratton in this county.f 


Plenty hereof are taken in these parts, persecuted to the 
shore by their enemies the tunny and hake, till, in pursuance of 
their private revenge, they all become a prey to the fisherman. 
The pilchard may seem contemptible in itself, being so small, 
though the wit of the vulgar here will tell you they have seen 
many pilchards an ell long, understand it laid at length, head 
and tail together. Their numbers are incredible, employing a 
power of poor people in polling (that is, beheading), gutting, 
splitting, powdering, and drying them ; and then (by the name of 
fumadoes), with oil and a lemon they are meat for the mightiest 
Don in Spain. I wish not only their nets, but fish, may hold, 
suspecting their daily decay, their shoals usually shifting coasts, 
and verging more westward to Ireland. Other fish here be, 
which turn to good account ; all welcome to fishermen's hooks, 
save the star-fish, esteemed contagious. 


These are commonly found under the walling-slate, when the 
depth hath brought the workmen to the water. They are thin 
in substance, clear in colour, light in weight, and lasting in con- 
tinuance. Generally they carry so good a regard, that (besides 
the supply of home-provisions) great store of them are imported 
into other parts of the land, and transported into France and 
the Low Countries. All that I have to say of slate is, that 

* Numbers xi. 5. f Camden's Britannia, in Cornwall. 


Cinyra, the son of Agriopse, is said first to have found them in 
Cyprus, for the covering of houses.* 


The most and best in Christendom this county doth produce. 
Yea, it was the only tin in Europe, until a fugitive miner, run- 
ning hence, discovered tin in Voiteland, in the confines of 
Bohemia. God may be said in this county " to rain meat " 
(such the plenty thereof), "and give dishes too/ 5 made of pew- 
ter, which hath tin for the father, and lead for the mother 
thereof, and in our age doth matrizare too much. Vast their 
expense in making their adits (understand them addresses and 
accesses to the mine) with dressing, breaking, stamping, drying, 
grazing, washing, and melting, all plentifully repaid in the sell- 
ing of it. 

The discovery of many of these mines has been very re- 
markable ; for some have gained more sleeping than others 
waking, having dreamt that in such (improbable) places, tin was 
to be found, and, pursuing such directions, have found it accord- 

The poet, we know, feigneth two ports of dreams : 

Sunt gemineE somni portee : quorum alterafertur 
Corned, quci verisfacilis datur exitus umbris : 
Altera^ candenti perfecla nitens elephanlo, 
Sed falsa ad cesium mittunt insomnia 

" Dreams have two gates : one made (they say) of horn ; 

By this port pass true and prophetic dreams : 
White ivory the other doth adorn ; 

By this false shades and lying fancy's streams." 

Strange that the best gate for matter (ivory) should present 
the worst (false) dreams. It seems these Cornish dreams 
passed through the Horny-gate, which fell out so happily, that 
thereby many have been enriched, and left great estates to their 

I cannot take my leave of these tinners, until I have ob- 
served a strange practice of them, that once in seven or eight 
years they burn down (and that to their great profit) their own 
melting-houses. I remember a merry epigram in Martial on 
one Tongilian, who had his house in Rome casually (reputed) 
burnt, and gained ten times as much by his friends' contribution 
to his loss : 

Collatum est decies ; rogo non poles ip&e videri 
Incendisse tuam, Tongiliane, domum.+ 

" Gaining tenfold, tell truly, I desire, 
Tongilian, didst not set thy house on fire ? " 

But here the tinners avow themselves incendiaries of their 
own houses, on a profitable account : for, during the tin's melt- 

* Polydore Vergil, de Inventione Rerum, in lib. iii. cap. 8. p. 251. 
t Virgil, ^Eneid. vi. ver. 893. J Lib. iii. Epig. 51. 


ing in the blowing-house, " diverse light sparkles thereof are, 
by the forcible wind which the bellows sendeth forth, driven up 
to the thatched roof, on the burning whereof they find so much 
of this light tin in the ashes, as payeth for the new building, 
with a gainful overplus." 


Master Attorney Noy was wont pleasantly to say, that his 
house had no fault in it, save only that " it was too near unto 
London," though indeed distanced thence full three hundred 
miles, in the remoter part of this county. But seriously one 
may say, and defend it, that the distance of Cornwall from that 
metropolis is a convenient inconveniency. As for the structure 
of their houses, they are generally but mean, though the nobi- 
lity and gentry have handsome habitations, and amongst them 
none excelleth. 


It was built by Sir Richard Edgecombe, Knight. Take his 
character from one who very well knew him, "mildness and 
stoutness, diffidence and wisdom, deliberateness of undertakings, 
and sufficiency of effecting, made in him a more commendable 
than blazing mixture of virtue/' * In the reign of queen Mary 
(about the year 1555) he gave entertainment at one time, for 
some good space, to the admirals of the English, Spanish, and 
Netherland, and many noblemen besides. A passage the more 
remarkable, because I am confident that the admirals of those 
nations never met since (if ever before) amicably at the same 
table. Mount Edgecombe was the scene of this hospitality ; a 
house new built and named by the aforesaid knight, a square 
structure with a round turret at each end, garreted on the top. 
The hall (rising above the rest) yieldeth a stately sound as one 
entereth it ; the parlour and dining-room afford a large and di- 
versified prospect both of sea and land. The high situation 
(cool in summer, yet not cold in winter) giveth health : the 
neighbour river wealth : two block-houses great safety : and the 
town of Plymouth good company unto it. Nor must I forget 
the fruitful ground about it (pleasure without profit is but a 
flower without a root) ; stored with wood, timber, fruit, deer, 
and connies, a sufficiency of pasture, arable, and meadow, with 
stone, lime, marl, and what not. 

I write not this to tempt the reader to the breach of the 
tenth commandment, "to covet his neighbour's house;" and 
one line in the prevention thereof. I have been credibly in- 
formed that the duke of Medina Sidonia, admiral of the Spanish 
fleet in the year eighty-eight, was so affected at the sight of this 
house (though but beholding it at a distance, from the sea) that 

* Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, p. 100. 


he resolved it for his own possession in the partage of this king- 
dom (blame him not if choosing best for himself), which they 
pre-conquered in their hopes and expectation. But he had 
catched a great cold, had he had no other clothes to wear than 
those which were to be made of a skin of a bear not yet killed. 


I know none in this county which are reported to be sovereign 
constantly for any diseases. Yet I meet with one so remarkable 
a recovery, that it must not be omitted. However, I remember 
his good counsel, "he that telleth a miraculous truth must 
always carry his author at his back/' I will only transcribe his 
words, speaking of the good offices which angels do to God's 
servants : fe Of this kind was that (no less than miraculous) cure, 
which at Saint Madern's in Cornwall, was wrought upon a poor 
cripple, whereof (besides the attestation of many hundred of the 
neighbours) I took a strict and impartial examination in my last 
visitation. This man, for sixteen years together, was fain to 
walk upon his hands, by reason the sinews of his legs were so 
contracted ; and, upon monitions in his dream to wash in that 
well, was suddenly so restored to his limbs, that I saw him able 
both to walk and get his own maintenance. I found here was 
neither art nor collusion. The thing done (the author invisible) 
of God."* 

So authentical an author (without any other assistance ad 
corroborandum) is enough to get belief in any, save such surly 
souls who are resolved on infidelity of what their own eyes have 
not beheld. 


If the word be strained up to the height, I confess Cornwall 
affordeth none at all ; but if it be slackened, and let down a 
little, there are those things which this Duchy doth tender, and 
we all willing to take for WONDERS, for discourse sake, at the 
least ; viz. 


These are stones competently distanced, whom tradition re- 
porteth to be formerly men metamorphosed into stones, for 
hurling (a sport peculiar to Cornwall) on, and so profaning of, 
the Lord's-day. Thus, unequally yoking Scripture and Ovid 
together, the tale is made up betwixt them. But, seeing such 
devotion is not durable which is founded on deceit, we protest 
against and reject this fiction ; the rather, because the same 
lawgiver, who enjoined us, " Remember thou keepest holy the 
Sabbath-day," gave us also in command, " Thou shalt not bear 
false witness against thy neighbour ; and we will not accept a 
false doctrine, to make a true use thereof. Yet surely conform- 

* Doctor Joseph Hall, then bishop of Exeter, since of Norwich, in his book 
called " The Great Mystery of Godliness," p. 169. 


able to the judgment of those times was this tradition made ; 
and thence one may collect that boisterous exercises (or labours 
rather)^ so far from refreshing the weary, that they weary the 
refreshed, are utterly inconsistent with the conscientious keep- 
ing of that day, and deserve heavy punishments, for profaning 

Otherwise we really believe, these stones were originally set 
up for limits and bounds; or else a monument erected in 
memory of some victory here achieved. 


Main is in Cornish the stone ; and Amber, as some conceive, 
of Ambrosius that valiant Briton, erected probably by him on 
some victory achieved against the Romans, or some other 
enemies.* This is a master-piece of mathematics and critical 
proportions, being a great stone of so exact position on the top 
of a rock, that any weakness by touching it may move it, and 
yet no force can remove it, so justly it is poised. I have heard 
in common discourse, when this Main Amber hath been made 
the emblem of such men's dispositions, who would listen to all 
counsel, and seem inclined thereunto, but are so fixed, that 
no reason can alter them from their first resolution. 

But know, reader, that this wonder is now unwondered ; for 
I am credibly informed, that some soldiers of late have utterly 
destroyed it. Oh, how dangerous is it for art to stand in the 
way where ignorance is to pass ! Surely covetousness could 
not tempt them thereunto, though it did make one to deface 
a fair monument in Turkey, on this occasion : 

A tomb was erected near the highway (according to the 
fashion of that country) on some person of quality, consisting 
of a pillar ; and on the top thereof a chapiter, or great globe 
of stone, whereon was written, in the Turkish tongue, 

" The brains are in the Head." 

This passed many years undemolished, it being piaculum there 
to violate the concernment of the dead, until one, not of more 
conscience, but cunning, than others, who had passed by it, 
resolved to unriddle the meaning of this inscription. Breaking 
the hollow globe open, he found it full of gold departed the 
richer, not the honester, for his discovery. Sure I am, if any 
such temptation invited the soldiers to this act, they missed 
their mark therein. 

Their pretence, as I understand, to this destructive design, 
was reformation; some people, as they say, making an idol 
thereof: which if true, I pity the destroying of Main Amber, 
no more than the stamping and pulverizing of the brazen ser- 
pent by king Hezekiah. But I cannot believe so much stu- 

* Camden's English Britannia, in Cornwall. 
VOL. I. X 


pidity in Christians. They took much pains, by cutting off the 
stone, to dislodge it from its centre, (in how few minutes may 
envy ruin what art hath raised in more hours) ; and now Corn- 
wall hath one artificial wonder fewer than it had before ; except 
any will say that, to keep up the number, the unexampled envy 
of these soldiers may be substituted in the room thereof. And 
let them sink into obscurity, that hope to swim in credit by 
such mis-achievements. 


" By Tre, Pol, and Pen, 
You shall know the Cornish men."] 

These three words are the dictionary of such surnames which 
are originally Cornish ; and though nouns in sense, I may fitly 
term them prepositions. 

1. Tre signifieth a town ; hence Tre-fry, Tre-lawny, Tre-va- 
nion, &c. 2. Pol signifieth an head ; hence Pol- whele. 3. Pen 
signifieth a top ; hence Pen-tire, Pen-rose, Pen-kevil, &c. 

Some add to these a fourth inchoation, viz. Car (which I 
guess to signify a rock) ; as Car-mino, Car-zew, &c. But I dare 
not make additions, but present it as I find it in my author. 

" To give one a Cornish hug."] 

The Cornish are masters of the art of wrestling ; so that if 
the Olympian games were now in fashion, they would come 
away with the victory. Their hug is a cunning close with their 
fellow-combatant ; the fruit whereof is his fair fall, or foil at the 
least. It is figuratively applicable to the deceitful dealing of 
such, who secretly design their overthrow whom they openly 

" Hengsten Down, well ywrought, 
Is worth London town, dear ybought.' 1 *J 

The truth hereof none can confirm, or confute : seeing under- 
ground wealth is a nemo scit, and vast may the treasure be of 
tin in this down. Sure I am, that the gainful plenty of metal 
formerly afforded in this place is now fallen to a scant-saving 
scarcity. But, to make the proverb true, it is possible that the 
Cornish diamonds found therein may be pure and orient (as 
better concocted) in the bowels thereof; for,- though crafty (not 
to say dishonest) chapmen put the best grain in the top, and 
worst in the bottom, of their sack; such is the integrity of 
Nature, that the coarsest in this kind are higher, and the purest 
still the low r est. 

" Tru-ru, Triveth-eu, Ombdina geveth 7Vj/-rw."f] 

Which is to say, " Truru consisteth of three streets ; and it 
shall in time be said, Here Tru-ru stood." I trust the men 
of this town are too wise, to give credit to such predictions, 
which may justly prove true to the superstitious believers 

* Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 115. f Idem, fol. 141. 


thereof. Let them serve God, and defy the devil with all his 
pseudo-prophecies. Like to this is another fond observation, 
presaging some sad success to this town, because ru, ru, which 
in English is woe, woe, is twice in the Cornish name thereof. 
But, let the men of Truru but practise the first syllable in the 
name of their town, and they may be safe and secure from any 
danger in the second. % 

" He^doth sail into Cornwall without a bark."] 

This is an Italian proverb, where it passeth for a description 
(or derision rather) of such a man who is wronged by his wife's 

I wonder the Italians should take such pains to travel so far 
to fetch this expression, having both the name and matter 
nearer home. Name ; having the field " Cornetus Campus in 
agro Falisco "* (called Corneto at this day) ; and a people called 
Corni f in Latium, with the Cornicti monies near Tiber, not to 
speak of its two promontories, termed by good authors " Cor- 
nua duo Italiae," J the two horns of Italy. Matter ; keeping 
their wives under restraint, as generally full of jealousy ; which, 
if just, I much bemoan the jailors ; if not, I more pity their 

Whereas in our Cornwall the wives 5 liberty is the due reward 
of their chastity, and the cause of their husbands' comfortable 
confidence therein. 

" He is to be summoned before the Mayor of Halgaver.''] 

This is a jocular and imaginary court, wherewith men make 
merriment to themselves, presenting such persons as go slovenly 
in their attire, untrussed, wanting a spur, &c. ; where judgment 
in formal terms is given against them, and executed more to the 
scorn than hurt of the persons. But enough hereof, lest I be 
summoned thither myself. 

"When Dudman and Ramehead meet."] 

These are two Forelands, well known to sailors, well nigh 
twenty miles asunder; and the proverb passeth for the peri- 
phrasis of an impossibility. However, these two points have 
since met together (though not in position) in possession of the 
same owner ; Sir Pierce Edgecombe enjoying one in his own, 
the other in right of his wife.|| 


SAINT KIBY was son to Solomon duke of Cornwall, whom 
several inducements moved to travel. First, because " a Pro- 
phet hath the least honour in his own country." Secondly, 
because Britain at that time was infected with Arianisme. 
Thirdly, because he had read so much of the works, and heard 
more of the worth, of Saint Hilary, bishop of Poictiers in 

* Vitruvius, lib. viii. cap. 3. f Halicarnassus. 

J Plin. lib. iii. cap. 5. Mela, lib. ii. cap. 4. 
Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 126. || Ibid. fol. 141. 

x 2 


France. This main motive made him address himself to that 
worthy father, with whom he lived fifty years ; and afterwards, 
saith learned Leland, was by him made bishop of the Isle of 

Pardon me., reader, if, suspending my belief herein, seeing 
surely that holy and humble French saint would not pretend to 
any metropolitical power, in appointing a bishop in Britain, 
More probable it is that St. Hilary made him a bishop at large, 
sine titulo, whereof there are some precedents in antiquity. 
However into Wales he went, and there converted the northern 
parts thereof to, and confirmed the rest in, Christianity. 

A three-fold memorial is in the Isle of Anglesea, extant at 
this day. One of his master, in Point Hilary ; another of him- 
self, in Caer-Guiby ; and a third of both, in Holyhead. He 
flourished about the year of our lord 380. 

URSULA, daughter to Dinoth duke of Cornwall, was born in 
this county. This is she whose life is loaden with such anticro- 
nisms and improbabilities, that it is questionable whether this 
fable was ever founded in a truth, or hath any thing in history 
for its original. 

This Ursula is said to have carried over out of Britain eleven 
thousand maids of prime quality, besides threescore thousand of 
meaner rank (seventy-one thousand in all, a prodigious number) 
to be married to so many in little Britain in France.* Prepos- 
terous, in my mind, to proffer themselves ; and it had argued 
more modesty if their husbands had fetched them hence. 

But blame them not, who paid so dear for their adventures. 
All shipped from London, some of them were drowned in their 
passage, the rest slain by the Huns of Colen, say some; at 
Rome, say others, by king Attila under Gratian the emperor : 
mendacium cequabile, observing equal temper of untruth, in time, 
place, and person. However, there is a church at Colen dedi- 
cated to their memories, where the Virgin Earth (let the 
reporter f have the whetstone) will digest no other body, no not 
the corpse of an infant newly baptised (as good a maid, I believe, 
as the best of them) but will vomit it up in the night time again 
as if they had never been buried. This massacre is reported to 
have happened in the year of our Lord 383. 

SAINT MELIORUS was only son of Melianus, Duke of this 
county, who, being secretly made a Christian, was so maliced by 
Rinaldus, his Pagan brother-in-law, that he first cut off his right 
hand, and then his left-leg (no reason of this transposed method 
of cruelty, save cruelty), and at last his head, about the year 411 ; 
whose body being buried in some old church in this county, by 

* See Master Selden's Notes on Polyolbion, p. 181. 

t Richard White of Basingstoke, in History of British Martyrs ; and English Mar- 
tyrology, on October 21. 


the miracles reported to be done thereat, procured the reputation 
of a Saint to his memory.* 


WILLIAM DE GBEN-VIL was born of a worshipful family in 
this county ; and became canon of York, dean of Chichester, 
chancellor of England under king Edward the First, and arch- 
bishop of York.f But the worst was, two years his confirma- 
tion was deferred, until he had paid nine thousand five hundred 
marks. Let him thank the Pope, who gave him the odd five 
hundred, not mounting it to even ten thousand. Besides, he 
had this favour, not as many others to be consecrated by a 
proxy, but the very hands of Pope Clement the Fifth. This 
payment reduced him to such poverty, he was relieved by the 
clergy of his province, by way of benevolence. This not doing 
the deed, to make him a saver, he was fain to crave another help 
of the same hand, under the new name of a subsidy. J Indeed 
it was pity that the father of the diocese should want anything 
which his sons could contribute unto him. He highly favoured 
the Templars, though more pitying than profiting them, as per- 
sons so stiffly opposed by the Pope and Philip king of France ; 
that there was more fear of his being suppressed by their foes, 
than hope of their being supported by his friendship. He was 
present in the council of Vienna, on the same token, that 
therein he had his place assigned next the archbishop of Triers ; 
and that, I assure you, was very high, as beneath the lowest 
-elector, and above Wortzbury or Herbipolis, and other German 
prelates, who also were temporal princes. But now he is gone, 
and his pomp with him, dying at Cawood 1315, and buried in 
the chapel of Saint Nicholas, leaving the reputation of an able 
statesman and no ill scholar behind him. 

MICHAEL TREGURY was born in this county, and bred in 
the university of Oxford, where he attained to such eminency, 
that he was commended to king Henry the Fifth, fit to be a 
foreign professor. This king Henry, desiring to conquer 
France as well by arts as arms (knowing that learning made 
civil persons and loyal subjects) reflected on the city of Caen 
(honoured with the ashes of his ancestors) in Normandy, and 
resolved to advance it an university, which he did anno 1418, 
placing this Michael the first professor in the college of his 
royal erection. Hence king Henry the Sixth preferred him 
archbishop of Dublin in Ireland, wherein he continued 22 years, 
deceasing December 21, 1471 ; and is buried in the church of 

* Jo. Capgrave, in Catal. Sanct. Brit, anno Domini 411. 

t Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 59. % Godwin, in the Archbishops of York. 

Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. viii. num. 13. 


Saint Patrick in Dublin.* I am sorry to see the author of so 
many learned books disgraced on his monument with so bar- 
barous an epitaph : 

" Prsesul Metropolis Michael hie Dubliniensis, 
Marmore tumbatus: pro me Christum flagitetis.''f 

Allowing him thirty years old when professor at Caen, he 
must be extremely aged at his departure. 

JOHN ARUNDEL was born of right ancient parentage of Lan- 
hearn in this county, bred in the university of Oxford ; and was 
by king Henry the* Seventh preferred bishop of Coventry and 
Lichfield, anno 1496 ; thence translated to his native Diocese 
of Exeter, 1501.J 

Impute it to the shortness of his continuance in that see, that 
so little is left of his memory (not enough to feed, much less 
feast, the pen of an historian). He died at London, anno 1503 ; 
and lieth buried, saith my author, in St. Clemen t's, not ac- 
quainting us whether Clements East-cheap, or Clement's 
Danes ; but I conclude it is the latter, because the bishops of 
Exeter had their inn or city house, now converted into Essex- 
house, within that parish. || 


There passeth a pleasant tradition in this county, how there 
standeth a man of great strength and stature with a black bill 
in his hand, at Polston-bridge, the first entrance into Cornwall, 
as you pass towards Launceston, where the assizes are holden, 
ready to knock down all the lawyers that should offer to plant 
themselves in that county .^[ But, in earnest, few of that profes- 
sion have here grown up to any supereminent height of learning, 
livelihood, or authority ; whether because of the far distance of 
this county from the supremer courts, or because of the multi- 
plicity of petty ones nearer hand, pertaining to the Duchy, Stan- 
"neries,** and other Franchises, enabling attorneys and the like 
of small reading to serve the people's turn, and so cutting the 
profit from better studied councillors. 

Some conceive that Sir Robert Tresillian, chief justice of 
the King's Bench in the fifth of king Richard the Second, to 
be this countryman, though producing no other evidence save 
Tre, the initial syllable of his surname, as a badge of Cornish 
extraction. However, we have purposely omitted him in this 

* Sir James Ware, de Scriptoribus Hibernicis, lib. ii. p. 132. 

f Idem, de Archiepiscopis Dublin, p. 30. 

J Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 59 ; and Bishop Godwin in the Bishops of 

Bishop Godwin, ut prius. || Stow' s Survey. 

1[ Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 59. 

* These cannot now be pretended an hinderarice, being put down by the long- 
lasting Parliament. F. 


our catalogue ; partly, because not claimed by Mr. Carew, in his 
survey, and for their countryman, partly because no worthy, as 
justly executed by act of Parliament for pronouncing their acts 
revocable at the king's pleasure. 

As for one Cornish man (though neither writer nor actual 
judge) his worth commands us to remember him : namely, 

WILLIAM NOY, born in this county, was bred in Lincoln's 
Inn; a most sedulous student, constantly conversant with 
ancient records, verifying his anagram, WILLIAM NOY, " i MOYL 


He was for many years the stoutest champion for the sub- 
ject's liberty, until king Charles entertained him to be his 
attorney ; after which time, I read this character of him in an 
history written by an ingenious gentleman:* "He became 
so servilely addicted to the prerogative, as by ferreting old penal 
statutes, and devising new exactions, he became, for the small 
time he enjoyed that power, the most pestilent vexation to the 
subjects that this latter age produced." 

However, others behold his actions with a more favourable 
eye, as done in the pursuance of the place he had undertaken, 
who by his oath and office was to improve his utmost power to 
advance the profit of his master. Thus I see that, after their 
deaths, the memories of the best lawyers may turn clients, yea 
and sue too in forma pauperis, needing the good word of the 
charitable survivors to plead in their behalf. He died anno 
Domini 163 .. Let me add this passage from his mouth, that 
was present thereat. The goldsmiths of London had (and in 
due time may have) a custom once a year to weigh gold in the 
Star-chamber, in the presence of the privy council and the 
king's attorney. This solemn weighing, by a word of art, they 
call the pix ; and make use of so exact scales therein, that the 
master of the company affirmed, that they would turn with the 
two hundredth part of a grain. " I should be loath," said the 
attorney Noy f standing by, ee that all my actions should be 
weighed in those scales." With whom I concur in relation of 
the same to myself. And therefore, seeing the balance of the 
sanctuary held in God's hand are far more exact, what need 
have we of his mercy, and Christ's merits, to make us passable 
in God's presence ! 


KING ARTHUR, son of Uther Pendragon, was born in Tin- 
tagel castle in this county ; and proved afterwards monarch of 
Great Britain. He may fitly be termed the British Hercules in 
three respects : 

* Hammond L'Estrange, Esq. in his Life of King Charles. 

f Reader, I affirmed above, that Mr. Noy was no writer ; but since I am inform- 
ed, that there is a posthume book of his F. 


1 . For his illegitimate birth, both being bastards, begotten on 
other men's wives,* and yet their mothers honest women ; de- 
luded, the one by miracle, the other by art magic of Merlin, in 
others personating their husbands. 

2. Painful life ; one famous for his twelve labours, the other 
for his twelve victories against the Saxons ; and both of them 
had been greater, had they been made less, and the reports of 
them reduced within compass of probability. 

3. Violent and woeful death; our Arthur's being as lamenta- 
ble, and more honourable ; not caused by feminine jealousy, 
but masculine treachery, being murdered by Mordred, near the 
place where he was born : 

" As though no other place on Britain's spacious earth 
Were worthy of his end, but where he had his birth. "f 

As for his Round Table, with his knights about it, the tale 
whereof hath trundled so smoothly along for many ages, it never 
met with much belief amongst the judicious. He died about the 
year 542. 

And now to speak of the Cornish in general. They ever have 
been beheld men of valour. It seemeth in the reign of the 
aforesaid king Arthur they ever made up his van-guard, if I 
can rightly understand the barbarous verses of a Cornish poet :f 

Nobilis Arclurus nos primos Cornubienses 
Helium facturus vocat fut puta Ctesaris ensesj. 
Nobis ( non aliis reliquisj dot jn-imitus ictiim. 
' Brave Arthur, when he meant a field to fight, 
Us Cornish men did first of all invite. 
Only to Cornish (count them Csesar's swords) 
He the first blow in battle still affords." 

But afterwards, in the time of king Canutus, the Cornish 
were appointed to make up the rear of our armies. Say not 
they were much degraded by this transposition from head to 
foot, seeing the judicious, in marshalling of an army, count the 
strength (and therefore the credit) to consist in the rear thereof. 

But it must be pitied, that this people, misguided by their 
leaders, have so often abused their valour in rebellions, and 
particularly in the reign of king Henry the Seventh, at Black- 
heath, where they did the greatest execution with their arrows, 
reported to be the length of a tailor's yard, the last of that pro- 
portion which ever were seen in England, || However, the 
Cornish have since plentifully repaired their credit, by their 
exemplary valour and loyalty in our late civil wars. 


JOHN ARUNDEL, of Trerice, Esquire, in the fourteenth of 
king Henry the Eighth, took prisoner Duncan Campbell, a 

* Alcmena, wife to Amphitryo ; and Tgern, wife to Gorloise, prince of Cornwall. 
| Drayton's Polyolbion, page 5. X Michael Cornubiensis. 

Joannes Sarisburiensis, de Nugis Curial. v. cap. 18. 
II Lord Verulam, in King Henry the Seventh, p. l/l. 


Scot, (accounted their admiral by his own countrymen, a pirate 
by the English, and a valiant man by all,) in a fight at sea.* 
This his goodly, valiant, and jeopardous enterprise (as it is 
termed) was represented with advantage by the duke of Nor- 
folk to the king, who highly praised and rewarded him for the 


JOHN TREGONWELL was born in this county ; bred in Oxford, 
where he proceeded Doctor of the Laws, both Canon and Civil ; 
and, attaining to great perfection in the theoretic and practical 
parts of those professions, he was employed to be proctor for 
king Henry the Eighth, in the long and costly cause of his 
divorce from queen Katherine dowager.f Now, as it was said 
of the Roman dictator Sylla, ee suos divitiis explevit ;" so king 
Henry full fraught all those with wealth and rewards, whom he 
retained in that employment. This doctor he knighted; and 
because so dexterous and diligent in his service, gave him a 
pension of forty pounds per annum ; and upon the resignation 
thereof (with the paying down of a thousand pounds^) he con- 
ferred on him and his heirs the rich demesne and site of Mid- 
dleton, a mitred abbey in Dorsetshire, possessed at this day by 
his posterity. This Sir John died about the year of our Lord 
one thousand five hundred and forty ; and is buried under a 
fair monument in the church of Middleton aforesaid. 


Although this county can boast of no writer graduated in that 
faculty in the university, and that generally they can better 
vouch practice for their warrant than warrant for their practice, 
yet Cornish men would be offended if I should omit 

RAWE HAYES,|| a blacksmith by his occupation, and fur- 
nished with more learning than is suitable to such a calling : 
who yet ministered physic for many years, with so often success 
and general applause, that not only the home-bred multitude 
believed so mainly in him, but even persons of the better calling 
resorted to him from the remote parts of the realm, to make 
trial of his cunning by the hazard of their lives ; and sundry, 
either upon just cause, or to cloak their folly, reported that they 
have reaped their errand's ends at his hands. He flourished 
anno Domini 1602. 

ATWELL, born in this county, and parson of St. Tue 

* Carew's Survey of Cornwall, 
t Ibid, fol.61. Speed's Chronicle, p. 780. 

j Prima parte Rot. 95, in the Remembrancer's (formerly called Osborno s) 
office. According to Hutchins's Dorset, vol. ii. 431, he died in 1565. ED. 

t| Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, fol. 66. 


therein, was well seen in the theories of physic, and happy in 
the practice thereof, beyond the belief of most, and the reason 
that any can assign for the same ; for although now and then 
he used blood-letting, he mostly for all diseases prescribed milk, 
and often milk and apples, which (although contrary to the 
judgments of the best esteemed practitioners) either by virtue 
of the medicine, or fortune of the physician, or fancy of the pa- 
tient, recovered many out of desperate extremities. This his 
reputation for many years maintained itself unimpaired, the ra- 
ther because he bestowed his pains and charge gratis on the 
poor ; and, taking moderately of the rich, left one half of what 
he received in the households he visited. As for the profits of 
his benefice, he poured it out with both hands in pious uses. 
But for the truth of the whole, " sit fides penes authorem." * 
This Atwell was living in 1602. 


HUGARIUS the Levite was born in this county, and lived at 
St. German's therein.! All-eating time hath left us but a little 
morsel for manners of his memory. This we know, he was a 
pious and learned man (after the rate of that age) ; and it ap- 
peareth that he was eminent in his function of Divine service, 
because Levite was KO.T c&x^V fixed upon him, In his time (as 
in the days of Ely) " the word of God was precious ;" J which 
raised the repute of his pains, who wrote an hundred and ten 
Homilies, besides other books. He flourished 1040. 

JOHN of CORNWALL (so called from the county of his na- 
tivity ) leaving his native soil, studied in foreign universities, 
chiefly in Rome, where his abilities commended him to the cog- 
nizance]of Pope Alexander the third. It argueth his learning, that 
he durst cope with that giant Peter Lumbard himself, commonly 
called The Master of the Sentences ; and who on that account 
expected that all should rather obey than any oppose his judg- 
ment. Yea, it appeareth that the judgment of this Peter bishop of 
Paris was not so sound in all points, by a passage I meet with 
in Matthew Paris, || of Pope Alexander the Third writing a letter 
to an archbishop of France, ee to abrogate the ill doctrine of Peter, 
sometime bishop of Paris, about Christ's Incarnation/ 5 But 
our John wrote against him, in his life-time, a book "de Homine 
assumpto ;" and put Peter's pen to some pains to write his own 
vindication. He wrote also a book of Philosophy and Heresies. 
Wonder not at their conjunction, philosophy being in divinity 
as fire and water in a family a good servant, but bad master ; 
so sad it is, when the Articles of our creed must be tried by the 

* Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, fol. 60. 

f Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. ii. num. 47 ; and Pits, anno 1040. 

$ 1 Sam. iii. 1. 

Bale, de Scriptoribus Anglise, Cent. iii. num. 6. || Anno 1179. 


touchstone of Aristotle. This John flourished under king Henry 
the seconfl, anno 1170. 

SIMON THURWAY was born in this county,* bred in our 
English universities, until he went over into Paris, where he be- 
came so eminent a logician, that all his auditors were his 
admirers. Most firm his memory, and fluent his expression ; 
and was knowing in all things, save in himself : for profanely he 
advanced Aristotle above Moses, and himself above both. His 
pride had a great and sudden fall, losing at the same instant both 
language and memory,becoming completely aXoyog,without reason 
or speech. Yet was his dumbness, to all intelligent people, a loud 
sermon on St. Paul's precept, " Not to think of themselves more 
highly than they ought to think, but to think soberly ."f Poly- 
dore Vergil saith of him, " Juvene nil acutius, sene nihil obtu- 
sius, w j whilst others add, he made an inarticulate sound like to 
lowing. This great judgment befell about the year of our Lord 

MICHAEL, BLAUNPAYN, born in Cornwall || (some so com- 
monly call him Michael the Master, that he had almost lost his 
native name), was bred in Oxford and Paris, and became as good 
a rhyming poet as any in that age. It happened, one Henry of 
Normandy, chief poet to our Henry the Third, had traduced 
Cornwall as an inconsiderable county, cast out by nature in con- 
tempt into a corner of the land. Our Michael could not endure 
this affront ; but, full of poetical fury, falls upon the libeller. 
Take a taste (little thereof will go far) of his strains : 

opus est ut opes numerare quibus est opulenla, 
Et per quasinopes sustentat non ope lent&, 
Piscibus el stanno nusquamtamfertilis ora. 

" We need not number up her wealthy store, 

f < Wherewith this helpful hand relieves her poor, 

No sea so full of fish, of tin no shore." 

Then, as a valiant champion, he concludeth all with this ex- 
hortation to his countrymen : 

Quid nos deterret 9 si firmiter in pede stemus, 
Fraus ni nos superat, nihil est quod non superemus. 
" What should us fright, if firmly we do stand? 
Bar fraud, and then no force can us command." 

His pen, so luscious in praising when so pleased, was as bitter 
in railing when disposed : witness this his satirical character of 
his aforesaid antagonist : 

* Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. iii. num. 47. f Rom. xii. 3. 

J Lib. xv. Angl. Hist. Bale, ut prius. 

|| Bale,de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. iv. num. 10. 


Est tibi gambcB * capri, cms passeris, et latus apri, 

Os leporis, catuli nasus, dens et gena muli, 

Frons vetulee, tauri caput, et color undique Mauri, 

His argumentis quibus est argutia mentis, 

Quod non a monstro differs, satis hie tibi monstro. 

" Gamb'd like a goat, sparrow-thigh'd, sides as boar, 

Hare mouth'd, dog-nosed, like mule thy teeth and chin, 

Brow'd as old wife, bull-headed, black as Moor. 
If such without, then what are you within ? 

By these my signs, the wise will easily conster, 

How little thou didst differ from a monster." 

He flourished anno 1350, though the certain time and place 
of his death is unknown. 

GODFREY of CORNWALL was bred a Doctor in Paris and 
Oxford^ and afterwards became a Carmelite of no mean esteem 
amongst those of his own order. It happened in his time that 
Gerardus Bononiensis, a Frenchman, master general of the 
Carmelites, made two provincials (formerly but one) of that 
order in England, alleging that "two are better than one,"f 
and matters would be more exactly regulated by their double 
inspection. The plain truth was, the Frenchman did it out of 
covetousness, that so two loaders might bring double grists to 
his mill. Our Godfrey appeared a champion for the old way, 
that matters might run on in their ancient channel, and wrote 
a book to that purpose, as many others on several subjects.! 

John Baconthorpe, his contemporary, much esteemed him, 
and quoted him by the title of Doctor Solennis.^ 

I doubt not but this our Godfrey, in mannerly requital, re- 
gave Baconthorpe the courtesy of Doctor Resolutus. And here 
I would fain be satisfied how these received epithets [Doctor 
ProfunduSy Doctor Subtilis, &c,] came first to be fixed on such 
and such schoolmen. Surely they assumed them not themselves, 
which had argued too much pride and presumption. Nor could 
I ever, as yet, meet with any authentic record of Pope, or uni- 
versity, which settled it upon them. Possibly one eminent 
writer gave it to another, his correspondent, who in reciproca- 
tion of kindness (" title thou me, and I will title thee ") returned 
as splendid a style to him again. This our solemn Doctor flou- 
rished anno Domini 1310. 

JOHN TREVISA was born at Caradoc in this county; bred in 
Oxford; afterwards vicar of Berkeley in Gloucestershire, and 
chaplain to Thomas Lord Berkeley, at whose instance, besides 
other histories writ by him, he translated the Bible into Eng- 
lish ; a daring work for a private person in that age, without 
particular command from Pope or public council. 

* Hence a gammon. f Eccles. iv. 9. 

J Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. v. num. 6. 
Distinct. 29. Qusestiones Sententiarum. 


Some much admire he would enter on this work, so lately 
performed (about fifty years before) by John Wickliffe. What 
was this, but actum agere, to do what was done before ? Be- 
sides, Wickliffe and Trevisa agreeing so well in their judgments, 
it was much he would make a re-translation. Such consider 
not, that in that age it was almost the same pains for a scholar 
to translate as transcribe the Bible. 

Secondly, the time betwixt Wickliffe and Trevisa was the 
crisis of the English tongue, which began to be improved in 
fifty, more than in three hundred years formerly. Many coarse 
words (to say no worse) used before are refined by Trevisa, 
whose translation is as much better than WicklifiVs, as worse 
than TyndaFs. Thus, though the fountain of the original hath 
always clearness alike therein, channels of translations will par- 
take of more or less purity, according to the translator's age, 
industry, and ability. This Trevisa died, a thorough old man, 
about the year 1400. 


JOHN SKUISH was born in Cornwall, a man of much expe- 
rience and general learning, He was, saith my author, a const- 
His to Cardinal Wolsey,* whereby I collect him learned of the 
laws, and of his counsel, except that that great prelate, like a 
prince, had council of state belonging unto him. This Skuish 
wrote a chronicle, being collected out of many several authors. 
I have some presumptions to conclude him inclined to the Pro- 
testant Reformation. He flourished anno Domini 1530. 

BARTHOLOMEW TRAHERON. The first syllable of his name, 
and what is added thereunto by my author, " parentum stem- 
mate clarus,"t and the sameness of his name with an ancient 
family in this county, are a three-fold cable to draw my belief, 
that he was this countryman. He was bred in the university 
of Oxford : and, having attained to good learning therein, twice 
travelled beyond the seas. 

Once, for pleasure and curiosity, into France and Italy, 
'Whereby he much improved himself. Returning home, he be- 
came library-keeper to king Edward the Sixth, and dean of Chi- 
chester. The second time, for safety and necessity, in the first of 
queen Mary, getting (I believe) his best subsistence (being an 
exile in Germany) with making and translating of books, where 
he was living 1556, and may be rationally presumed to die be- 
fore queen Elizabeth came to the crown, because, being a man 
of merit, and ecclesiastically dignified, we hear no more of his 

RICHARD CAREW, Esquire, son to Thomas Carew and Eliza- 

* Bale, de Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent ix. num. 19. t Ibid. p. 696. 


beth Edgecomb, was born at Anthony in this county, of right 
worshipful parentage, who honoured his extraction with his learn- 
ing. He was bred a gentleman commoner in Oxford, where, 
being but fourteen years old, and yet three years' standing, he 
was called out to dispute extempore, before the earls of Leices- 
ter and Warwick, with the matchless Sir Philip Sidney. 

si quteritis hnjus 

Fortunam pugna, non est snjieratus ab illo. 

" Ask you the end of this content ? 

They neither had the better, both the best.'' 

He afterwards wrote the pleasant and faithful " Description of 
Cornwall ; '* and I will not wrong his memory with my bar- 
barous praise, after so eloquent a pen. 

(( Sed ha?c planius et plenius docuit Richardus Carew de An- 
thonie, non minus generis splendore, quam virtute et doctrina 
nobilis, qui hujus regionis descriptionem latiore specie, et non 
ad tenue elimavit, quemque mihi prseluxisse non possum non 

This his book he dedicated to Sir Walter Raleigh, with 
this modest compliment, f that he appealed to his direction, 
whether it should pass ; to his correction, if it might pass ; and 
to his protection, if it did pass ; " adding moreover, that duty, 
not presumption, drawing him to that offering, it must be fa- 
vour, not desert, must move the other to the acceptance 
thereof. "f This survey was set forth 1602 ; and I collect the 
author thereof died about the middle of the reign of king James. 
I know not whether he or his son first brought up the use of 
gambadoes, much worn in the west, whereby, whilst one rides 
on horseback, his legs are in a coach, clean and warm, in those 
dirty countries. 

CHARLES HERLE was born in this county, of an ancient and 
worshipful family, bred (though never fellow J) in Exeter Col- 
lege, and at last richly beneficed in Lancashire. 

We read how Pharaoh removed all the Egyptians (the priests 
alone excepted) from one end of the borders of the land to the 
other end thereof : but we, the ministers in England, are of 
all men most and farthest removeable three hundred miles and 
more being interposed betwixt the place of Mr. Herle's birth 
and benefice. 

He was a good scholar, and esteemed by his party a deep di- 
vine, and, after the death of Doctor Twiss". president of the as- 
sembly. As I dare not defend all the doctrine delivered in his 
printed books ; so I will not inveigh against him, lest in me it 
be interpreted a revenge on his memory for licensing a book 
written against me,|| wherein I was taxed for popish compli- 

* Camden's Britannia, in Cornwall. f In bis Dedicatory Epistle, 

t A mistake in my " Church History." F. Gen. xlvii. 21, 22. 

II By Mr. John Saltmarsh. 


ance, though since, in myself still the same man, I groan under 
a contrary representation. The best is, innocence doth turn 
such groans into songs of gladness. Mr. Herle departed this 
life about 1655. 

Having received no instructions of any eminent benefactors 
in this county, either before or since the Reformation, we may 
proceed to 

KILTOR, in the last Cornish commotion,* (which was 

in the reign of king Edward the Sixth, anno Domini 1546) was 
committed to Launceston gaol, for his activity therein. This 
man lying there, in the Castle-green, upon his back, threw a 
stone of some pounds' weight over the tower's top (and that I 
assure you is no low one) which leadeth into the park. 

JOHN BRAY, tenant to Master Richard Carew (who wrote 
the Survey of this county) carried upon his back, about the year 
1608, at one time by the space well near of a butt length, six 
bushels of wheaten meal, reckoning fifteen gallons to the 
bushel ; and upon them all the miller, a lubber of four and 
twenty years of age.f 

JOHN ROMAN, his contemporary, a short clownish grub, 
may well be joined with him. He may be called the Cornish 
Milo, so using himself to burdens in his childhood, that when a 
man he would bear the whole carcass of an ox, and (to use my 
author's words) yet never tugged thereat.f 

VEAL, an old man of Bodmin in this county, was so 
beholden to Mercury's predominant strength in his nativity, 
that, without a teacher, he became very skilful, in well-near all 
manner of handicrafts a carpenter, a joiner, a millwright, a 
freemason, a clockmaker, a carver, a metal-founder, P architect, et 
quid non ? yea, a chirurgeon, physician, alchymist, &c. So as 
that which Georgias of Leontium || vaunted of the liberal 
sciences, he may profess of the mechanical, viz. to be ignorant 
in none. He was in his eminency anno 1602. 

EDWARD BONE,^ of Ladock in this county, was servant to 
Mr. Courtney therein. He was deaf from his cradle, and con- 
sequently dumb (Nature cannot give out where it hath not 
received) ; yet could learn, and express to his master, any 
news that was stirring in the country ; especially if there went 
speech of a sermon within some some miles distance, he would 
repair to the place with the soonest, and setting himself directly 

* Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, fol. 63. f Idem, fol. 63. 

J Idem, fol. 62. Idem, fol. 63. || Cicero de Oratore. 

^[ Carew, in his Survey of Cornwall, p, 139. 


against the preacher, look him stedfastly in the face, while his 
sermon lasted ; to which religious zeal, his honest life was also 
answerable. Assisted with a firm memory, he would not only 
know any party whom he had once seen, for ever after ; but also 
make him known to any other, by some special observation and 
difference. There was one Kempe, not living far off, defected 
accordingly, on whose meetings there were such embracements, 
such strange, often, and earnest tokenings, and such hearty 
laughters, and other passionate gestures, that their want of a 
tongue seemed rather an hindrance to others conceiving them, 
than to their conceiving one another. 


I meet with but this one, and that very lately (Sir Richard 
Cheverton, Skinner), born in this county ; imputing it chiefly 
to their great distance from London ; insomuch that anciently 
when Cornish men went (or rather were driven up by the vio- 
lence of their occasions) to that city, it was usual with them to 
make their wills, as if they took their voyage into a foreign 

Besides, the children of the Cornish gentry counted them- 
selves above, and those of the poorer sort counted themselves 
beneath, a trade in London, as unable to attain it, by reason of 
the difference of their language, whose feet must travel far to 
come to London, whilst their tongues must travel further to get 
to be understood when arrived there. 

This is one of the twelve pretermitted counties, the names 
of whose gentry were not returned into the Tower in the twelfth 
of king Henry the Sixth. 

Anno HENRY II. Anno 

, / , 3 Rich. Flandry. 

1 (Recorda manca.) J 

22 Eustachius fil. Stephani, 

9* A1 forfi ^ e ^ ars - , . 6 Will/de Botterel, for five 

27 Alanus de Furnee, for four years 

9i tr^ ( TO* A i i, T 11 Jh filius Richard, for six 

31 Hug. Bardulph, Dapifer. 

32 Idem. 

33 Idem. HENRY in. 



1 Will, de Bachland. 3 Gkdiel. Lunet. 

2 Rich. Revel, for nine years. 4 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

JOHAN. R. g GuL de p ucot< 

1 Joh. de Torrington. 7 Reg. de Valle Torta. 

2 Hug. Bardolph. Walt, de Treverden. 




8 Reg. de Valle Torta. 

9 Gul. Bregnen, junior. 
Rog. de Langford. 
Reg. de Valle Torta. 

[A blank in the records to the 
end of this king's reign 
(being forty-four years), 
except any suppose 
(which is not very pro- 
bable) that the three 
fore-mentioned persons, 
all, two, or one of them, 
continued so long in 
their office.] 



3 Joh. Wigger. 

4 Idem. 

5 Rob. de Chini. 

7 Will, de Munckton, for 
five years. 

12 Alex, de Sabridsworth. 

13 Idem. 

14 Idem. 

15 Simon, de Berkeley. 

16 Idem. 

17 Edw. Comes Cornubise, for 

twelve years. 

29 Thorn, de la Hide, for 
seven years. 



3 Pet. de Gaviston, Com. 


4 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

6 Tho. de la Hide. 


7 Tho. de Excedekney. 

8 Rich, de Polhampton. 

9 Rich, de Hewish. 
10 Hen. de Willington. 


13 I sab. Regina Angliae. 

15 [ (Nullus Titulus in Rotulo.) 

17 Isab. Reg. Anglise, Regis 


18 Idem. 


1 Eliz. Regina, Regis mater, 
for five years. 

6 Will, de Botreaux. 

7 Idem. 

8 John Petit. 

9 Idem. 

10 Joh. de Chudeleigh. 

11 Joh. Hamly. 
Joh. Petit, 

12 Idem, 

14 Edw. Dux Cornubiae, 

15 Hen. Terrill. 
Rog. de Prideaux. 

16 Edw. Dux Cornubiae. 

17 Idem. 

18 Guliel. Pipehard. 

19 Edw. Dux Cornubiae, for 

nine years. . 

28 Joh. Northcot. 
Will. Auncell. 

29 Idem. 

30 Idem. 

31 Guliel. Auncell. 

32 Edward. Dux Cornubiee, 

to the end of this king's 


Anno Name and Arms. 

1 Nich. Wampford. 
VOi. I, 




Anno Name. Place. 

2 Rad. Carmino. 

Arms : Az. a bend O. a label of three points G. 

3 Oto. de Bodrigay. 

4 Will. Talbot [AMP.] 

5 Job. Bevill .... Gwarnack. 

Arg. a bull passant G. armed and tripped O. 

6 Wai. Archdeacon, mil. . Anthony. 

Arg. three chevrons S. 

7 Wil. Witzwanter, mil. 

8 Rich, de Kendall. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three dolphins S. 

9 Job. Bevill .... ut prius. 

10 Nich. Wamford. 

11 Job. Colyn. 

12 Rich. Sergeaux. 

13 Tho. Peverell. 

14 Will. Talbot .... ut prius. 

15 Job. Colyn. 

16 Job. Colshall. 

17 Job. Herle. 

Arg. a fess G. betwixt three sheldrakes proper. 

18 Ja. Chuddelegh. 

Erm. three lions rampant G. 

19 Will. Talbot .... utprius. 

20 Job. Bevill ut prius. 

21 Job. Colshull. 

22 Gal. Seyntalbyn. 

Or, on a cross G. five bezants. 


1 Hen. films regis Hen. IV. primogenitus, et Job. Keynes. 

The Arms of England, with the difference of the heir ap- 

2 Idem ut prius. 

3 Idem ut prius. 

4 Idem ut prius. 

5 Pr. Henricus . . . . ut prius. 

6 Job. Cole. 

7 Pr. Henricus . . . . ut prius. 

8 Idem ut prius. 

9 Idem ut prius. 

10 Idem ut prius. 

11 Idem utprius. 

12 Idem utprius. 


1 Job. Kederow. 

2 Idem. 


Anno Name. Place. 

3 Will Talbot . . . . ut prius. 

4 Otc Trevarthan, mil. 

5 Hdi. Fullford. 

G. a chevron Arg. 

6 , 7 oh. Arundel, mil. . . Lanhern. 

S. six swallows in pile Arg. 

7 Steph. Derneford. 

8 Joh. Arundel, mil. . . ut prius. 
$ Joh. Arundel, mil. . . Trerice. 

Ut prius, with due difference. 



1 Joh. Arundel, mil. . . ut prius. 

2 Tho. Carmyno . . . ut prius. 

3 Will. Talbot ..... ut prius. 

4 Joh. Herle, mil. . . . ut prius. 

5 Joh. Arundel, mil. . . ut prius. 

7 Joh. Namson. 

8 Tho. Carmino ..../ prius. 

9 Ro. Chambleyn. 

10 Ja. Chuddeleigh . . . ut prius. 

12 Joh. Herle, mil. . . . ut prius. 

13 Tho Bonevill. 

S. six mullets, three, two, and one, Arg. 

14 Joh. Yerd. 

15 Tho. Whalesbrew . . ut prius. 

16 Ren. Arundel .... ut prius. 

17 Joh. Collshull. 

18 Joh. Nanson. 

19 Joh. Mansdy. 

20 Tho. Whalesbrough. 

21 Joh. Blewet. 

O. a chevron betwixt three eagles displayed V. 

22 Joh. Arundel .... ut prius. 

23 Ni. vel Mic. Power. 

24 Joh. Champernoun. 

G. a saltire vairee betwixt three billets O. 

25 Joh. Austill. 

26 Hen. Fortescu. 

Az. a bend engrailed Arg. cotised O. 

27 Joh. Trevilyan. 

G. a demi-horse Arg. issuing out of the waves of the sea. 

28 Joh. Basset. 

29 Joh. Nanson. 

30 Tho. Butside. 

Y 2 






ut prius. 
ut prius. 

31 Will. Dawbeney. 

Arg. a fess lozengee G. 

32 Tho. Walesbrough. 
33- Job. Petyt. 

34 Job. Conkworth. 

35 Job. Nanson, arm. 

36 Job. Arundel .... 

37 Job. Walesbrough. 

38 Job. Trevillian, arm. . 


1 Rob. Champernon . . ut prius. 

2 Ren. Arundel .... ut prius. 

3 Ren. Arundel .... ut prius. 

4 Tho. Bere. 

5 Alver. Cordburgh. 

6 Will. Bere. 

7 Job. CollshulL, mil. 

8 Job. Sturgeon, arm. 

9 Alver. Cornburgh. m 

10 Job. Arundel, mil. . . ut prius. 
1 1 Job. Fortescu, arm. . . ut prius. 

12 Idem ...... ut prius. 

13 Idem ...... ut prius. 

14 Idem ...... ut prius. 

15 Rich. Dux Glouc. vir, ad terminum vie. suae. 

France and England, on a label of three Erin, as many 
cantons G. 

16 Job. Fortescu, arm. 

17 Egid. Dawbeney . . . ut prius. 

18 Will. Cornsnyowe. 

19 Rob. Willoughby. 

20 Rich. Nanson. 

21 Tho. Greenvil. 

G. three rests O, 

22 Tho. Fullford. 

G. a chevron Arg. 


1 Job. Treffey .... Foy. 

S. a chevron betwixt three hawthorns Arg. 

2 Ja. Tirrell, mil. . . . ESSEX. 

Arg. two chevrons Az. within a border engrailed G. 

3 Will. Houghton. 


1 Tho. Grenevil. . . . ut prius. 


Anno Namt Place. 

2 Joh. Tremayi. 

G. three irms in circle, joined at the tronks O. with 
hands poper. 

3 Alex. Care\\ .... Anthony. 

O. three ions passant gardant S. armed and langued G. 

4 Rich. Nansm. 

5 Joh, Treffey, mil. . . ut prius. 

6 Joh, Roscsrrock . . . Roscarrock. 

A-g. a chevron betwixt two roses G. a sea-tench naiant 

7 Th. Vregarthen, arm. 

Walt Enderby, arm. . LINCOLN. 

Arr. three bars dancette S. ; a pale in chief Erm. 

8 Rich. Vivian. 

Arj. a lion rampant G. mounted on two bars wavy in 
lase Az. 

9 Wai. Snderby, arm. 

10 PetrusBevell .... ut prius. 

11 Edw. Aiundel, arm. , ut prius. 

12 Joh. Basset. 

13 Pe. Edgcombe, mil. . . Edgcombe. 

G. on a bend Erm. between two cotises O. three boars' 
heads eouped Arg. 

14 Idem ut prius. 

15 Joh. Treftey, mil. . . ut prius. 

16 Will. Treffey, arm. . . ut prius. 

17 Pet. Bevil .... ut prius. 

18 Wit. Trevinyon . . . Gary-hays. 

Arg. on fcfessB. three escallops O. between two chevrons G. 

19 Jon. Godolphin . . . Godolghan. 

G. an etgle displayed with two heads, betwixt three 
flower- oe-luces Arg. 

20 Rich. Vivian, arm. . . ut prius. 

21 Pet. Edgcombe, mil. . ut prius. 

22 Mich. Vivian, arm. . . ut prius. 

23 Will. Trevanion, arm. . ut prius. 

24 Th. Trevanion, mil. . . ut prius. 


1 Joh. Arundel, mil. . . Talvern. 

2 Ro. Graynfield, arm. . ut prius. 

3 Will. Carsew, arm. . . Bokelly. 

S. a goat passant Arg. attired and tripped O. 

4 Jac. Eryse, arm. 

S. a chevron betwixt three griffins segreant O. 

5 Joh. Carmyno . . . ut prius. 

6 Joh. Carew, arm. . . ut prius. 

7 Wit. Trevanion, mil. . ut prius. 


Auno Name. Place. 

8 Pe. Edgcombe, mil. . ut prius. 

9 Jo. Basset^ mil. 

10 Ro. Greenfield^ arm. . ut prius. 

11 Jo. Arundell de 

Trevise; arm. . . . ut prius. 

12 Job. SkewyS; arm. 

13 Job. Basset, mil. . . ut prius. 

14 Ro. Greenfield^ arm. . ut prius. 

15 Jo. Arundell de 

Trevise; arm. . . . ut prius. 

Az. a chevron engrailed O. between three roses Arg. 

16 Will. Lour, arm. 

Arg. three bends S. charged with nine rest of tht field. 

17 Rich. Penrose; arm. 

18 Ri. Greenfield, arm. . ut prius. 

19 Hu. Trevanyon, arm. . ut prius. 

20 Jo. Chamond; arm. . . Launcels. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three flower-de-luces G. 

21 Will. Godolphni; arm. 

22 Chri. Trednoke; arm. 

23 Jo. Arundell de 

Trevise; arm. . . . ut prius. 

24 Hu. Trevanion; mil. . ut prius. 

25 Wi. Godolphhi; mil. 

26 Pe. Edgcombe; mil. . . ut prius. 

27 Job. Reshymar; mil. * . Hailford. 

Az. three bars Arg. in chief a wolf passant cf the first. 

28 Job. Chamond; mil. . ut prius. 

29 Hu. Trevanyon; mil. 

30 Wi. Godolphin; mil. 

31 Job. Reskymer; arm. . ut prius. 

32 Job. Arundell; arm. . . ut prius. 

33 Job. Arundell; mil. . . ut prius. 

34 Hu. Trevanyon; arm. . ut prius. 

35 Ric. diamond; arm. . ut prius. 
33 Ric. Greenfield; arm. . ut prius. 
3; Tho. St. Albine; arm. . ut prius. 
38 Job. Trelawney; arm. . Pool. 

Arg. a chevron S. betwixt three oak-leaves V. 


1 Job. Milaton; arm. 

2 Pet. Chamond; arm. . ut prius. 

3 Wil. Godolphin; mil. . ut prius. 

4 Ric. Roscorrek; arm. . ut prius. 

5 Hu. Trevanyon; mil. . ut prius. 

6 Reg. Mohun, arm. 

O. a cross engrailed S. 



Anno Name. Place. 
1 Joh. Arundell de 

Trevise, mil. . . . ut prius. 


1, 2 Joh. Arundell de 

Lanhern, mil. . . . ut prius. 

2, 3 Eic. Edgcombe, arm. . ut prius. 

3, 4 Jo. Reskymer, arm. . ut prius. 

4, 5 Joh. Bevil, arm. . . ut prius. 

5, 6 Jo. Carminoe, arm. . ut prius. 


1 Reg. Mohun, arm. . . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Trelawney, arm. . ut prius. 

3 Ric. Roscarrake, arm. . ut prius. 

4 Ric. Chamond, arm. . ut prius. 
^5 Hen. Chiverton, arm. 

Arg. a castle S. on a hill V. 

6 Hu. Trevanyon, arm. . ut prius. 

7 Will. Milliot, arm. 

8 Joh. Trelawny, arm. . ut prius. 

9 Joh. St. Albyen, arm. . ut prius. 

10 Wi. Godolphin, mil. . ut prius. 

11 Pet. Edgcombe, arm. . ut prius. 

12 Hen. Curwen, mil. . . CUMBERLAND. 

Arg. frette G. a chief Az. 

13 Will. Mohun, arm. . . ut prius. 

14 Pet. Courtney, arm. . Ladock. 

O. three torteaux and a file with as many lambeaux Az. 

15 Joh. Arundel de 

Trevise, arm. . . . ut prius. 

16 Joh. Bevil ut prius. 

17 Geo. Kerkwickj arm. . Catch-French. 

Arg. two lions in bend passant S. cotised G. 

18 Rich. Grevill, arm. 

19 Will. Mohun, arm. 

20 Will. Louer, arm. . . ut prius. 

21 Fr. Godplphin, arm. . ut prius. 

22 Joh. Arundel, arm. . . ut prius. 

23 Joh. 

24 Rich. Carew, arm. . . ut prius. 

25 Ge. Greenvill, arm. . . ut prius. 

26 Tho. Cosworth, arm. . Cosworth. 

Arg. on a chevron betwixt three wings Az. five bezants. 

27 Joh. Roscarroke, arm. . ut prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

28 Job. Wray, arm. . . . Trebigh. 

S. a fess betwixt three battle-axes Arg. 

29 Ant. Rouse,, arm. . . Halton. 

O. an eagle displayed B. pruning her wing, armed and 
langued G. 

30 Tho. St. Albin, arm. . ut prius. 

31 Will. Bevill, arm. . . ut prius. 

32 Walt. Kendall, arm. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three dolphins S. 

33 Geo. Kegwhich, arm. . ut prius. 

34 Ri. Champernown . . ut prius. 

35 Tho. Lower, arm. . . ut prius. 

36 Job. Trelawne, arm. . ut prius. 

37 Car. Trevanion, arm. . ut prius. 

38 Ber. Grenvill, arm. . . ut prius. 

39 Pet. Courtney, arm. . . ut prius. 

40 Will. Bevill, arm. . . ut prius. 

41 Will. Wray, arm. . . ut prius. 

42 Fran. Buller, arm. . . Tregarrids. 

S. on a plain cross Arg. quarter-pierced four eagles of 
the field. 

43 Hanibal Vivian . . . ut prius. 

44 Anth. Rouse, arm. . . ut prius. 

45 Arth. Harris, arm. et primo Jac. 

S. three croissants within a border Arg. 


1 Arth. Harris, arm. . . ut prius. 

2 Fr. Godolphin, mil. . . ut prius. 

3 Nic. Predeaux, arm. . Padstow. 

A chevron S. ; in chief a file with three lambeaux G. 

4 Deg. diamond, arm. . ut prius. 

5 Job. Arundell, arm. . ut prius. 

6 Jo. Rashly, arm. mo. 

S. a cross betwixt two croissants Arg. 
Job. Acland, mil. 

Cheeky Arg. and S. a fess G. 

7 Chri. Harris, mil. . . ut prius. 

8 Rich. Edgcombe, mil. . ut prius. 

9 Rich. Buflar, arm. . . ut prius. 

10 Will. Wrey, mil. . . . ut prius. 

11 Will. Coriton, arm. 

Arg. a saltire S. 

12 Rich. Roberts, arm. . . Truro. 

Az. three etoiles, and a chief wavy O. 

13 Jo. Chamond, arm. . . ut prius. 

14 Will. Dode, arm. 


Anno Name. Place. 

15 Fran. Vivian, arm. 

Arg. a lion rampant G. 

16 Rich. Carsew, arm. . . ut prius. 

17 Reskmim. Boniton . . Cardew. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three flower-de-luces S. 

18 Nich. Glyn, arm. . . Glynfford. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three salmon-spears S. 

19 Sa. Pendervis, arm. 

S. a falcon rising between three mullets O. 

20 Joh. Speccot, arm. 

O. on a bend G. three millroinds Arg. 

21 Rich. Gedy, arm. 

22 Jo. Moyle, arm. vir. St. Germains. 

G. a moyle passant Arg, 


1 Tho. Wivell, arm. 

2 Joh. Trefuses, arm. 

Arg. a chevron between three wharrow spindles S. 

3 Jo. Rashleigh, arm. . . ut prius. 

4 Geo. Hele, arm. 

G. a bend lozengee Erm. 

6 Jo. Trelawney, mil. . ut prius. 

7 Jo. Prideaux, arm. . . ut prius. 

8 Nic. Loure, mil. . . . ut prius. 

9 Cha. Trevanion, arm. . ut prius. 

10 Hu. Bosgawen, arm. 

V. a bull passant Arg. armed O. ; in a chief Erm. a rose G, 

11 Jo. St. Albin, arm. . . ut prius. 

12 Rich. Buller, mil. . . ut prius. 

13 Fran. Godolphin, arm. . ut prius. 

15 Rich. Trevill, arm. 

O. a cross engrailed S. in the first quarter a mullet G. 

16 Fran. Willear. 



22 Edw. Heile, arm. . . ut prius. 


15. ROGER de PRIDEAUX. My eye cannot be entertained 
with a more welcome object, than to behold an ancient name, 
not only still continuing to, but eminently flourishing in, our 
age; on which account, I cannot but congratulate the hap- 


piness of this family, expecting a daily accession of repute from 
the hopeful branches thereof. 


10. JOHN ARUNDEL, Mil. This worthy knight was fore- 
warned (by what Calker I wot not) that " he should be slain 
on the sands." * This made him to shun his house at Eiford 
(alias Ebbing-ford) as too maritime, and remove himself to 
Trerice, his more inland habitation in this county. But he 
found it true, " Fata viam inveniant ;" for, being this year 
sheriff, and the earl of Oxford surprising Mount Michael (for 
the House of Lancaster), he was concerned by his office, and 
command from the king, to endeavour the reducing thereof, 
and lost his life in a skirmish on the sands thereabouts. Thus 
it is just with Heaven, to punish men's curiosity in inquiring 
after, credulity in believing of, and cowardice in fearing at, such 

21. THOMAS GREEN VIL. Be it entered (by way of caveat] 
that there is some difference in the blazoning of the coat of the 
Granvils, or Greenvils. What usually are termed therein rests, 
being the handles of spears (most honourable in tilting to break 
them nearest thereunto) are called by some critics surflues y 
being the necessary appendants to organs, conveying wind unto 
them. If (as it seemeth) their dubious form, as represented 
in the scutcheon, doth ex aequo answer to both, with me they 
shall still pass for the rests to spears : for, though I dare not 
deny but the Greenvils may be good musicians, I am assured 
they were most valiant soldiers in all their generations. 

But the merits of this ancient family are so many and great, 
that ingrossed they would make one county proud, which 
divided would make two happy. I am therefore resolved 
equally to part what I have to say thereof betwixt Cornwall 
and Devonshire. 


The reader will take notice that (as it is in our catalogue) 
Richard duke of Gloucester was high- sheriff of this county ad 
terminum vitce ; a strange precedent (if it may be said to go be- 
fore, which hath nothing to follow after), seeing for the last two 
years he was both king of England and sheriff of Cornwall. 
We therefore behold afl the following persons, unto the first 
of king Henry the Seventh, but as so many deputies under him ; 
and amongst these we take special notice of 

2. JAMES TIRRELL, Mil. This is he, so infamous in our 
English histories, for his activity in murdering the innocent sons 
of king Edward the Fourth, keeping the keys of the Tower, and 

* Carew's Survey of Cornwall, p. 119, 


standing himself at the foot of the stairs, whilst Mr. Forest and 
J. Dighton stifled them in their beds. I behold this Sir James 
as an Essex man, though now the prime officer of this county : 
for king Richard accounted Cornwall the back door of rebellion, 
and therefore made this knight the porter thereof. Indeed it 
is remote from London, and the long sides of this county afford 
many landing places, objected to Britain in France, whence the 
usurper always feared (and at last felt) an invasion ; and there- 
fore he appointed him sheriff, to secure the county, as obliged 
unto him, by gratitude for favours received, and guilt for faults 
committed. This Tirrell was afterwards executed for treason, 
in the Tower-yard, in the beginning of king Henry the Seventh. 


12. JOHN BASSET. This was a busy year indeed in this 
county, when the Cornish commotion began (headed by Flam- 
mock a lawyer, and Michael Joseph a blacksmith) at the town 
of Bodmin. Let none impute it to the neglect of this sheriff, 
that he suppressed them not, seeing (besides that they quickly 
quitted this county, and went eastward) it was not the work of 
posse comitatus, but posse regni y to encounter them. However, 
after long running (for they marched the breadth of the land, 
from Cornwall to Kent, before battle was bid them), they were 
overtaken and overcome at Blackheath. 

13. PETER EDGCOMBE, Mil. The names of Pierce (or Peter) 
and Richard have been (saith my author) successively varied in 
this family for six or seven descents.* Such chequering of 
Christian names serve heralds instead of stairs, whereby they 
ascend with assurance into the pedigrees of gentlemen ; and I 
could wish the like alternation of font-names fashionable in 
other families ; for, where the heirs of an house are of the same 
name for many generations together, it occasioneth much mis- 
take; and the most cautious and conscientious heralds are 
guilty of making incestuous matches, confounding the father for 
the son, and so reciprocally. 


4. RICHARD CHAMOND, Esq. He received at God's hand 
an extraordinary favour of long life, serving in the office of a 
justice of peace almost sixty years.f He saw above fifty seve- 
ral judges of the Western Circuit ; was uncle and great-uncle to 
three hundred at least ; and saw his youngest child above forty 
years of age. 

19. WILLIAM MOHUN. He was descended from the ancient 
lords of Dunster and earls of Somerset, of which one received a 

* Carew's Survey of Cornwall, fol. 101. f Idem, p. 118. 



reat papal privilege, whereof largely in my " Church History." 
behold him as grandfather to John Lord Mohun of Oakhamp- 
ton (descended by a coheir from the Courtneys earls of Devon- 
shire) and great-grandfather to the Right Honourable Warwick 
Lord Mohun. 

29. ANTHONY ROUSE, Esq. Give me leave only to transcribe 
what I find written of him ;* ee He employeth himself to a kind 
and uninterrupted entertainment of such as visit him, upon his 
not sparing inviting, or their own occasions ; who (without the 
self-guilt of an ungrateful wrong) must witness, that his frank- 
ness confirmeth their welcome, by whatsoever means provision, 
the fuel of hospitality, can in the best manner supply." He was 
father to Francis Rouse, late provost of Eton, whose industry 
is more commendable than his judgment in his many treatises. 


2. FRANCIS GODOLPHIN, Mil. Master Carew confesseth, in 
his " Survey " of this county, that " from him he gathered sticks 
to build that nest," who was assistant unto him in that playing 
labour, as he termeth it.f This ingenious gentleman entertain- 
ed a Dutch mineral man ; and, taking light from his experience, 
built thereon far more profitable conclusions from his own in- 
vention, practising a more saving way, to make tin of what was 
rejected for refuse before. 

And here the mention of his ingenuity minds me how heredi- 
tary abilities are often entailed on families, seeing he was ances- 
tor unto Sidney Godolphin, slain at in Devonshire, 

valiantly fighting for his lord and master. His Christian and 
surname divisim signify much ; but how high do they amount 
in conjunction ! There fell wit and valour never sufficiently to 
be bemoaned. 

10. WILLIAM WREY, Mil. He was direct ancestor to Sir 
Chichester Wrey, knight and baronet, who, though scarce a 
youth in age, was more than a man in valour, in his loyal service. 
He married Anne, one of the daughters and co-heirs of Bour- 
chier Earl of Bath, whose son Bourchier Chichester shall ever 
have my prayers, that he may answer the nobleness of his ex- 

12. RICHARD ROBERTS. He was afterwards created a ba- 
ron ; and was father unto the Right Honourable the Lord Ro- 
berts, one of his Majesty's most honourable privy council, lately 
designed deputy of Ireland, as a person of singular ability and 

* Carew, ut prius, p. 114. J P. 13. 



I shall enlarge myself the rather on this subject, because 
building my discourse therein, not on the floating sands of un- 
certain relations, but the rock of real intelligence ; having got- 
ten a manuscript of Sir Ralph Hopton's (courteously communi- 
cated unto me by his secretary Master Tredui) interpolated with 
his own hand, being a memorial of the remarkables in the West, 
at which that worthy knight was present in person. 

I begin with that which is called the Battle of Liskeard, tak- 
ing the name from the next town of note thereunto ; otherwise 
Bradock-Down was the particular place thereof. Before the 
fight began, the king's side took it into their seasonable consi- 
deration, that, seeing by the commission the Lord Mohun 
brought from Oxford four persons, viz. the said Lord Mohun, 
Sir Ralph Hopton, Sir John Berkeley, and colonel Ashburnham, 
were equally empowered in the managing of all military matters, 
and seeing such equality might prove inconvenient (which 
hitherto had been prevented with the extraordinary moderation 
of all parties) in ordering a battle, it was fittest to fix the power 
in one chief; and general consent settled it in Sir Ralph Hopton. 

He first gave order that public prayers should be had in the 
head of every squadron ; and it was done accordingly ; and the 
enemy, observing it, did style it saying of mass, as some of their 
prisoners afterwards did confess. Then he caused the foot to 
be drawn up in the best order they could : placed a forlorn of 
musketeers in the little inclosures, winging them with the few 
horse and dragoons he had. 

This done, two small minion drakes, speedily and secretly 
fetched from the Lord Mohun's house, were planted on a little 
barrow within random-shot of the enemy ; yet so that they 
were covered from their sight, with small parties of horse about 
them. These concealed minions were twice discharged with 
such success, that the enemy quickly quitted their ground ; and 
all their army being put into a rout, the king's forces had the 
execution of them, which they performed very sparingly. They 
took twelve hundred and fifty prisoners, most of their colours, 
all their cannon, being four brass guns upon carriages, whereof 
two were twelve-pounders, and one iron saker, all their ammuni- 
tion, most of their arms : and, marching that night to Liskeard, 
the king's forces first gave God public thanks, and then took 
their own private repose. 

STBATTON fight succeeds, on Tuesday, May 16, 1643. But 
first let us take a true account of the two armies respectively, 
with the visible inequality betwixt them. 

The king's forces were in want of ammunition, and were to 
hew out their own way up a steep hill with their valour, exposed 
to all disadvantages and dangers. Their horse and dragoons ex- 


ceeded not five hundred ; their foot about two thousand four 
hundred in number. 

The Parliament army had plenty of all provisions, and had 
advantageously barricaded themselves on the top of a hill. 
Their horse indeed were not many (having lately sent away 
twelve hundred to surprise the sheriff and commissioners at Bod- 
min) ; but foot were five thousand four hundred by poll, as 
their major-general did acknowledge. 

As for the king^s forces, order was given that by four several 
avenues they should force their passage to the top of the hill, 
which was very steep ; the enemy as obstinately endeavour- 
ing to keep them down, as the other did valiantly strive to as- 

The fight continued doubtful, with many countenances of va- 
rious events, from five of the clock in the morning till three in 
the afternoon; amongst which most remarkable the smart 
charge made by major-general Chudeleigh, with a stand of pikes, 
on Sir Bevill Greenfield, so that the knight was in person over- 
thrown, and his party put into disorder: which would have 
proved destructive unto it, had not Sir John Berkeley (who led 
up the musqueteers on each side of Sir Bevill Greenfield) sea- 
sonably relieved it, so re-inforcing the charge that major-gene- 
ral Chudeleigh was taken prisoner. 

Betwixt three and four of the clock the commanders of the 
king's forces, who embraced those four several ways of ascent, 
met, to their mutual joy, almost at the top of the hill, which the 
routed enemy confusedly forsook. In this service, though they 
wereassailants, they lost very few men, and no considerable officer; 
killing of the enemy about three hundred, and taking seven- 
teen hundred prisoners, all their cannon (being thirteen pieces 
of brass ordnance) and ammunition (seventy barrels of powder), 
with a magazine of biscuit, and other provisions proportionable. 
For this victory public prayer and thanksgiving was made on 
the hill ; and then the army was disposed of, to improve their 
success to the best advantage. For this good service, Sir Ralph 
Horton was afterwards, at Oxford, created Baron of Stratton, in 
form as followeth : * 

" Carolus, Dei gratia, Angliae, &c. Cum et nominis nostri et 
posteritatis interest, et ad clara exempla propaganda, utilissime 
compertum, palam fieri omnibus premia apud nos virtuti sita, 
ruec perire fidelium subditorum officia, sed memori et benevolo 
pectore fixissime insidere; his prcesertim temporibus, cum plu- 
rimorum (quibus antehac nimium indulsimus) temerata aut 
suspecta fides pretium aliorum constantiae addidit : ciimque 
nobis certo constat Radulphum Hopton, Militem de Balneo, 
splendidis et antiquis natalibus, turn in ceetera sua vita inte- 

* Reader, being chaplain to this worthy lord, I could do no less than (in grati- 
tude to his memory) make this exemplification. F. 


gritatis et morum eximium, turn in Me novissima tempestate 
fatalique regni et rebelli motu, rari animi fideique exemplum 
edidisci, regiee dignitatis in eaque publice contra utriusque ad- 
versaries assertorem et vindicem acerrimum : 

" Quippe, quia non solum nascenti huic furori (necdum omni- 
bus manifesto) optimis consiliis fortis in curia senator restiteret ; 
sed, insinuante se latius veneno et crescente ferocia, domum ad 
suos reversus, fortior miles in agro suo Somersetensi et vicmis 
partibus, omni ope et manu iniquissimam causam oppugnaverit ; 
in arce prsesertim Sherborniana, sub auspiciis Marchionis Here- 
fordise, egregiam operam navaverit. Mox ulterius progressus, 
pollenti in Devonia factionis tyrannide, et munitissim civitate 
in foedus illecta, et jam undique bonis subditis perniciem 
minante, ipse pene in ilia regione hospes, contracto e Cornubia 
milite, et primoribus statim impetum eorum repressit, jacen- 
tesque et afflictas nostras partes mirifica virtute recreavit : et, 
licet summis necessitatibus conflictanti exigua pars negocii 
hostes erant, tantum abfuit ut vel illis vel istis succumberet, ut, 
contra copias auctiores et bellico apparatu instructissimos, 
ssepius signis collatis in acie dimicans, semper superior exces- 

" Testis Lanestonia, Saltash, Bradock, aliaque obscura olim 
nomina et loca, nunc victoriis illius et perduellium cladibus no- 
bilitata,, Vix etiam ab his respiraverat, cum novus belli furor, 
lassas jam fere et continuis prseliis luxatas vires numerosissimo 
exercitu adortus, uberiorem triumphandi dedit materiam. Cum 
ille in campis Strattonise, in difficillimas licet angustias redactus, 
inops militaris instrumenti, et consumpto jam pulvere tormen- 
tario, armatos inermis, vallo munitos intectus, sola causa et 
virtute animatus, ita retudit, concidit, castris exuit, ut totum 
belli molem cum ipsis authoribus profligavit: quicquid fugae 
illius residuum erat, inter urbis unius moenia eaque arcta ob- 
sidione astricta concluso. Qua quidem pugna memorabili, 
prseter quod miserum popellum jugo intollerabili levaverat, 
sedes suas expulsis, ecclesias pastoribus, pacem omnibus, et 
firmamentum pacis obsequium pristinum restituerit. Et jam 
sequenti armorum nostrorum felicitati, qua partes regni occiden- 
tales maturius ad officium et verum dominum redierunt, et viam 
aperuisse et momentum ingens extitisse, libentissime profitemur : 
in hac opera laudabili cum preefatus Radulphus perstet adhuc 
invicto animo et industria indefessa, nullo arduo quantumvis 
labore et periculo excusatus ; cumque mille argumentis testatum 
fecerit, honorem salutemque nostram sibi omni fortuna et ca- 
pite potiorem, nos virum fortissimum optimeque aftectum 
animum benigno studio prosequi, et amplius demereri volentes, 
hunc et praeconio merito : ornandum, et propriori ad nos gradu 
extollendum censuimus: Sciatis igitur nos, de gratia nostra 
special] ac ex certa scientia et mero motu, praefatum Radulphum 
Hopton ad statum, gradum, stilum, dignitatem, titulum, et ho- 


norem Baronis Hopton, de Stratton, in comitatu nostra Cor- 
nubise, &c. In cujus rei testimonium, has literas nostras fieri 
fecimus patentes. 

" Teste meipso, apud Oxon. quarto die Septembris, anno 
regni nostri decimo nono." 

This honour determined in this lord dying issueless at Bruges 
in Flanders ; since which time king Charles the Second hath 
conferred the title of Baron of Stratton on Sir John Berkeley, 
younger son to Sir Maurice Berkeley, of Bruton in Somerset- 
shire. This was he who was one of the first four Tetrarehs, or 
joint-managers in chief of Marshal matters in Cornwall ; this is 
he who was so highly instrumental in the reducing of Exeter, 
being afterwards deservedly appointed the governor. How 
since he hath shared in his Majesty's sufferings beyond the seas, 
is sufficiently known. 

As for the general disarming and disbanding of the Parlia- 
ment army in this county, anno 1644, it was a conquest without 
a battle on this occasion. I have seen the head bow down, to 
take a thorn out of the foot. Such the proportion of Corn- 
wall to England, and such was the condescension of the king to 
come into this county. Essex followed him with all his forces, 
till he penned himself in a narrow place (or rather large pound), 
so that he was surrounded on all sides with the sea and the 
king's soldiers. 

Hereupon Essex (with some prime commanders) shipped 
himself for Plymouth, thence for London ; whither also their 
horse forced their passage (without considerable loss) under the 
conduct of Sir William Belfore, whom the king's horse did 
"sequi, non assequi," (follow, but not overtake). The foot, 
left behind, submitted to the king, on such conditions as are 
generally known. 

His Majesty earnestly endeavouring (by the enemy's own 
confession) the exact observing of articles, which if some unruly 
royalist did violate (soldiers will hardly wear bad clothes whilst 
their foes, being in their power, have better on their backs), 
it was not so much an offering as returning of an injury ; some 
of them having formerly felt the same usage on the like occasion. 
The Parliament foot did not depose their disaffection s with 
their arms, soon resuming (or rather retaining) their former 
principles, which made them add new arms to their old incli- 
nations in the second battle at Newbury. 


Being now to part with this county, I wish it all happiness, 
and particularly that flaw, or flaws, may either never come 
thither, or quickly depart thence; which, being a kind of 
English hericanoy hath little civility therein, as throwing down 
some houses, more trees, and making more waste with the blast 
thereof. And may the same Divine Providence which is their 


./Eolus, be also Neptune unto it, to secure this county from the 
fury of water, as well as from the fierceness of the wind, that their 
Lioness may never get a Lion unto it, so to propagate inun- 
dations betwixt them. 

And now, to wish an honour to this duchy, and therewith 
a happiness both to it and all England, the strength of my weak 
prayers (twisted with many millions more proceeding from loyal 
hearts in this land) shall never be wanting, that God would be 
pleased to bestow a duke of Cornwall of the loins of our gracious 
sovereign, to be possessed of the virtues, and to be heir apparent 
to the lands, of his father ; a duke, presumed in law to be of full 
age to all purposes and intents, the first minute of his birth ; 
which happy minute God in due time send, for the comfort of 
our nation ! 


John ANSTIS, Garter King-at-arms, historian of the order of 

the Garter; born at St. Neot's 1669. 
Thomas Tregenna BIDDULPH, divine and theological writer ; 

born at Padstow 1763; died 1838. 
William BORLASE, divine, and historian of his native county; 

born at Pendeen 1695-6. 

Edward BOSCAWEN, admiral ; born at Tregothnan 17ll> or 1712. 
Sir Francis BULLER, judge of the Common Pleas; born at 

Morval about 1750. 

William BULLER, bishop of Exeter ; born at Morval 1735. 
Sir Humphrey DAVY, Pres. Royal Soc., inventor of the safety 

lamp, &c. ; born at Penzance 1779; died 1829. 
Samuel DREW, Wesleyan minister and metaphysical writer; 

born at St. Austell 1765 ; died 1833. 
Samuel FOOTE, comedian and wit , born at Truro 1721. 
Robert GLYNN, afterwards CLOBERY, physician and poet ; born 

at Broads 1719. 
Thomas GRAVES, first Lord Graves, admiral ; born at Thancks ; 

died 1802. 
Richard LANDER, African traveller, and discoverer of the course 

of the Niger; born at Truro 1804; died 1834. 
Edward LONG, historian of Jamaica ; born at Rosilian in St. 

Blaze 1734. 
Sir William LOWER, dramatist and loyalist ; born at Tremare ; 

died 1662. 

Stephen LUKE, physician; born at Penzance; died 1829. 
Jeremiah MILLES, dean of Exeter, and president of the Society 

of Antiquaries ; bornatDuloe; 1713. 
Walter MOYLE, ingenious miscellaneous writer ; born at Bake ; 


VOL. i. z 


Wm. OLIVER, physician and author ; born at Ludgvan; died 


John OPIE, painter; born at St. Agnes 1761. 
Charles PETERS, divine, opponent of Warburton ; died 1775. 
William PITT, great Earl of Chatham ; born at Boconnoc 1708. 
Theophilus POLWHELE, non-conformist divine and author ; 

died 1689. 
Richard POLWHELE, divine, historian of Devon and Cornwall, 

poet, &c. ; born at Truro 1760; died 1838. 
Sir John ST. AUBYN, patriotic member of parliament ; born 

at Camborne ; died 1744. 
Cuthbert SYDENHAM, divine and cosmologist; born at Ken- 

wyn 1721. 
Thomas TONKIN, collector of Cornish topography ; born at 

Trevannaner in St. Agnes; died 1742. 
Jonathan TOUP, classical critic; born at St. Ives 1713. 
Sir Jonathan TRELAWNEY, bishop of Winchester ; born at 

Trelawn-house ; died 1721. 

Thomas VIVIAN, divine and cosmologist ; born at Kenwyn 1721. 
Sir Charles WAGER, admiral; bom at Talland 1687- 
General WILLES, victorious over the Pretender's forces, at Pres- 
ton in Lancashire, in 1?15 ; born at Polgarran. 

%* Since the time of Fuller, Cornwall has been fortunate in her historians and 
topographers. Among the most important Works are those published by Norden 
(1728); by Carew, and Borlase (1769); by the Rev. R. Polwhele (1816); by 
Samuel Drew (1824) ; and by Gilbert Da vies, late President of the Royal Society 
(4 vols. 8vo. 1838). Several Tours, Excursions, and Descriptions have also ap- 
peared from the respective pens of Lipscomb, Warner, Stockdale, Wbitaker. Bond, 
Gorham, Forster, and Hedgeland. 


CUMBERLAND hath Scotland on the north, Northumberland 
and Westmoreland on the east, Lancashire on the south, and 
the Irish sea on the west. It is not unlike a half moon in the 
form thereof ; which, from its tips north and south, may be 
allowed to be somewhat more than forty miles, though east 
and west it spreadeth not above twenty-six miles. The soil, 
though generally hard, and exacting much toil to improve it, is 
pleasant with the varieties, and profitable with these 


These are found commonly by the river Irt, where muscles 
(as also oysters and other shell-fish) gaping for the dew, are in 
a manner impregnated therewith ; so that some conceive that 
as dew is a liquid pearl, so a pearl is dew consolidated in these 
fishes. Here poor people, getting them at low water, sell to 
jewellers for pence what they sell again for pounds. Indeed 
there is a Spanish proverb, that a lapidary who would grow rich 
must buy of those who go to be executed (as not caring how 
cheap they sell) ; and sell to those that go to be married, as not 
caring how dear they buy. But, waving these advantages, such 
of that mystery which trade with country-people herein, gain 
much by buying their pearls, though far short of the Indian in 
Orientness. But whether not as useful in physic, is not as yet 


Plenty hereof is digged up about Keswick, the only place (as 
I am informed) where it is found in Europe ; and various is the 
use thereof : 1. For painters (besides some mixture thereof in 
making lead colours), to draw the pictures of their pictures ; 
viz. those shadowy lines made only to be unmade again. 
2. For pens, so useful for scholars to note the remarkables they 
read, with an impression easily delible without prejudice to 
the book. 3. For feltmakers, for, colouring of hats. 4. To 
scour leaden cisterns, and to brighten things made of iron. 
5. In Flanders and Germany they use it for glazing of stuffs. 

Besides these visible, surely there are other concealed uses 

z 2 


thereof, which causeth it daily to grow the dearer, being so 
much transported beyond the seas. 


These mines lay long neglected (choked in their own rub- 
bish) till renewed about the beginning of queen Elizabeth, 
when plenty of copper was here afforded, both for home use 
and foreign transportation. But copper itself was too soft for 
several military services, and could not alone (no single person 
can prove a parent) produce brass, most useful for that 
purpose. Here taste and see Divine Providence, which never 
doth its work by halves, and generally doubleth gifts by sea- 
sonable giving them : Lapis calaminaris (whereof hereafter in 
due place) was then first found in England,* the mother of 
brass, as copper the father hereof. Hence came it to pass that 
queen Elizabeth left more brass than she found iron-ordnance 
in the kingdom ; and our wooden walls (so our ships are 
commonly called) were rough-casted over with a coat of a 
firmer constitution. 

We must not forget the names of the two Dutchmen (good 
frogs by sea, but better moles by land,) who re-found out these 
copper-mines, wherein also some silver (no new milk without 
some cream therein) ; viz. Thomas Shurland and Daniel 
Hotchstabter of Auspurge in Germany ; whose nephews, turn- 
ing purchasers of lands hereabouts, prefer easily to take what 
the earth tenders in her hands above ground, then painfully to 
pierce into her heart for greater treasure. 

I am sorry to hear, and loath to believe, what some credible 
persons have told me, that within these twenty years the copper 
within this county hath been wholly discontinued, and that not 
for want of metal, but mining for it. Sad, that the industry of 
our age could not keep what the ingenuity of the former found 
out. And I would willingly put it on another account, that 
the burying of so much steel in the bowels of men, during our 
civil wars, hath hindered their digging of copper out of the 
entrails of the earth ; hoping that these peaceable times will 
encourage to the resuming thereof. 


This county pretendeth not to the mode of reformed archi- 
tecture, the vicinity of the Scots causing them to build rather 
for strength than state. The cathedral of Carlile may pass for 
the emblem of the militant-church, black but comely, still 
bearing in the complexion thereof the remaining signs of its 
former burning. Rose-castle, the bishop's best seat, hath lately 
the rose therein withered ; and the prickles, in the ruins thereof, 
only remain. 

* Bishop Carleton's Thankful Remembrancer, cap. i. p. 4. 


The houses of the nobility and gentry are generally built 
castle-wise ; and in the time of the Romans this county 
(because a limitary) did abound with fortifications ; Mr. Cam- 
den taking notice of more antiquities in Cumberland and 
Northumberland than in all England besides. 


Although, if the word Wonders be strained up high and hard, 
this county affordeth none ; yet, if the sense thereof be some- 
what let down, the compass thereof fetcheth in 


so strange the condition of their living, if considered in their 
original, increase, height, decay, and ruin. 

1. Original. I conceive them the same called Borderers in 
Mr. Camden, and charactered by him to be a wild and warlike 
people. They are called Moss-troopers, because dwelling in 
the Mosses, and riding in troops together. They dwell in the 
bounds or meeting of two kingdoms, but obey the laws of nei- 
ther. They come to church as seldom as the twenty-ninth of 
February comes into the Calendar. 

2. Increase. When England and Scotland were united in 
Great Britain, they that formerly lived by hostile incursions 
betook themselves to the robbing of their neighbours. Their 
sons are free of the trade by their fathers 5 copy ; they are like 
unto Job (not in piety and patience, but) in sudden plenty and 
poverty, sometimes having flocks and herds in the morning, 
none at night, and perchance many again next day. They may 
give for their motto, Vivitur ex rapto, stealing from their honest 
neighbours what sometimes they regain. They are a nest of 
hornets; strike one, and stir all of them about your ears. 
Indeed, if they promise safely to conduct a traveller, they will 
perform it with the fidelity of a Turkish janizary ; otherwise 
woe be to him that falleth into their quarters. 

3. Height. Amounting forty years since to some thousands. 
These compelled the vicinage to purchase their security, by 
jpaying a constant rent unto them. When in their greatest 
height, they had two great enemies, the laws of the fand, and 
the Lord William Howard, of Naworth. He sent many of them 
to Carlisle ; to that place where " the officer always doth his work 
by daylight." Yet these Moss-troopers, if possibly they could 
procure the pardon for a condemned person of their company, 
would advance great sums out of their common stock, who, in 
such a case, " cast in their lots amongst themselves, and all have 
one purse."* 

4. Decay ; caused by the wisdom, valour, and diligence of 
the right honourable Charles Lord Howard, earl of Carlisle, 

* Proverbs i. 14. 


who routed these English Tories with his regiment. His seve- 
rity unto them will not only be excused but commended by 
the judicious, who consider how our great lawyer doth describe 
such persons who are solemnly outlawed : 

(e Ex tune gerunt caput lupinum, ita quod sine judiciali 
inquisitione rite pereant, et secum suum judicium portent, et 
merito sine lege pereunt, quia secundum legem vivere recusa- 
rent :"* (thenceforward [after they are outlawed] they wear a 
wolfs head ;f so that they lawfully may be destroyed, without 
any judicial inquisition, as who carry their own condemnation 
about them, and deservedly die without law, because they re- 
fused to live according to law.) 

5. Ruin. Such the success of this worthy lord's severity, that 
he made a thorough reformation amongst them ; and, the ring- 
leaders being destroyed, the rest are reduced to legal obedience, 
and so I trust will continue, 


" If Skiddaw hath a cap, 

Scruffell wots full well of that." J] 

These are two neighbour hills, the one in this county, the 
other in Annandale in Scotland. If the former be capped with 
clouds and foggy mists, it will not be long before rain falls on 
the other. It is spoken of such who must expect to sympathise 
in their sufferings, by reason of the vicinity of their habitation. 

Turn tua res agitur, panes cum proximus ardet. 

" When thy neighbour's house doth bum, 
Take heed the next be not thy turn."] 

The Cumberlanders have found the truth hereof by their 
sad experience in our civil wars, paying dear for their vicinity 
with Scotland. 

" Skiddaw, Lauvellin, and Casticand, 
Are the highest hills in all England.'' ] 

I know not how to reconcile this rhyme with another which 
J meet with in the same author : || 

" Ingleborrow, Pendle, and Penigent, 

Are the highest hills between Scotland and Trent.'' 

But, in order of an expedient betwixt them, we may observe ; 
first, that every county is given to magnify (not to say altify) their 
own things therein. Secondly, that the survey goes according 
to the guess of men's eyes (as never exactly measured) variable 
according to several apprehensions. Thirdly, some hills are 
higher in view, rising almost perpendicularly of a sudden by 
themselves ; whilst the invisible greatness of others is not 
heeded so much, which mount with the country about them, 

* Bracton, lib. tertio, tract. 2, cap. 11. 

f In the laws of king Edward, an out-lawed person is called " Woolfohefod." 
Lambarde, fol. 127, b. num. /. 

J Camden's Britannia, in Cumberland. Ibidem. 

|j Idem, in Lancashire. 


creeping up insensibly by degrees. Meantime no mention of 
Plynillymon-hill, as being in Wales, and without compare, the 
monarch of all mountains south of Scotland. 


Saint HEREBERT, priest and confessor, may justly be referred 
to this county ; for there is a lake therein (Bede* calleth it prce- 
grande stagnum) nigh Keswick, made by the river Darwent, 
wherein three islands are found, in the least of which this Here- 
bert led an eremitical life. If he travelled hence, it was to visit 
his friend Saint Cuthbert, betwixt whom such intimacy, that, 
Cuthbert telling him how his own death approached, Herebert, 
falling down at his feet,t importunately requested him, that 
they might both pass out of this world together ; which, by 
Saint Cuthbert's prayers, is said to be obtained. Thus, ee as 
they were loving in their lives, so in their death they were not 
divided;" departing this world the same day and hour, anno 
Domini 688. 

Saint ALRTKE, born and bred in this county, led an eremi- 
tical life in a forest near to Carlisle. This man did not more 
macerate himself with constant fasting, than time since hath 
consumed his memory, which hath reduced it to nothing more 
than the skeleton of his name, without any historical passages 
to flesh and fill up the same ; for I account the report of Saint 
Goderick,{ another hermit (and present at this man's death), 
not worth the remembering ; viz. that he saw the soul of Alrike 
ascend to heaven, " as it were in a spherical form of a burning 
wind ; " but we listen unto it but as unto wind. He died anno 



This county affordeth none in the reign of queen Mary; 
whereof accept a double reason. First, the people thereof were 
nuzzled in ignorance and superstition. Secondly, such as 
favoured the Reformation were connived at by Owen Oglethorp, 
the courteous bishop of Carlisle, who crowned queen Elizabeth, 
and who in requital had a favour for him, had he lived any 
longer. However, Cumberland had one native, who, going up 
to London, first found a husband, and then met with mar- 
tyrdom therein ; viz. 

ELIZABETH FORSTER was born at Graystock in this county, 
though her maiden surname be unknown. Travelling to Lon- 
don, she was there married to one John Forster, cutler, of the 
parish of Saint Bride's in Fleet-street; and, being summoned 
before Boiiner for not coming to church, was imprisoned, and 
strictly examined. Being moved by the bishop to desert her 
answers, " I will not," said she, " go from them, by God's 

* Lib. iv. cap. 9. Hist. Ang. f Idem, ibid. 

[ J Matthew Paris, in anno 1170. Fox, Acts and Monuments, p. 1857- 


grace." Hereupon she was condemned ; and, being fifty-five 
years of age, accordingly suffered, with six other martyrs, all in 
one fire, in Smithfield, Jan. 27, 1556. 


ROGER WHELPDALE was born in the borders of this county 
(so that Westmoreland pretends to a share of him) ; bred in 
Balliol College in Oxford, and afterwards became provost of 
Queen's College in that university. 

1. A good logician ; } witnpw M ^ *' Summulae Logicales ; 

2. A good mathematician j V v!~u f 1 2 - De Quanto et Continue ; 

3. A good divine ; ) ' ( 3. De Deo Invocando. 

Bale ingeuously confesseth,* that he cannot find where this 
learned man, after his long labours in Oxford, led the rest of 
his life ; and Pits (who seeing with Bale's eyes, both are blind 
or sighted together) is at the same loss. But herein we are able 
to guide our guides, and light a candle to direct them ; for he 
was by king Henry the Fifth preferred bishop of Carlisle, 1419. 
He sat three years in that see ; and, dying at London, Feb. 4, 
1422, was buried in Saint Paul's. 

ROGER LAYBURN was born of a noble family, not living far 
from Carlisle.t A noble family indeed, expiring in the days of 
our grandfathers, when Elizabeth, sole daughter and heir of 
Sir Francis Layburn, was married to 1 Thomas Dacre, last Baron 
of Gilsland and Graystock. This Roger was bred fellow of 
Pembroke-hall, doctor of divinity ; and at last w r as consecrated 
bishop of Carlisle, 1503. Two years after, he solemnly 
accepted of the mastership of Pembroke-hall in Cambridge ; 
which I have heard called Episcopate Collegium, not only because 
it hath bred so many bishops (for the proportion thereof), but 
chiefly because many prelates have held the mastership thereof, 
even until their death. Doctor Layburn died soon after, 1509, 
before he could express his good intentions to his college or 


EDMUND GRINDALL was born at Saint Bees J in this county ; 
bred scholar, fellow and master of Pembroke-hall in Cambridge, 
and proctor of the university. In the reign of queen Mary he 
fled beyond the seas, and was no Violento in the troubles of 
Francfort ; but, with all meekness, to his might, endeavoured a 
pacification. Returning home, he was made successively bishop 
of London, archbishop of York and Canterbury, by queen 
Elizabeth, highly favouring him for his learning, piety, modesty, 
and single life ; till at last he lost her love, by the mischievous 
practices of his enemie s. His fault was, for keeping others from 
breaking two of God's commandments, " Thou shalt not steal," 

* Cent. vi. num. 29. f Godwin, in the bishops of Carlisle. 

J Or rather at Hempingham, about three miles from St. Bees. ED. 


when he would not let the lord of Leicester have Lambeth- 
house ; and " Thou shalt not commit adultery/ 5 when he would 
not permit Julio, the earl's Italian physician, to marry another 
man's wife. 

But it was objected against him to the queen, that he was 
a fierce defender of factious prophesying, which in process of 
time would undermine the hierarchy ; though moderate men 
were of the opinion they might prove profitable, as by arch- 
bishop Grindall limited and regulated. 

Being really blind, more with grief than age (dying at sixty- 
four), he was willing to put off his clothes before he went to 
bed, and in his lifetime to resign his place to doctor Whitgift, 
who refused such acceptance thereof.* And the queen, com- 
miserating his condition, was graciously pleased to say, that, 
" as she had made him, so he should die an archbishop ;" as 
he did, July 6, 1583. 

Worldly wealth he cared not for, desiring only to make both 
ends meet; and as for that little that lapped over, he gave 
it to pious uses in both universities, and the founding of a 
fair free-school at Saint Bees, the place of his nativity. 

HENRY ROBINSON, D.D., was born in Carlisle ;t bred fellow, 
and at last provost of Queen's College in Oxford ; and after- 
wards, 1598, was consecrated bishop of the place of his nativity. 

When queen Elizabeth received his homage, she gave him 
many gracious words, of the good opinion which she conceived 
of his learning, integrity, and sufficiency for that place ; more- 
over adding, " that she must ever have a care to furnish that 
see with a worthy man, for his sake who first set the crown on 
her head ;" J and many words to the like purpose. 

He was a prelate of great gravity and temperance, very mild 
in speech, but not of so strong a constitution of body as his 
countenance did promise ; and yet he lived to be a very old 
man. He died anno Domini 1616. 

RICHARD SENHOUSE, D.D. was born of worshipful parent- 
age, at Netherhall in this county ; a valiant man in his younger 
days ; and I have heard that in his old age he felt the admo- 
nitions of his youthful over-violent exercises. He was bred 
fellow of Saint John's College in Cambridge, and became an 
excellent preacher, his sermons losing no lustre by his good 
utterance and graceful delivering of them. He was chaplain 
to king Charles whilst prince, and preached his sermon at his 
coronation. He was preferred bishop of Carlisle, enjoying the 
place but a short time. He died anno J)omini 1626. 

* Sir George Paul, in Whitgift's Life, p. 27. 

f So Mr. Robinson, stationer, and his countryman, informed me. F. 

t Sir John Harrington, in his View of the Church of England, p. 208. 

$ O. Oglethorp. 



Sir RICHARD HUTTON was born at Penrith, of a worshipful 
family (his elder brother was a knight) ; and bred in Jesus Col- 
lege in Cambridge.* He intended his studies for divinity ; till, 
dissuaded by the importunity of his friends (amongst whom 
George Earl of Cumberland most eminent) he became barrister 
in Gray's Inn. But, in expression of his former affection to 
divinity, he seldom (if ever) took fee of a clergyman. After- 
wards, being recorder of York, he was knighted, and made judge 
of the Common Pleas. In the case of ship money, though he 
was against the king, or rather for the Commons, yet his Majesty 
manifested not the least distaste, continuing to call him 6( the 
honest judge." 

This person, so pious to God, and charitable to his poor 
members, was dissolved about the beginning of our national 
misery. Thus God, before he new plougheth up a land with the 
furrows of a civil war, first cutteth down his old crop, and ga- 
thereth them like ripe sheaves into his barn. He died at Ser- 
jeant's Inn ; and was buried, at his earnest desire, without any 
funeral sermon, save what his own virtues preached to posterity, 
at St. Dunstan's in the West, on the 27th day of February, anno 
Domini 1638. 

Sir JOHN BANKS was born at Keswick, of honest parents, 
who, perceiving him judicious and industrious, bestowed good 
breeding on him in Graves Inn ; in hope he should attain to 
preferment; wherein they were not deceived. After he was 
called to the bar, for some years he solicited suits for others, 
thereby attaining great practical experience. He afterwards 
might laugh at them who then did smile at him, leaving many 
behind him in learning whom he found before him in time, un- 
til at last he was knighted by king Charles, made first his attor- 
ney, then chief justice of the Common Pleas, dying in the midst 
and heat of our civil dissensions. 

He ordered by his will (the copy whereof I have received from 
my good friend Mr. John Myriel, minister at Lamplugh) that 
his body should be buried under some plain monument, at the 
discretion of his executors ; and after an epitaph mentioning the 
several places he had held, this motto to be added. "Non 
nobis, Domine, non nobis, sed Nomini tuo da gloriam." 

It must not be forgotten that by his said will he gave to the 
value of thirty pounds per annum, with other emoluments, to be 
bestowed in pious uses, and chiefly to set up a manufacture of 
coarse cottons in the town of Keswick ; which, I understand, 
hath good, and is in hopes of better, success. 

* It is pity his Manuscripts on the Law should be smotheied in private hands, 
which I hope will hereafter become jmblici juris F. 



GEORGE PORTER was born at Weery Hall, in the parish of 
Bolton in this county, of gentle extraction. He was afterward 
fellow of Queen's College in Cambridge,, doctor and professor of 
civil law therein for above thirty years ; so that he might have 
been made Comes imperil primi ordinis, according to the consti- 
tution of Theodosius the emperor, allowing that honour to pro- 
fessors in that faculty, " cum ad viginti annos observatione jugi, 
ac sedulo docendi labore pervenerint/"* 

He was of a pitiful nature ; and we commonly called him (for 
I had oft the honour to be in his mess) ee the patron of infirmi- 
ties/ 5 whose discourse was always defensive and charitable, 
either to excuse men^s failings, or mitigate their punishments. 
He was valiant as well as learned ; and, with his stern looks and 
long sword, frighted three thieves from setting upon him. He 
died anno Domini 163 ..; and Doctor Collins, who with Saint 
Chrysostom was in laudatoriis hyperbolicus, preaching his fune- 
ral sermon, endeavoured to heighten his memory to his soul, 
mounting it above the skies for his modesty and learning. 


JOHN CANON. Some will have him so called, because canon 
of some cathedral church; and if so, there were hundreds of 
John Canons besides himself : others, because he was doctor of 
canon law, which leaves as great a latitude as the former for 
hundreds, with equal right, to jostle with him for the same sur- 
name. I have cause to conceive, until I shall be clearly con- 
vinced to the contrary, that he was born at Canonsby in this 
county, by being set by for brevity's sake. 

Bilious Bale bespattereth him more than any of his order. 
Hear how he ranteth : "He turned a Minotaurf (I should say 
Minorite) ; and, with his thrasonical boasting," &c. But I am 
not bound to believe him, the rather because Trithemius, a fo- 
reign, judicious, and moderate writer, givethhim great commen- 
dation ; whence I collect that his worth was not, like a candle 
in the house, only burning at home in England ; but a torch, 
blazing abroad beyond the seas, the university of Paris and 
other places taking signal notice of his learning. He flourished 
under king Edward the Second, 1320. 

WILLIAM EGREMONT. He hath almost lost his true sur- 
name amongst the various writing thereof. Bale calleth him 
Egumonde,t though no such place in all England ; Pits reduc- 
eth it to a Saxon name, and calleth him Egmund ; Leland, for 
a reason immediately following, nameth him William of Stam- 

* Codex Theod. lib. vi. tit. 21. f Cent. v. num. 3. 

J De Scriptoribus Britannicis, Cent. vii. num. 12. 
De Angliae Scriptoribus, 1390. 


ford. But Egremont is the orthography of his name, from a 
small market-town (yet a barony of the late earls of Sussex) in 
this shire, where he was born. 

Quitting this cold country, he took his progress into the south, 
and, fixing himself at Stamford, became an Augustinian eremite, 
and proceeded doctor of Divinity. Going beyond the seas, he 
was by the Pope made Episcopus Pissinensis (some poor pitiful 
bishopric, so that one would scarce trouble himself to find it out 
to have the profit thereof), and therewith held the Suffragan- 
ship under Henry Beaufort bishop of Lincoln. Indeed that 
voluminous diocese (a full fourth part of England, before Ely, 
Peterborough, and Oxford were cantoned out of it) required a 
co-adjutor. Many are the learned works written by him, and, 
seeing he is doubly qualified, I thought fitter to repose him 
under the topic of " writers" than of " prelates/' being confident 
that he got more credit by his books, than profit by his bishop- 
ric. He flourished under king Richard the Second, anno 1 390. 

JOHN SKELTON was a younger branch of the Skeltons, of 
Skelton in this county. I crave leave of the reader, hitherto 
not having full instructions, and preserving the undoubted title 
of this county unto him, to defer his character to Norfolk, where 
he was beneficed at Diss therein. 


RICHARD CRAKENTHORP, D. D. was descended of an ancient 
family in this county, as appeareth by their frequently being 
sheriffs thereof. He was bred fellow of Queen's College in Ox- 
ford ; and afterwards, in the first of king James, went over 
chaplain to the Lord Evers, sent ambassador to the king 
of Denmark, and other prime princes of Germany. Here by use 
he got an easiness in the Latin tongue, and correspondency with 
several persons of eminent learning. 

He was an excellent logician, witness his work in that kind ; 
and became chaplain in ordinary to king James, rector of Black 
Notley in Essex ; greater preferments expecting him, had not 
his death prevented it. 

Pliny observeth, that posthume children, born after the death 
of their father, and Casars (understand such who are cut out of 
the womb of their mother), prove very happy in success. What 
reason soever naturalists assign hereof, divines justly impute it 
to God's goodness, graciously remembering those orphans 
which cannot remember their own parents. 

The observation may be applied to the books of this worthy 
doctor, set forth after his death ; one called, " Vigilius Dormi- 
tans," in defence of the emperor Justinian, and a general coun- 
cil held by him anno 553, set forth by his brother George Cra- 
kenthorp ; the other being an answer to the manifesto of the 
archbishop of Spalato, set forth by that learned antiquary Dr. 


John Barkham ; and both of these books finding an universal 
and grateful reception among the learned and religious. I can- 
not certainly fix the date of his death ; and be it here solemnly 
entered, that Westmoreland shall be unprejudiced, if he were 
born (as a most credible person hath informed me) at New Big- 
gin in that county. 

JOHN SALKELD was a branch of a right worshipful family in 
this county ; bred a divine beyond the seas ; but whether Jesuit 
or secular priest I know not. Coming over into England to 
angle for proselytes, it seems his line broke, and he was cast 
into prison. Hence he was brought out, and presented to king 
James ; by whose arguments, (and a benefice bestowed on him 
in Somersetshire) he became a Protestant. 

This he used in all companies to boast of, " that he was a 
royal convert." 

Nobisque dedit solatia victor. 

" And was it not a noble thing, 
Thus to be conquer'dby a king ?" 

Indeed his majesty, in some of his works, styleth him " the 
learned Salkeld ;" which the other much vaunted of, often tell- 
ing it to such who well knew it before, for fear they might for- 
get it. His preaching was none of the best; and he retained 
some popish (though not opinions) fancies to the day of his 
death. I have heard much of his discourse, more of his own 
praise, than to his own praise in my judgment. But his true 
character may be taken out of the book he wrote " of Angels." 
He died about the year 1638. 

GERARD LANGBAIN, D. D. was born at Kirk-Banton in this 
county ; bred first fellow in, then provost of, Queen's College in 
Oxford; a skilful antiquary, ingenious, industrious, and judi- 
cious in his writings, as by his works will appear. 

Whoso shall read over the f( History of the Council of 
Trent," translated out of Italian by Sir Nathaniel Brent, will 
conceive it so complete a narration of all the concernments in 
that council, that nothing of consequence can be added there- 
unto. Yet this his mistake will be confuted, by perusing the 
works set forth by Doctor Langbain, of the dissent of the Galil- 
ean churches, from several conclusions in that council. 

As his brain was the mother of some, so was it the midwife 
to other, good books, which he procured to be- published ; espe- 
cially a book made by Sir John Cheeke, concerning " Rebellion 
and Loyalty," seasonably reprinted in the beginning of our 
civil wars. But alas ! such then was the noise of men's animo- 
sities, that the still voice of truth could not be heard amongst 
them. More excellent tracts were expected from him (parti- 
cularly an edition of Brian Twine, with additions concerning 


the antiquity of Oxford,) when God was pleased, almost in the 
midst of his days, to put an end to his life, anno 1657. 


ROBERT EAGLESFIELD, born in this county, was a pious and 
learned man, according to the rate of that age ; chaplain and 
confessor to Philippa, queen to Edward the Third. He founded 
a fair college in Oxford, by the name of Queen's College, for a 
provost and twelve fellows, whom he ordered to sit in the hall 
in purpura, and that they should be attended on more curiali. 
He appointed that those of Cumberland and Westmoreland 
should be proper for preferment in his foundation ; rendering 
this reason why he reflected most on those Northern counties, 
" propter insolltam vastitatem, et melioris literature infrequen- 

But, prevented by death, he finished not his intentions ; leav- 
ing only to the college the manor of Renwick in this county, 
with the impropriation of burgh under Stanmore, and which I 
assure you was considerable ; most excellent statutes. 

To shew himself both courtier and scholar, he ordered that in 
the hall they should speak either Latin or French. He 
bequeathed his college to the honorary patronage of the queens 
of England ; and his surname is still extant in this county in 
persons of quality, but how to him related to me unknown. He 
died about the year of our Lord 1370. 


MAUD, the daughter of Thomas Lord Lucy, sister and heir 
of Anthony Lord Lucy, and baron of Cockermouth, the widow 
of Gilbert Humfrevile, Earl of Angus, was the second wife of 
Henry Percy, earl of Northumberland ; who, when she saw that 
she should die without issue, gave to earl Henry her husband 
the castle and honour of Cockermouth, with many other manors 
in Cumberland and Westmoreland, with condition that his issue 
should bear her arms of the Lucies [viz. Gules, three lucies (or 
pikes) hauriant Argent,] quartered, with their own arms of the 
Percies ; and for it levied a fine in the court of king Richard the 

Hitherto verbatim out of Master Mills.* But, by his favour, 
his words are not sufficiently expressive of the agreement 
betwixt them. The earl conditioned, not only to quarter the 
Arms of the Lucies, (as the Percies now quarter many more 
besides, viz. Poynings, Fitz-Pain, Brians, &c.) ; but he also 
covenanted (as in the words of the instrument) deferre quateria- 
tim (to bear them quarterly) with his own Arms, incorporated 
into one coat in effect. This promise the Percies have bonafide 

* Catalogue of Honour, p. 719; 


performed, preserving so near a relation between the two coats, 
that, in a manner, mutub se ponunt et auferunt ; so that, if 
either, both always appear together. 

This lady is entered amongst " Memorable Persons -" partly 
because of her harmless device to perpetuate her memory ; 
partly because of her great affection to her husband ; she but a 
second, and no wife of his youth, bringing him no children ; and 
having (no doubt) heirs of her own name and blood, though she 
were barren, would be bountiful to endow that family with pos- 
sessions, which she could not enrich with posterity. Say not 
the Percy's profit was the Lucy's loss ; for, what saith the 
Scripture, " Is it not lawful for me to do what I. will with mine 
own ?"* She died about the year of our Lord 1382. 


I find none of this county ; nor is the wonder great, if it be 
true what credible persons have informed me, that there are no 
carriers (the post from Carlisle is excepted) which immediately 
come from this county to London. It seems Cumberland is 
terra suis contenta bonis, neither proud of the gaiety nor cove- 
tous of the money of London. 


THE SIXTH, 1433. 

Marmaduke bishop of Carlisle, and Thomas de Dacre de Gils- 
land; William Legh, chivaler, and William Laton, armiger, 
(knights for the shire) ; Commissioners. 

Tho. Barnby Prioris Carlioli. Joh. Broughton. 

Will. Reddekar Abbatis de Tho. Culwen. 

Holm. Tho. Delamore. 

Tho. Stanley Abbatis de Wed- Geor. Warthwyk. 

, erhill. Will. Twates. 

Rog. Kirkeby Prioris de Seynt Joh. Eglisfeld, sen. 

Beys. Will. Martindale, sen. 

Alex. Walton Prioris de Lane- Joh. Hoton. 

cost. Hug. Forster. 

Rich. Hodleston. Joh. de Skelton. 

Christ. Culwan, sheriff. Will. Thirskeld. 

Pet. Tilioll. Will. Louther de Rosa. 

Joh. Penyngton. Joh. de Denton. 

Joh. Skelton. Will. Arlosch. 

Joh. Lamplewe. Rich, de Kirkebride. 

Nich. Radclyff, mil. Will. Dykes. 

Hen. Fenwyk. Tho. de Stanewikes. 

Hug. de Louther. Joh. Blanerhasset. 

Will. Stapleton. Tho. Aglaonbly. 

* Matthew xx. 15. 


Tho. Appulby. Joli. Louther de Alwardby. 

Tho. Salkeld. Nich. Stanle. 

Tho. Beuchamp. Tho. Wodhall. 

Rol. Vaux. Will. Hodliston de Copland. 

Ade de Denton. Rob. Scot de Caldebeke. 

Tho. Grane. Will. Denton, Majoris Karlioli. 

Tho. Hethryngton. Will. Cardoile. 

Tho. de Sandes. Tho. Frankyssh, Ballivi ibid. 

Joh. Swynburn. Tho. Delmore. 

Joh. Eglisfeld, junioris. Will. Kelet. 

Rich. Eglisfeld. Joh. Graneson. 

Will. Martyndail, junioris. Galf. Barre. 

Joh. Culwen. Joh. Middilham. 

Tho. Senenhans. Joh. Person de Lowswater. 

Will. Osmonderlawe. Pet. Jakson de eadem. 

Will. Lowther de Crokdaile. Rich. Bristow. 

Nich. Irton. Leo. Howehonson. 

Alex. Heighmore. Will. Redman. 

Joh. Rybton, Tho. Rickman de Cokyrmouth, 

Rob. Bristow. Baker. 

Will. Aglanby. 

This is a comfortable catalogue for one delighting in ancient 
families to practise upon. It is the observation of Vitruvius 
(alleged and approved by Master Camden*) that northern men 
advancing southward., " non possunt durare sed dissolvuntur ; " 
(cannot endure the heat, but their strength melteth away and 
is dissolved ;) whilst southern people removing northward, " non 
modo non laborant immutatione loci valetudinibus, sed etiam 
confirmantur " (are not only not subject to sickness through the 
change of place, but are the more confirmed in their strength 
and health.) 

Sure I am, that northern gentry transplanted into the south 
by marriage, purchase, or otherwise, do languish and fade away 
within few generations ; whereas southern men on the like oc- 
casions removing northward acquire a settlement in their estates 
with long continuance. Some peevish natures (delighting to 
comment all things into the worst sense) impute this to the 
position of their country, as secured from sale by their distance 
from London (the staple place of pleasure) ; whilst I would 
willingly behold it as the effect and reward of their discreet 
thrift and moderate expence ; two thirds of this catalogue of 
Cumberland being still extant ; and the third extinct, for lack 
of issue and not estate. 

Anno HENRY II. Anno 

1 Hildretas. 2 (Recorda manca.) 

* In his Elizabeth, anno 1589. 




5 Rob. Fitz. Troit, for four- 
teen years. 

19 Idem, et Adam films ejus. 

20 Adam films Rob. Trutts. 

21 Rob. de Vaus. 

23 Rob. Trutt, Adam filius 

ejus pro eo. 

24 Rob. de Vallibus. 

25 Idem. 

26 Rob. de Vallibus and Rog. 

de Legeire. 

27 Rob. de Vallibus, for four 


31 Hug. de Morwich. 

32 Idem. 

33 Idem, et Nich. frater ejus. 


1 Will, de Aldelin, for nine 


1 Will, de Stuteivill et Jo- 

han. Laleman. 

2 Idem. 

3 Will, de Stutevill et Phus. 


4 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

6 Rog. de Lasy, Constabul. 


7 Idem. 

8 Rog. de Lasy, Constabul. 

Cestrie, et Walt. Ma- 

rescallus, for four years. 
12 Hug. de Nevill, for four 

16 Rob. de Ros, et Alanus 



1 Walt. Mauclere, for seven 

8 Walt. Episc. Carliol. et 

Rob. filius Will, de 

VOL. I. 


Hampton, for seven 

15 Walt. Episc. Carliol. et 

Tho. filius Johannis. 

16 Idem. 

1 7 Tho. de Muleton, for four 

21 Will, de Dacre, for twelve 

33 Joh. Daylock, for eight 

41 Will. Com. Albemarl. et 

Remigius de Todington, 

for five years. 
46 Eustachius de Bayloel, for 

five years. 
51 Eustachius de Baylloel et 

Mathe. de Ebor. for 

four years. 
55 Rad. de Dacre. 

EDW. I. 

1 Rob. Carliol. Episc. Math. 

Cordil. et Rogeri de Pock- 

2 Idem. 

3 Rob. de Hampton. 

4 Idem. 

5 Idem. 

6 Joh. de Windeburne et 

Mich, de Neilbigging. 

7 Ad. Newbegin, Gil. Cure- 

9 Idem. 
10 Rob. de Brus, for four 

14 Mich, de Arcla (Harcla), 

for twelve years. 
26 Will, de Mulecaster, for 
five years. 

31 Joh. de Lucy. 

32 Idem. 

33 Will, de Mulcaster. 

34 Idem. 


1 Alex, de Wastwenthoyte. 
2 A 



Anno Anno 

2 Andreas de Harcla, for 20 

four years. 21 

6 Andr. de Harcla et Alex. 22 

de Bastenthwayt, Mi. for 23 

seven years. 24 

13 Nul. Titulus Comitis in 25 

hoc Rotulo. 26 

14 2? 

15 28 

16 29 

17 Hen. de Malton et Rob. le 

Brun. 30 

18 Hen. de Malton. 31 


EDW. III. 33 

1 Pet. Tillollet Rob. le Brun. 34 

2 35 

3 Pet. Tilloll. 36 

4 Rad. de Dacre (Ranulphus) , 37 

for six years. 38 

10 Denton. 39 

11 Anth. de Lucy et Roul. 40 

Vaux. 41 

12 Idem. 42 

13 Anth- deLucy. 43 

14 Idem. 44 

1 5 Hug. de Moriceby, et Anth . 45 

de Lucy. 46 

16 Idem. 4? 

17 Hug. de Moriceby. 48 

18 Idem. 49 

19 Tho. de Lucy, et Hug. de 50 

Moriceby. 51 


Tho. de Lucy. 



Rich, de Denton. 


Hug. de Louthre. 



Nul. Titulus Comitis 


Will, de Thirkeld. 

Will, de Lancaster. 
Chri. de Moriceby. 
Rob. de Tillioll. 

Chri. de Moriceby. 

Will, de Windesor. 

Adam. Puinges. 

Joh. de Denton. 
Rob. de Moubray. 
Joh. de Derwent water. 
Joh. de Denton. 
Joh. de Derwentwater. 
Joh. Bruyn. 



21. ROBERTUS de VAUS; alias, de Vaux, or de Vallibus ; a 
right ancient name (still extant) in this county. There is a 
cross in the church-yard of Beu-castle, about twenty foot in 
height, all of one square stone, carved with the arms of Vaux ; 
whence Master Camden concludeth it (though otherwise the 
inscription thereon not legible) of their .erection. I behold this 
Robert as father to John de Vallibus, of whom Matthew Paris* 
saith, that he was one of those that, " muneribus excsecati, a fi- 
delitate, quam baronibus in commune juraverant, recesserunt ; " 
(blinded with bribes, they went back from the [some will say 
such breach no breach of] fidelity which they had jointly sworn 

* In his Histoiy, anno 1263. 


to the barons.)* Indeed the same author reckoneth him amongst 
those whom he termeth clarissimos milites, on whose loyalty and 
valour king Henry the Third relied. The Lord Vaux of Har- 
rowden in Northamptonshire doth hence fetch his extraction . 


8. WALT. Epis. CARLIOL. et ROB. films WILL, de HAMP- 
TON. This Walter bishop of Carlisle was he who commonly 
was called Male-clerk, English it as you please, Bad -scholar, or 
Clergy-man. It seems to me a strange 'transposition, that 
Henry the First, king of England, should be termed Beau-clerk, a 
good scholar, and our Walter a bad one, who was a bishop in 

However, though Male-clerk, had he been bon-homme, a good 
man, the matter had been much mended. But I find little 
praise of his manners. Indeed he was lord treasurer of England, 
and found false both in word and deed ; avowing his accounts 
even, when he was justly charged with an hundred pound (a 
sum in that age in the purse of a poor king) debt to the Exche- 
quer. This cost him much molestation ; so that at last he 
resigned his bishopric ; which by my author is beheld as no 
kindly act of mortification,t but that he came unjustly by his 
place, and was afraid to lose, though ashamed to keep it any 
longer. He afterwards became a friar at Oxford, as if, lacking 
learning in his youth, he would recover it in his old age ; where 
he died, October 28th, 1248. 


2. ANDREAS de HARCLA. Had his latter end answered 
his beginning, he might deservedly have been ranked amongst 
the worthies of Westmoreland (where he was born, at Harcla) ; 
whereas now it shall suffice to make this oblique mention of him 
in this place. 

He behaved himself right handsomely in the service of king 
Edward the Second many years together, especially at the bat- 
tle of Boroughbridge, where he killed Humphrey Bohun earl of 
Hereford, and took Thomas Plantagenet earl of Lancaster, with 
many others of the nobility, prisoners ; and delivered them to the 
king; in reward whereof, he was created, in the 19th year of 
that king, earl of Carlisle, and had the Isle of Man bestowed 
upon him. Next year, I know not upon what discontentment, 
he fell into private confederacy with the king's foes the Scots, for 
which he was taken and condemned. Now, lest the nobility of 
others should by secret sympathy suffer in his disgraceful death, 
the earl was first parted from the man, and his honour severed 
from his person, by a solemn degradation ; having his knightly 

* In his History, anno 1263. f Godwin, in the Bishops of Carlisle. 

2 A 2 



spurs hewed off from his heels ; which done, he was hanged, 
drawn, and quartered. 




Name and Arms. 

Jo. Derwentwater. 

Arms : Ar. two bars G. 

cinquefoil of the first. 
Will, de Stapleton. 

Arg. a lion rampant S. 


on a canton of the second a 

3 Gilb. de Culwen 






Arg. fretty G. a chief Az. 

ut prius. 

J. de Derwentwater 
Ama. Mounceaux. 
Robert Parning. 
Ama. Mounceaux. 
Joh. Therlwall. 
Ama. Mounceaux. 
Joh. Therlwall. 
Pet. Tillioll. 
Joh. Ireby. 

Arg. fretty a canton S. 
Rich. Redman. 

G. three cushions Erm 
Chri. Moriceby. 
Joh. de Ireby . . . 

16 Tho. de Musgrave. 

Az. six annulets O. 

17 Rich. Redman . . . 

18 Pet. Tiliol. 

19 Joh. de Ireby . . . 

20 Rich. Redman . . . 
2 iWil. Culwen .... 
22 Rich. Redman . . . 


1 Will. Leigh. 

2 Will. Louther. 

O. six annulets S. 

3 Rich. Redman, et . . 
Will. Osmunderlaw. 

Arg. a fess between three martlets S. 

4 Pet. Tillioll. 

5 Idem. 

6 Rich. Skelton. 

Vert, a fess betwixt three flower-de-luces O. 

buttoned and tasselled O. 
ut prius. 

ut prius. 

ut prius. 
ut prius. 
ut prius. 
ut prius. 

ut prius j 


Anno Name. Place. 

7 Will. Louther . . . ut prius. 



10 Joh. Delamore. 

11 Rob. Rodington. 

12 Rich. Redman, mil. . . ut prius. 


1 Ja. Harington, mil. 

S. fretty Arg. 

2 Will. Stapelton . . . ut prius. 

3 Chri. Culwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Joh. Lancaster. 

Arg. two bars G. ; on a canton of the same a lion passant O. 

5 Wil. Osmunderlaw . . ut prius. 

6 Rob. Louther, mil. . . ut prius. 

7 Joh. Lamplough. 

O. two crosses floury S. 

8 Will. Stapilton . . . ut prius. 

9 Will. Stapleton et . . ut prius. 
Rich. Ratcliffe . . . Darwentwater. 

Arg. a bend engrailed S. 


1 Will. Leigh, mil. 

2 Chri. Culwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

3 Chri. Moresby, mil. 

Arg. a cross S. ; in the first quarter a cinquefoil of the second. 

4 Nich. Ratcliffe, mil. . . ut prius. 

5 Jo. Penington, mil. 

O. five fusils in fess Az. 

6 Chri. Culwen .... ut prius. 

7 Chri. Moresby . . . ut prius. 

8 Tho. Delamore 

Arg. six martlets, three, two, and one, S. 

9 Joh. Penington . . . ut prius. 

10 Joh. Skelton. 

11 Joh. Lamplow, mil. . . ut prius. 

12 Chri. Culwen .... ut prius. 

13 Jo. Penington, mil. . . ut prius. 

14 Joh. Broughton. 

Arg. a chevron betwixt three mullets G. 

15 Hen. Fenwick, mil. 

Per fess G. et Arg. six martlets counterchanged. 

16 Chri. Culwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

17 Chri Moresby . . . ut prius. 

18 Hug. Louther . . . ut prius. 

19 Joh. Skelton, arm. 

20 Will. Stapilton . . . ut prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 

21 [AMP.] Tho. Beauchamp. 

22 Tho. Delamore . . . ut prius. 

23 Chri. Curwen .... ut prius. 

24 Job. Skelton, arm. . . ut prius. 

25 Joh. Broughton . . . ut prius. 

26 Tho. Delamore . . . ut prius. 

27 Tho. Crakenthorp. 

O. a chev. betwixt three mullets pierced Az. 

28 Tho. Curwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

29 Joh. Skelton, arm. . . ut prius. 

30 Roul. Vaux, arm. . . ut prius. 

Cheeky, O. and G. 

31 Tho. Delamore . . ; ut prius. 

33 Joh. Hodilston, arm. . ut prius. 

G, fretty Arg. 

34 Hug, Louther, arm. . . ut prius. 

35 Tho. Curwen . . . . ut prius. 

36 Rich. Salkeld. 

Vert, fretty Arg. 

37 Hen. Fenwick, mil. . . ut prius. 


1 Rich. Salkeld, arm. . . ut prius. 

2 Roul. Vaux, arm. . . ut prius. 

3 Idem ut prius. 

4 Joh. Hudleston, mil. . ut prius. 

5 Th. Lamplough, arm. . ut prius. 

6 Rich. Salkeld, arm. . . ut prius. 

7 Roul. Vaux, arm. . ; ut prius. 

8 Joh. Hodilston, mil. . ut prius. 

9 Idem ut prius, 

10 Will. Leigh, mil. 

11 Chri. Moresby, mil, . ut prius. 

12 Will. Parr, mil. . . . WESTMORELAND, 

Arg. two bars Az. a border engrailed S. 

13 Joh. Hodilston, mil. . . ut prius. 

14 Will. Leigh, mil. 

16 Ric. Dux Glouc. 

France and England, on a label of three Erin, as many 

cantons G. 

J. Hodilston, mil. sub. . ut prius. 

17 Idem. 

18 Rich. Dux Glouc. . . ut prius. 

19 Nul. Titulus Comitis in Rotulo. 

20 Rich. Dux Glouc. . . ut prius. 

21 Idem ut prius, 

22 Idem ut prius. 


Anno Name. Place. 


1 Rich. Salkeld . . . . ut prius. 




1 Chri. Moresby, mil. . . ut prius. 

2 Nul. Titulus Comitis in Rotulo. 

3 Chri. Moresby, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Tho. Beauchamp, arm. . ut prius. 

6 Nul. Titulus Comitis in Rotulo. 

7 Joh. Musgrave, mil. . ut prius. 

8 Nul. Titulus Comitis in Rotulo. 

9 Edw. Redman . . . ut prius. 

10 Rich. Salkeld, mil. . . ut prius. 

11 Chri. Moresby, mil. . ut prius. 

12 Tho. Beachamp . . . ut prius. 

13 Chri. Dacre, arm. 

G. three escallop shells Arg. 

14 Idem ut prius. 

15 Idem ut prius. 

16 Idem ut prius. 

17 Idem ut prius. 

18 T^dem ut prius. 

19 Idem ut prius. 

20 [AMP.] Hug. Hutton, arm. 

21 Chri. Dacre, arm. . . ut prius. 

22 Jo. Hudleston, mil. . . ut prius. 

23 Joh. Ratcliffe, arm. . . ut prius. 

24 Idem ut prius. 


1 Joh. Curwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

2 Joh. Penington, mil. . ut prius. 

3 Joh. Shelton, mil. . . ut prius. 

4 Joh. Crakenthorp, arm. ut prius. 

5 Idem, et Edw. Musgrave ut prius. 

6 Joh. Radcliffe, mil. . . ut prius. 

7 Joh. Louther, mil. . . ut prius. 

8 Tho. Curwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

9 Gawin. Eglesfeld. 

O. three eaglets displayed G. 

10 Joh. Radcliffe, mil. . . ut prius. 

1 1 Edw. Musgrave . . . ut prius. 

13 Christ. Dacre . . . ut prius ; 


Anno Name. Place. 

15 Joh. Ratcliffe, mil. . . ut prius. 

16 Chri. Curwen, mil. . . ut prius. 

17 Chri, Dacre, mil. . : ut prius.